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Dependence of
angle of
deviation on
angle of
incidence
Aim: To investigate dependence of angle of
deviation on angle of incidence using a hollow
prism filled one by one with different
transparent fluids.
By-
Chaitanya
Pantula
12-D
SNBP INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL
MORWADI, PIMPRI, PUNE
CBSE AFFILIATION NO. 1130522
Certificate
This is to certify that Chaitanya Pantula of Class –
12D
Has successfully completed the project-
“Dependence of angle of deviation on angle of
incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one
with different transparent fluids” Under the
guidance and observation of
During the academic session 2022-2023, in the partial
fulfillment of Practical Examination conducted by AISSCE-
2023.
Signature of the Teacher with Date-
Signature of the Principal with Date-
School Seal:
Acknowledge
ment
I, Chaitanya Pantula
Student of SNBP International School, Morwadi, Pimpri,
Pune; affiliated to CBSE Board vide Affiliation No. 1130522;
would like to express my gratitude to the Institution for the
support and knowledge I received in the school. I feel in
debt towards Principal Sweta Paithankar Madam and my
teacher___________________________
__________________________who gave me an opportunity to do
the p r o j e c t “Dependence of angle of deviation
on angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one
by one with different transparent fluids”.
I, once again thank the school for providing me all the
facilities and excellent education. I am also grateful to my
friends and family for their faith in me.
Thank You All!
Signature of Student —————————————-
Date _____________________
Signature of the Receiver___________________
INDEX
Sr.
No.:
Sub-topic Page Number
1 Cover Page 1
2 Certificate 2
3 Acknowledgement 3
4 Index 4
5 Aim and Apparatus Required 5
6 Theory 6
7 Process 7-8
8 Observations 9-11
9 Conclusion 12
10 Precautions 13
11 Bibliography 14
Aim/Objectives:
The aim of this project is to investigate dependence of angle
of deviation on angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled
one by one with different transparent fluids.
Hypothesis:
The hypothesis of this project is –
 The angle of deviation increases with increase in angle
of incidence.
 The angle of deviation does not depend on the liquid
used in the hollow prism for deviation.
Apparatus Required:
1. Hollow glass prism
2. Liquids like-
Carbon Disulphide Water Benzaldehyde
3. Bell pins
4. Stiff drawing board
Theory:
 A prism is a transparent optical object with flat,
polished surfaces that refract light. Prisms can be made
from any material that is transparent including glass
and even plastic.
 A prism can be used to break light up into its
constituent spectral colors. Prisms can also be used to
reflect light, or to split light into components with
different polarizations.
 The refractive index of the liquid is given by the
formula:
U = =
Where-
U=refractive index of the liquid.
a = angle of minimum deviation
d=angle of prism
i=angle of incidence
r=angle of refraction
Diagrams:
Process:
 Fix a white sheet of paper on the drawing board with
help of pins.
 Keep the prism on the paper and draw its outline as
∆ABC
 Drop a normal PQ on the side AB.
 Draw the angle of incidence in accordance with the
normal PQ and place 2 pins so that they appear to be in
the straight line.
 Place the prism filled with given sample of liquid on the
marked outline ABC.
 Now take the pins and place them on the side AC so
that all the 4 pins appear to be in same line.
 Remove the prism and draw the line joining the points
so obtained.
 Mark the diagram as shown in the figure below
 Repeat this with different liquids and different angle of
incidence.
Observations:
The following are the observation tables of each of the
liquids used to find out their respective refractive indices-
 Benzaldehyde:
Sr. No.: Angle of
prism
Angle of
incidence
Angle of
deviation
1. 60 30 45
2. 60 35 42
3. 60 37.5 40
4. 60 39 42
5. 60 40 45
U = = 1.504
 Water:
Sr. No. Angle of
prism
Angle of
incidence
Angle of
deviation
1. 60 30 25
2. 60 35 22
3. 60 40 20
4. 60 45 22
5. 60 50 25
6. 60 55 28
U = = 1.306
 Dilute Sulphuric Acid:
Sr. No. Angle of
prism
Angle of
incidence
Angle of
deviation
1. 60 20 33
2. 60 30 30
3. 60 35 25
4. 60 40 29
5. 60 45 30
U = = 1.351
Graphical representation of observations:
Conclusion:
The refractive indices change when the liquid used in the
prism changes. From the above experiment we can also
conclude that refractive index of a liquid depends on its
optical density.
Refractive indices of the used liquids obtained, when
compared with the actual values are as follows-
1. Benzaldehyde:
Actual = 1.5456
Obtained = 1.504
Deviation/Error = 0.0416
2. Water:
Actual = 1.33
Obtained = 1.306
Deviation/Error = 0.024
3. Dil. Sulphuric Acid
Actual = 1.43
Obtained = 1.351
Deviation/Error = 0.079
Analysis and Interpretation:
From the observations above, we can analyze that the angle
of deviation is depending on the liquid present in the prism
as, the angle of deviation is different for Benzaldehyde,
water and dilute sulphuric acid at 30 (45, 25 and 30
respectively).
We can also see that the angle of deviation does depend on
the angle of incidence, as when the angle of incidence is
changed the angle of deviation also changes.
The theoretical values of all the angle of deviations for all
liquids may vary due to different concentration and different
prisms being used for the experiment. The observations
may also be affected by the physical conditions like
humidity and temperature of surroundings.
Conclusions:
Comparing the conclusions to our initial hypothesis, we can
say that
Our first hypothesis, i.e. “The angle of deviation increases
with increase in angle of incidence” is wrong as the angle of
deviation first decreases then increases with increase in
angle of incidence.
We can further conclude that our second hypothesis, i.e.
”The angle of deviation does not depend on the liquid used
in the hollow prism for deviation” is also wrong.
Precautions:
 Angle of incidence should be between 35 and 60 for better
observations and accurate readings.
 Pins should be vertically fixed and should not be bent or
damaged as reading can change.
 Same hollow prism should be used for all observations to
minimize error due to prism.
 Error or deviation in obtained refractive indices must not
be more than 0.1.
 The distance between the pins should be more than
10mm
Applications:
 Refractive index has the large number of applications.
It is mostly applied for identify a particular substance,
confirm its purity, or measure its concentration.
 Generally it is used to measure the concentration of a
solute in an aqueous solution. For a solution of sugar,
the refractive index can be used to determine the
sugar content.
 It can be used to determine the drug concentration in
pharmaceutical industry.
 It is used to calculate focus power of lenses and
dispersing power of prisms.
Bibliography:
https://studylib.net/doc/25306864/dlscrib.com-hollow-
prism-physics-investigatory-project-cl
http://www.refractometer.pl/refraction-datasheet-sulfuric-
acid
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jp0310145#:~:text=The
%20refractive%20index%20of%20water%20is%20obtained
%20from%20the%20displacement,at%20633%20nm%3B
%201.331%2058.
https://www.scribd.com/document/442279835/PROJECT-ON-
REFRACTIVE-INDEX-OF-DIFFERENT-LIQUIDS

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physics-project-final.pdf khdkkdhhdgdjgdhdh

  • 1. Dependence of angle of deviation on angle of incidence Aim: To investigate dependence of angle of deviation on angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one with different transparent fluids. By- Chaitanya Pantula 12-D
  • 2. SNBP INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL MORWADI, PIMPRI, PUNE CBSE AFFILIATION NO. 1130522 Certificate This is to certify that Chaitanya Pantula of Class – 12D Has successfully completed the project- “Dependence of angle of deviation on angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one with different transparent fluids” Under the guidance and observation of During the academic session 2022-2023, in the partial fulfillment of Practical Examination conducted by AISSCE- 2023. Signature of the Teacher with Date- Signature of the Principal with Date- School Seal:
  • 3. Acknowledge ment I, Chaitanya Pantula Student of SNBP International School, Morwadi, Pimpri, Pune; affiliated to CBSE Board vide Affiliation No. 1130522; would like to express my gratitude to the Institution for the support and knowledge I received in the school. I feel in debt towards Principal Sweta Paithankar Madam and my teacher___________________________ __________________________who gave me an opportunity to do the p r o j e c t “Dependence of angle of deviation on angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one with different transparent fluids”. I, once again thank the school for providing me all the facilities and excellent education. I am also grateful to my friends and family for their faith in me. Thank You All! Signature of Student —————————————- Date _____________________
  • 4. Signature of the Receiver___________________
  • 5. INDEX Sr. No.: Sub-topic Page Number 1 Cover Page 1 2 Certificate 2 3 Acknowledgement 3 4 Index 4 5 Aim and Apparatus Required 5 6 Theory 6 7 Process 7-8 8 Observations 9-11 9 Conclusion 12 10 Precautions 13 11 Bibliography 14
  • 6. Aim/Objectives: The aim of this project is to investigate dependence of angle of deviation on angle of incidence using a hollow prism filled one by one with different transparent fluids. Hypothesis: The hypothesis of this project is –  The angle of deviation increases with increase in angle of incidence.  The angle of deviation does not depend on the liquid used in the hollow prism for deviation. Apparatus Required:
  • 7. 1. Hollow glass prism 2. Liquids like- Carbon Disulphide Water Benzaldehyde 3. Bell pins 4. Stiff drawing board Theory:
  • 8.  A prism is a transparent optical object with flat, polished surfaces that refract light. Prisms can be made from any material that is transparent including glass and even plastic.  A prism can be used to break light up into its constituent spectral colors. Prisms can also be used to reflect light, or to split light into components with different polarizations.  The refractive index of the liquid is given by the formula: U = = Where- U=refractive index of the liquid. a = angle of minimum deviation d=angle of prism i=angle of incidence r=angle of refraction Diagrams:
  • 10.  Fix a white sheet of paper on the drawing board with help of pins.  Keep the prism on the paper and draw its outline as ∆ABC  Drop a normal PQ on the side AB.  Draw the angle of incidence in accordance with the normal PQ and place 2 pins so that they appear to be in the straight line.  Place the prism filled with given sample of liquid on the marked outline ABC.  Now take the pins and place them on the side AC so that all the 4 pins appear to be in same line.  Remove the prism and draw the line joining the points so obtained.  Mark the diagram as shown in the figure below  Repeat this with different liquids and different angle of incidence.
  • 11. Observations: The following are the observation tables of each of the liquids used to find out their respective refractive indices-  Benzaldehyde: Sr. No.: Angle of prism Angle of incidence Angle of deviation 1. 60 30 45 2. 60 35 42 3. 60 37.5 40 4. 60 39 42 5. 60 40 45 U = = 1.504  Water:
  • 12. Sr. No. Angle of prism Angle of incidence Angle of deviation 1. 60 30 25 2. 60 35 22 3. 60 40 20 4. 60 45 22 5. 60 50 25 6. 60 55 28 U = = 1.306  Dilute Sulphuric Acid:
  • 13. Sr. No. Angle of prism Angle of incidence Angle of deviation 1. 60 20 33 2. 60 30 30 3. 60 35 25 4. 60 40 29 5. 60 45 30 U = = 1.351 Graphical representation of observations:
  • 14. Conclusion: The refractive indices change when the liquid used in the prism changes. From the above experiment we can also
  • 15. conclude that refractive index of a liquid depends on its optical density. Refractive indices of the used liquids obtained, when compared with the actual values are as follows- 1. Benzaldehyde: Actual = 1.5456 Obtained = 1.504 Deviation/Error = 0.0416 2. Water: Actual = 1.33 Obtained = 1.306 Deviation/Error = 0.024 3. Dil. Sulphuric Acid Actual = 1.43 Obtained = 1.351 Deviation/Error = 0.079 Analysis and Interpretation: From the observations above, we can analyze that the angle of deviation is depending on the liquid present in the prism
  • 16. as, the angle of deviation is different for Benzaldehyde, water and dilute sulphuric acid at 30 (45, 25 and 30 respectively). We can also see that the angle of deviation does depend on the angle of incidence, as when the angle of incidence is changed the angle of deviation also changes. The theoretical values of all the angle of deviations for all liquids may vary due to different concentration and different prisms being used for the experiment. The observations may also be affected by the physical conditions like humidity and temperature of surroundings. Conclusions: Comparing the conclusions to our initial hypothesis, we can say that
  • 17. Our first hypothesis, i.e. “The angle of deviation increases with increase in angle of incidence” is wrong as the angle of deviation first decreases then increases with increase in angle of incidence. We can further conclude that our second hypothesis, i.e. ”The angle of deviation does not depend on the liquid used in the hollow prism for deviation” is also wrong. Precautions:  Angle of incidence should be between 35 and 60 for better observations and accurate readings.  Pins should be vertically fixed and should not be bent or damaged as reading can change.  Same hollow prism should be used for all observations to minimize error due to prism.  Error or deviation in obtained refractive indices must not be more than 0.1.  The distance between the pins should be more than 10mm Applications:
  • 18.  Refractive index has the large number of applications. It is mostly applied for identify a particular substance, confirm its purity, or measure its concentration.  Generally it is used to measure the concentration of a solute in an aqueous solution. For a solution of sugar, the refractive index can be used to determine the sugar content.  It can be used to determine the drug concentration in pharmaceutical industry.  It is used to calculate focus power of lenses and dispersing power of prisms. Bibliography: https://studylib.net/doc/25306864/dlscrib.com-hollow- prism-physics-investigatory-project-cl