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Okay, here are the steps: * 50 miles/hour * 1 hour = 3,600 seconds * So 50 miles/hour = 50 miles / 3,600 seconds * 1 mile = 5,280 feet * So 50 miles = 50 * 5,280 = 264,000 feet * 264,000 feet / 3,600 seconds = 73.3333... feet/second Rounded to the correct number of significant figures, the answer is: 74 feet/second

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Energy Quantization

Quantum theory replaced classical mechanics in describing the motion of small particles like electrons. It introduced the concept of energy quantization, where energy can only be absorbed or emitted in discrete packets called quanta. This helped explain phenomena like blackbody radiation, heat capacities of solids, and atomic/molecular spectra that classical mechanics could not. Max Planck proposed quantizing energy to avoid the "ultraviolet catastrophe" where classical physics predicted infinite radiation from hot objects. Einstein further applied the idea to explain heat capacities at low temperatures. Spectroscopy also showed radiation absorbed/emitted at discrete frequencies, supporting energy quantization.

Heisenbergs uncertainity princple

1) According to quantum mechanics, it is impossible to simultaneously determine the exact position and momentum of a particle. This uncertainty is called the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
2) The Heisenberg uncertainty principle can be expressed as ∆x∆p≥ħ/2, where ∆x is the uncertainty in position, ∆p is the uncertainty in momentum, and ħ is the reduced Planck constant.
3) The document provides two examples to illustrate the Heisenberg uncertainty principle - an experiment involving photons colliding with electrons, and the diffraction of electrons at a single slit. In both cases, calculating the product of the uncertainties in position and momentum yields Planck's constant, ver

Uncertainty

Werner Heisenberg developed the uncertainty principle, which states that the more precisely the position of a particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa. This stems from the quantum nature of matter, where measuring devices disturb the system being measured. A thought experiment is described where observing an electron's position with a photon impacts the electron's momentum in an unpredictable way. The uncertainty principle is expressed as ΔxΔp≥h/2π, meaning the product of the uncertainties in position and momentum must be greater than or equal to Planck's constant divided by 2π.

Lo

1) The frequency of the box's oscillations is 0.55 Hz, calculated using the spring constant of 30.0 N/m and the mass of 2.5 kg.
2) When the box is 1/3 of the way to the equilibrium position, its speed is 0.1715 m/s. This is calculated using conservation of energy and the initial amplitude, spring constant, and mass.
3) The total energy of the spring-mass system remains constant, being the sum of kinetic and potential energy. This allows calculating the velocity from the displacement using the initial conditions.

Heisenberg 2

Werner Heisenberg created the uncertainty principle in 1924-1925 as part of his development of quantum mechanics. The uncertainty principle states that the more precisely one property of a particle is measured, such as position, the less precisely one can know another related property, such as momentum. It is impossible to measure both the position and momentum of a particle with arbitrarily high precision. A particle at the quantum scale must be described as a wave packet rather than a localized particle.

Maxwells equation and Electromagnetic Waves

These slide contains Scalar,Vector fields ,gradients,Divergence,and Curl,Gauss divergence theorem,Stoks theorem,Maxwell electromagnetic equations ,Pointing theorem,Depth of penetration (Skin depth) for graduate and Engineering students and teachers.

Phy addn of ang momentum,slaters deter.,pep

Electron diffraction is a technique that uses the wave-like properties of electrons to determine the structure of matter. When electrons are fired at a sample, they diffract according to the positions of atoms, producing an interference pattern. This pattern provides information about distances between atoms in gas molecules. Electron diffraction was first demonstrated in 1927 and was later used to determine the structure of carbon tetrachloride in 1930. Electrons interact with matter through both electrostatic and magnetic forces, allowing for probing of both atomic nuclei and surrounding electrons. The intensity of diffracted beams depends on factors like the structure factor, which incorporates the scattering power and positions of atoms in the sample unit cell.

Solids & Fluids cheat sheet

The document provides an overview of key concepts and formulas relating to mechanics of solids and fluids in physics. It defines important terms like the different states of matter, density, pressure, stress and strain. It also outlines fundamental principles including Pascal's principle describing pressure variations in fluids, Archimedes' principle of buoyancy, and Bernoulli's equation relating pressure, velocity and height along a streamline. The document concludes by listing common variables and units used and some example formulas for topics like thermal expansion, stress, and fluid flow properties.

Electromagnetic Waves !

The Physics of electromagnetic waves, a discourse to engineering 1st years.
"Lets discover what electromagnetic phenomena are entailed by the Maxwell’s equations.
Electromagnetic Waves are a set of phenomena broadly categorized as “Gamma rays, X-rays, Ultraviolet Rays, Visible light, Infra-red Rays, Microwaves and Radio waves.
We will discuss them from the perspective of Maxwell’s equations."

B conservative and non conservative forces

This document discusses conservative and non-conservative forces, and the principles of conservation of energy and mechanical energy. It states that for conservative forces, the total energy within a closed system remains the same, though it can transform between potential and kinetic forms. For conservative forces, the net work over a closed loop is zero, and the work is path independent. Friction is a non-conservative force where net work is done over a closed loop and more work is done over longer distances. Potential energy is the other form of energy involved in conservative systems, where the sum of potential and kinetic energy equals the total energy and changes in one form equal negative changes in the other.

Rtu ch-2-qauntum mech

This document provides an introduction to quantum mechanics concepts including:
- Quantum mechanics describes nature at small scales where classical physics is insufficient. Pioneers who established the foundations of quantum mechanics are mentioned.
- Key concepts are introduced such as wave-particle duality, matter waves, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and its application to electrons not existing in atomic nuclei.
- The Schrodinger wave equation is derived and applied to problems such as a particle in an infinite potential well to solve for energy eigenstates and eigenvalues.

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

From the Udemy online course "The weird World of Quantum Physics - A primer on the conceptual foundations of Quantum Physics": https://www.udemy.com/quantum-physics/?couponCode=SLIDESHCOUPON

The uncertainty principle 2

Werner Karl Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics. He is best known for formulating the uncertainty principle, which states that the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa. Heisenberg developed the principle at Niels Bohr's institute in Copenhagen in 1927 while working on the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics.

The wkb approximation

The WKB approximation is a method to find approximate solutions to the Schrodinger equation. It was developed in 1926 by Wentzel, Kramer, and Brillouin. The approximation assumes the wavefunction is an exponentially varying function with amplitude and phase that change slowly compared to the de Broglie wavelength. It can be used to obtain approximate solutions and energy eigenvalues for systems where the classical limit is valid. The approximation breaks down near classical turning points where the particle's energy is equal to the potential energy. The document provides examples of using the WKB approximation to solve the time-independent Schrodinger equation in one dimension for cases where the particle's energy is both greater than and less than the potential energy.

Deriving the algebraic model of an ideal gas

The document derives the algebraic model of the ideal gas equation by approximating the random motion of gas molecules inside a cube box. It considers the force exerted on the walls of the box by a single molecule with mass and velocity. Using Newton's second law, it calculates the pressure exerted by a single molecule and then extrapolates this to the total pressure from all molecules. Through further rearrangement, it relates the pressure-volume relationship to the kinetic energy and temperature of the gas.

Hooks law

This experiment investigates Hooke's Law, which states that the force (F) needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance (Δx) is proportional to that distance. Specifically, F = kΔx, where k is a constant called the spring constant. The experiment involves measuring the position (x) of a spring when hung with different masses (m). This allows the calculation of the force due to gravity (Fg) and the stretching distance (Δx). Plotting Fg versus Δx should produce a straight line, verifying the proportional relationship between force and distance. The slope of the line gives the value of k, the spring constant. A second method will also be used to independently determine k to

Introduction to Laplace and Poissons equation

This document provides an introduction to electromagnetism and discusses several key concepts:
- Electromagnetism involves the study of electromagnetic forces between charged particles carried by electric and magnetic fields.
- Charges at rest or in uniform motion do not radiate, but accelerating charges do radiate electromagnetic waves like light.
- The divergence and curl of electric fields are examined for different charge configurations.
- Electric potential is defined for point charges and charge distributions.
- Laplace's and Poisson's equations are derived and used to solve boundary value problems for electric fields and potentials between surfaces with specified potentials.

De Broglie

Louis De Broglie proposed in 1924 that electrons and other particles exhibit wave-like properties described by an equation relating the wavelength of a particle to its momentum. De Broglie's equation showed that all moving particles can be associated with a wavelength, and calculated wavelengths for everyday objects like cars and baseballs, though the wavelengths are too small to detect directly. The wavelength of electrons calculated using the equation could be measured using specialized equipment, providing evidence for the wave-particle duality of matter.

Module No. 12

1. The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another. The total energy in an isolated system remains constant.
2. The law of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant if no external forces act on it.
3. The law of conservation of angular momentum states that for a body or system of bodies with no external torque applied, the angular momentum about a fixed axis remains constant. Examples of this law include divers increasing their rotational speed during a spin and the evolution of stars from contracting gas clouds.

Fun with electric charge and coulombs law

The fun facts about physics related to coulombs law. This slide is to be viewed after learning the basics of Coulombs law in Cerego. Learn here https://cerego.com/sets/745640

Energy Quantization

Energy Quantization

Heisenbergs uncertainity princple

Heisenbergs uncertainity princple

Uncertainty

Uncertainty

Lo

Lo

Heisenberg 2

Heisenberg 2

Maxwells equation and Electromagnetic Waves

Maxwells equation and Electromagnetic Waves

Phy addn of ang momentum,slaters deter.,pep

Phy addn of ang momentum,slaters deter.,pep

Solids & Fluids cheat sheet

Solids & Fluids cheat sheet

Electromagnetic Waves !

Electromagnetic Waves !

B conservative and non conservative forces

B conservative and non conservative forces

Rtu ch-2-qauntum mech

Rtu ch-2-qauntum mech

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

The uncertainty principle 2

The uncertainty principle 2

The wkb approximation

The wkb approximation

Deriving the algebraic model of an ideal gas

Deriving the algebraic model of an ideal gas

Hooks law

Hooks law

Introduction to Laplace and Poissons equation

Introduction to Laplace and Poissons equation

De Broglie

De Broglie

Module No. 12

Module No. 12

Fun with electric charge and coulombs law

Fun with electric charge and coulombs law

Falsification publication

The Einstein Postulates of Special Relativity (SR), namely the invariance of the speed of light c relative to the observer, the symmetry of relative velocities, and the Galilean Principle independent of velocity and gravitational potential are falsified. The replacement is Law 1: There exists an absolute universal velocity reference (Cosmic Velocity Reference, CVR) and Law 2: The speed of light c is invariant and isotropic only relative to absolute universal space CVR. Experimental evidence like Smoot’s anisotropy of the cosmic microwave radiation background CMB and the one-way measurements of the speed of light are given. From the new Laws it follows (in vector notation) c_rel = c - v_CVR This results in the elimination from physics the Minkovski four-vector spacetime symmetry, time dilation, length contraction, velocity and acceleration symmetrical Lorentz transformation, Einstein vector addition, covariance, invisible and unphysical net of monolithic worldlines, and other weird mathematical constructs without physical meaning resulting from Special Relativity SR and General Relativity GR. The mass increase of particles with speed by the so-called Lorentz Factor 〖ϒ=(1-v^2 /c^2 )〗^(-1/2) is so often cited by Relativists as empirical proof of SR. ϒ was fraudulently smuggled into SR without mathematical proof applying it to relative velocities which gives wrong results. We show that the Lorentz Factor is a simple part of the system of classical dynamic equations. But it is only valid with absolute cosmic velocity v_CVR . The increases of mass, momentum, and energy with an object’s velocity are correct but not part of or caused by SR. This is true also for the change of clock rate as a function of velocity and Newtonian gravity potential.

10 rans

This document discusses various turbulence models that are used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It begins by explaining that turbulence models are needed to close the system of mean flow equations since resolving all turbulent fluctuations is computationally infeasible. Common turbulence models discussed include zero-, one-, two-, and seven-equation models. Two-equation k-ε models are described in detail, along with variants like the RNG k-ε and realizable k-ε models that aim to improve on areas where standard k-ε is lacking. Other models covered include the k-ω model, algebraic stress models, and Reynolds stress models.

Mass, energy and momentum at cms i2 u2

The document discusses mass, energy, and momentum at the CMS detector at the LHC. It explains that:
1) At high energies, energy and momentum are practically equivalent according to the equation E2 = p2 + m2, where mass terms become negligible. This allows energy to be calculated from momentum measurements.
2) The mass of a parent particle that decays can be determined by subtracting the momentum term p2 from the total energy term E2 of its decay products, giving m2.
3) At the LHC, initial energies and momenta of collisions are not precisely known, so conservation cannot be used directly, but transverse momentum is assumed to be zero initially and its conservation is used.

Basiceqs3

The document outlines the basic equations of fluid mechanics, beginning with an introduction. It then summarizes the continuity equation in 3 parts - the differential formulation, integral formulation of continuity equation, and Reynolds transport theorem. Finally, it discusses the Navier-Stokes equation by outlining the balance of forces, constitutive relations of Stokes, and differential and integral formulations of momentum equations.

Gravity and laws of motion power point2

This document summarizes Sir Isaac Newton's three Laws of Motion and the Law of Universal Gravitation. It explains that the first law states that an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion unless acted upon by an outside force. The second law states that the acceleration of an object depends on its mass and the applied force. The third law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. It also describes gravity as the force that attracts objects toward Earth's center and explains how gravitational attraction depends on mass and distance between objects.

Physics 1

This document discusses physics and related topics. It defines physics as the study of the laws and theories that explain the structure of the universe in terms of matter and energy. It then discusses areas of modern physics like atomic physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics. It also covers applications of physics such as astrophysics, biophysics, and geophysics. Finally, it discusses scientific methodology, measurement, and units of measurement.

IB Phyiscs SL - Pendulum Lab

Pendulum Lap investigating the relationship between the length of the pendlum string and the time needed for the oscillations
Score archieved: 5/6 in the DCP section.

IB Physics SL - Design Lab

This physics lab experiment was designed to verify Galileo's theory of conservation of energy by measuring the potential and kinetic energy of a falling tennis ball. The ball was dropped from various heights and its time of fall was recorded. Calculations showed the potential energy was about 3 times greater than the kinetic energy, failing to prove conservation of energy. Sources of error included air resistance, imprecise timing of when the ball hit the ground, and too few trials. Improving the experiment could help address these issues and better test the hypothesis.

The law of conservation of energy

The document discusses the law of conservation of energy and how it applies to a marshmallow slingshot experiment. It explains that the law states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to another. When a rubber band is pulled back, the energy from your fingers is stored as elastic potential energy. When released, this stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy that propels the marshmallow. The kinetic energy is then changed to heat energy when the marshmallow stops moving. So the original energy input is not lost, but merely changed between different forms.

Newton’s law of gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The formula for this gravitational force is F = G(m1m2)/r^2, where F is the force of attraction, G is the gravitational constant, m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects, and r is the distance between their centers of mass. The document provides examples of applying this formula to calculate gravitational forces between people, people and Earth, and people and objects.

Bernoulli and continuity equation

This document discusses Bernoulli's principle and equation in fluid mechanics. It provides definitions and explanations of key terms like Bernoulli's principle, conservation of energy principle, and various forms of Bernoulli's equation. It also includes proofs of Bernoulli's theorem derived from conservation of energy and Newton's second law. Finally, it discusses the continuity equation and theorem in fluid mechanics.

Flow measurement part i

Speaks about the different aspects of flow measurement i.e. flow types, fluid types, its units, selection parameters; definition of common terms, coanda effect coriolis effect . it also speaks about the factors affecting flow measurement.

Flow measurement part II

it speaks about the differential head flow meters. its different types. their principle of operation, venturi meter, orifice plate, rotameters, it also covers discussion on open channel flow meter. it covers the different application domains of the different types of flow meters and their advantages and disadvantages.

Physics and its laws in anaesthesia

This is a presentation about the basic laws in physics for Anesthesiologist and its application in day to day practice.

Momentum - Chapter 9

The document discusses momentum and its conservation during collisions. It defines impulse as the product of an average force and the time interval over which it acts. The impulse-momentum theorem states that the impulse on an object equals its change in momentum. The conservation of momentum principle states that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant, even after internal interactions and collisions within the system.

Biology Lab

The document summarizes a student's biology research project investigating the effect of light exposure on mung bean germination. The student designed an experiment with five light exposure conditions (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 hours per day) and tracked germination rates over 72 hours. Results showed that mung beans receiving 8 hours of light germinated the fastest, with a statistically significant difference from the no light condition. However, differences between other light intervals were not statistically significant. The student concluded that increased light exposure facilitated faster germination by warming the beans and stimulating enzymes.

Mass powerpoint

This document discusses measuring mass using grams and kilograms. It explains that grams are used to measure lighter objects like paper clips, while kilograms are used to measure heavier objects like milk. It provides examples of converting between grams and kilograms, such as 1000g = 1kg. Students are asked to estimate masses, order objects by mass, complete conversion calculations, and consider when grams or kilograms would be a more appropriate unit to use.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

This document discusses computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD uses numerical analysis and algorithms to solve and analyze fluid flow problems. It can be used at various stages of engineering to study designs, develop products, optimize designs, troubleshoot issues, and aid redesign. CFD complements experimental testing by reducing costs and effort required for data acquisition. It involves discretizing the fluid domain, applying boundary conditions, solving equations for conservation of properties, and interpolating results. Turbulence models and discretization methods like finite volume are discussed. The CFD process involves pre-processing the problem, solving it, and post-processing the results.

Presentation weight

The document discusses the relationship between kilograms and grams, noting that 1 kilogram equals 1000 grams. It provides this information in a song and examples to reinforce that 1 kg = 1000 g and vice versa. Examples show converting between kilograms and grams.

Falsification publication

Falsification publication

10 rans

10 rans

Mass, energy and momentum at cms i2 u2

Mass, energy and momentum at cms i2 u2

Basiceqs3

Basiceqs3

Gravity and laws of motion power point2

Gravity and laws of motion power point2

Physics 1

Physics 1

IB Phyiscs SL - Pendulum Lab

IB Phyiscs SL - Pendulum Lab

IB Physics SL - Design Lab

IB Physics SL - Design Lab

The law of conservation of energy

The law of conservation of energy

Newton’s law of gravitation

Newton’s law of gravitation

Bernoulli and continuity equation

Bernoulli and continuity equation

Flow measurement part i

Flow measurement part i

Csec Physics lab manual

Csec Physics lab manual

Flow measurement part II

Flow measurement part II

Physics and its laws in anaesthesia

Physics and its laws in anaesthesia

Momentum - Chapter 9

Momentum - Chapter 9

Biology Lab

Biology Lab

Mass powerpoint

Mass powerpoint

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Presentation weight

Presentation weight

Applied Physics Module 1.pptx

This document outlines the course Applied Physics for Computer Science students. It includes the following topics: electric field, Gauss's law, Hall effect, Biot-Savart law, Faraday's law of induction, Lenz's law, and motional EMF. Assessment includes assignments, quizzes, tests, and exams. The goals are to understand fundamental physics laws relevant to computer science and apply physics to solve problems. Physics and computer science are complementary fields that can be combined to solve complex problems. Applied physics deals with practical applications of physics principles.

Background Physics Information

Physics is the study of matter and energy. The goal is to describe the physical world using basic concepts, equations, and assumptions. These principles can then be used to make predictions and have unexpected practical applications. The main branches are mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, vibrations and waves, and modern physics. The scientific method involves making observations and developing hypotheses that can be tested. The International System of Units (SI) provides standard units for measurements like length, mass, and time that are used in physics. Common prefixes are used to modify the scale of these units.

General physics

The document discusses scientific notation and significant figures, which are important concepts in physics. It defines scientific notation as representing a number as the product of a mantissa between 1 and 10 and an exponent of 10. Significant figures refer to the reliable digits in a measurement. The document also introduces the International System of Units (SI) which standardizes scientific units worldwide and defines the base units of the meter, kilogram, and second. Derived units like joules, ohms, and pascals are also defined in terms of the base units.

Lecture 1 - Measurement, Dimensional analysis

The document discusses key concepts in physics including:
1) The nature of science involves making observations, developing theories to explain observations, and testing theories with further observations.
2) Physics aims to study the basic components of the universe and their interactions through measurement and the scientific method.
3) The International System of Units (SI) provides standardized base units for measuring various physical quantities in physics.

1.1 measurements in physics

Physics is the study of forces and matter. It investigates the fundamental laws of nature through studying some of the largest and smallest scales in the universe. The document discusses several key topics in physics including:
- The most influential physicists like Einstein, Newton, Maxwell, and Galileo who pioneered different areas of classical and modern physics.
- The Standard International (SI) system of units used in physics like meters, seconds, kilograms, which may be expressed in scientific notation or with prefixes when dealing with very large or small numbers.
- Concepts of derived units that are combinations of fundamental units, and the process of dimensional analysis to check the validity of equations.
- Examples of converting between different

Introduction1.ppt

Earth science is the study of our planet, its changing systems, and place in the universe. It investigates questions about seasons, weather, stars and landscapes. Earth science covers disciplines like geology, meteorology, astronomy and oceanography. It divides the Earth into the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. Studying earth science helps forecast disasters, access resources, and protect the environment.

Introduction1 (1).ppt

Earth science is the study of our planet, its changing systems, and place in the universe. It investigates questions about seasons, weather, stars and landscapes. Earth science covers disciplines like geology, meteorology, astronomy and oceanography. It divides the Earth into the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. Studying earth science helps forecast disasters, access resources, and protect the environment.

FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS.pptx

The document discusses key concepts in physics including physical quantities, units of measurement, and linear fitting of data. It explains that physics involves studying matter, energy and their relationships through experimentation. Seven common physical quantities are described - length, mass, electric current, temperature, amount of substance, luminous intensity, and time. The document contrasts the metric and English systems of units and explains scientific notation for writing very large and small numbers. It also defines terms related to linear fitting of data such as variables, axes, curves, asymptotes, cusps, and inflection points.

Lect1(unit).ppt

This document provides information about a Physics 201 course covering topics like kinematics, dynamics, statics, fluids, and oscillations. It discusses the textbook, homework assignments on WebAssign, labs, discussions, and teaching assistants. Physics is described as the basic science that includes concepts from mechanics, optics, electricity and magnetism, atomic and nuclear physics. Examples are given of how scientific theories are developed from observations and experiments, and how Eratosthenes calculated the diameter of the Earth in the 3rd century BC. The document also covers units in the SI system, prefixes, conversions between units, derived quantities, dimensions, and measurement with significant figures.

Physical Quantities--Units and Measurement--Conversion of Units

This presentation covers physical quantities and their types, units and their types, conversion of units and order of magnitude in a very interactive manner. I hope this presentation will be helpful for teachers as well as students.

PHYSICS-FOR-ENGINEERS.pptx

This document outlines the course topics for a Physics for Engineers course. The topics include measurements, motion, forces, momentum, energy, rotation, gravitation, and fluids. Measurements are discussed in detail, including physical quantities, standards and units like the International System of Units (SI). The base SI units for common physical quantities like time, length, mass, temperature and more are defined. Prefixes for metric units and examples of measured values for various physical quantities are provided. Proper representation of measurements and significant figures is also covered.

measurement-200427061108.pdf

The document discusses various topics related to measurement in physics, including:
- The need for measurement during experiments to understand physical phenomena and compare quantities.
- Common physical quantities like mass, length, time, temperature and pressure that are measured.
- Types of physical quantities as fundamental or derived and units used for measurement like meters, kilograms, seconds.
- International System of Units (SI) which standardizes units for scientific work.
- Scientific notation used to conveniently write very large and small numbers.
- Conversion factors and examples of converting between different units.
- Order of magnitude as a way to approximate the comparison between very large and small quantities.

Measurement and uncertainty

This document provides information about measurement and uncertainty in physics. It defines key terms like physical quantities, units, and order of magnitude. It discusses the International System of Units and its seven base units. The document also covers topics like derived units, significant figures, types of errors, calculating uncertainty, and basics of graphing collected data.

Fundamental Of Physics Measurement

After reading this module, you should be able to . . .
1.01 Identify the base quantities in the SI system.
1.02 Name the most frequently used prefixes for
SI units.
1.03 Change units (here for length, area, and volume) by
using chain-link conversions.
1.04 Explain that the meter is defined in terms of the speed of
light in vacuum.

Phy 101 lecture chapter 1

The document discusses the scientific method and key concepts in science. It explains that science is a process of asking and answering questions through observation, experimentation, and testing hypotheses rather than just collecting facts. The scientific method involves formulating problems, making observations and conducting experiments, interpreting results, and testing interpretations. Theories are more developed than hypotheses and are based on evidence from well-tested experiments. Scientific knowledge is constantly evolving as new evidence is discovered and previous results are questioned.

Theory of Relativity

The document provides background information on Einstein's special theory of relativity. It discusses the two postulates of special relativity: 1) the principle of relativity, and 2) the constancy of the speed of light. It then summarizes some key consequences of special relativity, including time dilation, length contraction, relativistic Doppler effect, relativistic mass, mass-energy equivalence, and Lorentz transformations. Examples are provided to demonstrate calculations for these various consequences.

Physical Science Ch2: sec1

This document provides an overview of scientific concepts including data collection, the metric system, units of measurement, models, theories, and laws. It discusses how scientists use tools to collect and analyze data. It introduces the International System of Units (metric system) which uses multiples of ten. It provides examples of converting between metric units and discusses typical units used to measure length, mass, volume, density, and temperature. It describes physical, conceptual, and mathematical models and how they represent real objects or systems. It distinguishes scientific theories from laws, noting that theories can change over time but laws simply describe what happens.

Intro to physics and measurements

This document provides an introduction to physical science. It begins by defining science and listing the main branches - biological science, physical science, and social science. Biological science deals with living things, social science deals with human behavior and societies. Physical science deals with non-living things, their properties, structures, and changes.
The main branches of physical science are then outlined as chemistry, physics, astronomy, geology, and meteorology. Chemistry studies matter and its properties and changes. Physics studies matter and energy. Astronomy studies the universe and celestial bodies. Geology studies Earth materials, structures, and processes. Meteorology studies the atmosphere and weather/climate.
The document then transitions to discussing measurement in physical science. Measurement

Intro to physical science and measurements

This document provides an introduction to physical science. It begins by defining science and listing the main branches - biological science, physical science, and social science. Biological science deals with living things, social science deals with human behavior and societies. Physical science deals with non-living things, their composition, nature, characteristics, and changes.
The main branches of physical science are then defined: chemistry studies matter and its properties/structure/changes, physics studies matter and energy/their interactions, astronomy studies the universe/heavenly bodies, geology studies Earth materials/structures/processes, and meteorology studies the atmosphere/weather/climate.
The document then moves to a chapter about measurement, defining it as collecting quantitative data by

chapt01_lecture.ppt

This document provides an overview of key concepts in chemistry including definitions of matter, physical and chemical properties, states of matter, and energy. It discusses the scientific approach of developing models through observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and further testing. Measurement concepts such as units, conversions, uncertainty, and significant figures are explained. Examples demonstrate solving problems involving unit conversions, density calculations, and determining the number of significant figures. Fundamental chemistry topics like the periodic table, bonding, and reactions are introduced.

Applied Physics Module 1.pptx

Applied Physics Module 1.pptx

Background Physics Information

Background Physics Information

General physics

General physics

Lecture 1 - Measurement, Dimensional analysis

Lecture 1 - Measurement, Dimensional analysis

1.1 measurements in physics

1.1 measurements in physics

Introduction1.ppt

Introduction1.ppt

Introduction1 (1).ppt

Introduction1 (1).ppt

FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS.pptx

FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS.pptx

Lect1(unit).ppt

Lect1(unit).ppt

Physical Quantities--Units and Measurement--Conversion of Units

Physical Quantities--Units and Measurement--Conversion of Units

PHYSICS-FOR-ENGINEERS.pptx

PHYSICS-FOR-ENGINEERS.pptx

measurement-200427061108.pdf

measurement-200427061108.pdf

Measurement and uncertainty

Measurement and uncertainty

Fundamental Of Physics Measurement

Fundamental Of Physics Measurement

Phy 101 lecture chapter 1

Phy 101 lecture chapter 1

Theory of Relativity

Theory of Relativity

Physical Science Ch2: sec1

Physical Science Ch2: sec1

Intro to physics and measurements

Intro to physics and measurements

Intro to physical science and measurements

Intro to physical science and measurements

chapt01_lecture.ppt

chapt01_lecture.ppt

Odoo 17 Events - Attendees List Scanning

Use the attendee list QR codes to register attendees quickly. Each attendee will have a QR code, which we can easily scan to register for an event. You will get the attendee list from the “Attendees” menu under “Reporting” menu.

Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal Use

Introduction to Google Productivity Tools for Office and Personal UseExcellence Foundation for South Sudan

This is an introduction to Google Productivity Tools for office and personal use in a Your Skill Boost Masterclass by the Excellence Foundation for South Sudan on Saturday 13 and Sunday 14 July 2024. The PDF talks about various Google services like Google search, Google maps, Android OS, YouTube, and desktop applications.RDBMS Lecture Notes Unit4 chapter12 VIEW

Description:
Welcome to the comprehensive guide on Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) concepts, tailored for final year B.Sc. Computer Science students affiliated with Alagappa University. This document covers fundamental principles and advanced topics in RDBMS, offering a structured approach to understanding databases in the context of modern computing. PDF content is prepared from the text book Learn Oracle 8I by JOSE A RAMALHO.
Key Topics Covered:
Main Topic : VIEW
Sub-Topic :
View Definition, Advantages and disadvantages, View Creation Syntax, View creation based on single table, view creation based on multiple table, Deleting View and View the definition of view
Target Audience:
Final year B.Sc. Computer Science students at Alagappa University seeking a solid foundation in RDBMS principles for academic and practical applications.
Previous Slides Link:
1. Data Integrity, Index, TAble Creation and maintenance https://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/lecture_notes_unit4_chapter_8_9_10_rdbms-for-the-students-affiliated-by-alagappa-university/270123800
2. Sequences : https://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/sequnces-lecture_notes_unit4_chapter11_sequence/270134792
About the Author:
Dr. S. Murugan is Associate Professor at Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi. With 23 years of teaching experience in the field of Computer Science, Dr. S. Murugan has a passion for simplifying complex concepts in database management.
Disclaimer:
This document is intended for educational purposes only. The content presented here reflects the author’s understanding in the field of RDBMS as of 2024.

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- 2. Physics is the study of the motion of matter The scientific study of the relationships between matter, energy, space, and time. A basic science concerned with the properties and behavior of matter; and the resultant energy exchange and the laws that unite these phenomena into a comprehensive system
- 6. We encounter symmetry of translation, reflection, and rotation all around us…
- 9. Translations have no fixed points at all, while rotations have exactly one (called a pivot point, around which everything rotates doesn't move at all.
- 15. With respect to translation Whether you perform an experiment in New York or Los Angeles, at the other edge of the Milky Way or in a galaxy a billion light- years from here, you will be able to describe the results using the same laws. With respect to rotation The laws look precisely the same whether we make measurements from the bottom, top, sides, etc. - physics has no preferred direction in space.
- 16. With respect to reflection The laws of physics are the same in a right-handed system of coordinates as in a left-handed system With respect to time The laws work exactly the same in experiment today as they did on an experiment performed yesterday or last year.
- 17. One of Einstein’s main goals in his explanation of general relativity was to formulate a theory in which the laws of nature would look precisely the same to all observers. In other words, the laws had to be symmetrical under any change in our point of view in space and time
- 18. THUS, A CONSERVED QUANTITY IS SOMETHING THAT YOU WOULDN'T BE ABLE TO GET RID OF EVEN IF YOU WANTED TO.
- 21. The symmetry properties of a physical system are intimately related to the conservation laws characterizing that system
- 22. Noether’s theorem states that each symmetry of a physical system implies that some physical property of that system is conserved. Each conserved quantity has a corresponding symmetry Symmetry Space translation Time translation Rotation Conserved quantity Linear momentum Energy Angular momentum
- 24. Everyone is familiar with energy but no one knows exactly what energy actually is For our purposes we will define Energy as the measure of the ability to generate motion. A system that has energy has the ability to do work (motion in action). Energy is measured in the same units (joules) as work because energy is transferred during the action of work.
- 25. The SI unit of energy is the joule, J, (rhymes with cool), named after the British physicist James Joule. One Joule is the amount of energy required in order to heat 0.24 g of water by 1 °C. (The number 0.24 is not worth memorizing.)
- 35. Einstein showed that mass itself could be converted to and from energy, according to his celebrated equation E = mc2, in which c is the speed of light. Thus we can view mass as simply another form of energy, and it is valid to measure it in units of joules. The mass of a 15-gram pencil corresponds to about 1.3 × 1015 J.
- 37. Cosmic rays, however, are continually striking you and your surroundings and converting part of their energy of motion into the mass of newly created particles. A single high-energy cosmic ray can create a shower of millions of previously nonexistent particles when it strikes the atmosphere.
- 38. Mass can be defined from two different perspectives: 1) Mass is the measure of the amount of matter that a body contains 2) Mass is a measure of the inertial property of that body, that is, of its resistance to
- 42. Is Air Matter? • What are the two criteria for matter? –Does it take up space? –Does it have mass?
- 43. WATER STATES OF MATTER Same for the cup of water as the iceberg
- 47. Thus, many properties of matter are expressed quantitatively (associated with numbers)
- 52. . NOTE: The short forms for SI units (such as mm for millimeter) are called symbols, not abbreviations
- 56. Scientists must often deal with extremely large or small numbers Scientific notation is a way of expressing very large or very small numbers which are awkward to say and write.
- 59. Writing a number in scientific notation: 1) Put the decimal after the first digit and drop the zeroes 2) Count the number of decimal places moved in step 1 3) Write as a product of the number (step 1) and 10 raised to the power of the count (step 2) The Andromeda Galaxy (the closest one to our Milky Way galaxy) contains at least 200,000,000,000 stars. So we would write 200,000,000,000 in scientific notation as: 2.0 x 1011 This number is read as follows: "two point zero times ten to the eleventh."
- 60. • Now we try a number that is very small. • Change 0.000000902 to scientific notation • The decimal must be moved behind the 9 • The coefficient will be 9.02 • The decimal moves seven spaces to the right, making the exponent -7 • Answer equals 9.02 x 10-7
- 61. • Examples • Write each of the following numbers in scientific notation: • (a) 93,000,000 • (b) .00005144 • (c) -33,452.8
- 63. • Changing numbers from scientific notation to standard notation. • Change 6.03 x 107 to standard notation. • we can simply move the decimal seven places to the right because the exponent is 7. • So, 6.03 x 107 = 60 300 000
- 64. • Now let us try one with a negative exponent. • Ex.2 Change 5.3 x 10-4 to standard notation. • The exponent tells us to move the decimal four places to the left. • so, 5.3 x 10-4 = 0.00053
- 65. • Express in standard form: • 1. 1.09 x 103 • 2. 4.22715 x 108 • • 3. 3.078 x 10-4 • • 4. 9.004 x 10-2 • • 5. 5.1874 x 102 (This can be tricky!)
- 66. • Answers: • 1) 1090 • 2) 422,715,000 • 3) 0.0003078 • 4) 0.09004 • 5) 518.74
- 67. Accuracy indicates how close a measurement is to the accepted value. Precision indicates how close together or how repeatable the results are.
- 69. Trial #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 Student A 14.8 14.1 14.5 14.6 14.2 Student B 14.8 14.2 14.6 14.5 14.8 Student C 14.6 14.5 14.5 14.4 14.6 PRECISION AND ACCURACY -- Quiz Consider the data obtained for the length of an object as measured by three students. The length is known to be 14.54 cm. Which of the conclusions summarizes the data? a) Student A has done the most precise work and student C the most accurate. b) Student C has done the most precise and accurate work. c) Student C has done the most precise work and student A the most accurate. d) Student C has done the most precise work and student B the most accurate. e) Student B has done the most precise work and student C the most accurate.
- 71. all measurements contain some uncertainty. Such data is reported in significant figures to inform the reader of the uncertainty of the measurement. We record all significant figures unto the first uncertain number.
- 72. Whatever you measure, you have to use units
- 73. Example 2: If you are going 50 miles per hour, how many feet per second are you traveling?