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Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics is the study of the
motion of matter
The scientific study of the
relationships between matter,
energy, space, and time.
A basic science concerned with the properties
and behavior of matter; and the resultant
energy exchange and the laws that unite these
phenomena into a comprehensive system
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
We encounter symmetry of translation,
reflection, and rotation all around us…
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Translations have no fixed
points at all, while
rotations have exactly one
(called a pivot point,
around which everything
rotates doesn't move at
all.
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
With respect to translation
Whether you perform an experiment in New York or Los Angeles,
at the other edge of the Milky Way or in a galaxy a billion light-
years from here, you will be able to describe the results using the
same laws.
With respect to rotation
The laws look precisely the same whether we make
measurements from the bottom, top, sides, etc. - physics has no
preferred direction in space.
With respect to reflection
The laws of physics are the same in a right-handed system of
coordinates as in a left-handed system
With respect to time
The laws work exactly the same in experiment today as they did
on an experiment performed yesterday or last year.
One of Einstein’s main goals in his explanation of
general relativity was to formulate a theory in
which the laws of nature would look precisely the
same to all observers. In other words, the laws
had to be symmetrical under any change in our
point of view in space and time
THUS, A CONSERVED QUANTITY IS SOMETHING THAT YOU
WOULDN'T BE ABLE TO GET RID OF EVEN IF YOU WANTED TO.
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
The symmetry properties of a physical system are
intimately related to the conservation laws
characterizing that system
Noether’s theorem states that each symmetry of a
physical system implies that some physical property
of that system is conserved.
Each conserved quantity has a corresponding
symmetry
Symmetry Space translation Time translation Rotation
Conserved
quantity
Linear
momentum
Energy
Angular
momentum
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Everyone is familiar with energy but no
one knows exactly what energy actually
is
For our purposes we will define Energy as
the measure of the ability to generate
motion.
A system that has energy has the ability to
do work (motion in action).
Energy is measured in the same units
(joules) as work because energy is
transferred during the action of work.
The SI unit of energy is
the joule, J, (rhymes with
cool), named after the
British physicist James
Joule.
One Joule is the amount
of energy required in
order to heat 0.24 g of
water by 1 °C. (The
number 0.24 is not worth
memorizing.)
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Fundamental Principle:
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Einstein showed that mass itself could be
converted to and from energy, according to his
celebrated equation E = mc2, in which c is the
speed of light.
Thus we can view mass as simply another
form of energy, and it is valid to measure it in
units of joules.
The mass of a 15-gram pencil corresponds to
about 1.3 × 1015 J.
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Cosmic rays, however, are
continually striking you and your
surroundings and converting part
of their energy of motion into the
mass of newly created particles. A
single high-energy cosmic ray can
create a shower of millions of
previously nonexistent particles
when it strikes the atmosphere.
Mass can be defined from two
different perspectives:
1) Mass is the measure of the
amount of matter that a body
contains
2) Mass is a measure of the
inertial property of that body,
that is, of its resistance to
Physics Fundamental Principle:
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Is Air Matter?
• What are the two
criteria for
matter?
–Does it take up
space?
–Does it have
mass?
WATER
STATES OF MATTER
Same for the cup of
water as the iceberg
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Thus, many properties of matter are expressed
quantitatively (associated with numbers)
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
. NOTE: The short forms for SI units (such as mm for
millimeter) are called symbols, not abbreviations
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Scientists must often deal with extremely
large or small numbers
Scientific notation is a way of expressing
very large or very small numbers which are
awkward to say and write.
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Writing a number in scientific notation:
1) Put the decimal after the first digit and drop
the zeroes
2) Count the number of decimal places moved in step 1
3) Write as a product of the number (step 1) and 10
raised to the power of the count (step 2)
The Andromeda Galaxy (the closest one to our Milky Way galaxy)
contains at least 200,000,000,000 stars.
So we would write 200,000,000,000 in scientific notation as:
2.0 x 1011
This number is read as follows: "two point zero times ten to the
eleventh."
• Now we try a number that is very small.
• Change 0.000000902 to scientific notation
• The decimal must be moved behind the 9
• The coefficient will be 9.02
• The decimal moves seven spaces to the right,
making the exponent -7
• Answer equals 9.02 x 10-7
• Examples
• Write each of the following numbers in
scientific notation:
• (a) 93,000,000
• (b) .00005144
• (c) -33,452.8
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
• Changing numbers from scientific notation to
standard notation.
• Change 6.03 x 107 to standard notation.
• we can simply move the decimal seven places
to the right because the exponent is 7.
• So, 6.03 x 107 = 60 300 000
• Now let us try one with a negative exponent.
• Ex.2 Change 5.3 x 10-4 to standard notation.
• The exponent tells us to move the decimal
four places to the left.
• so, 5.3 x 10-4 = 0.00053
• Express in standard form:
• 1. 1.09 x 103
• 2. 4.22715 x 108
•
• 3. 3.078 x 10-4
•
• 4. 9.004 x 10-2
•
• 5. 5.1874 x 102 (This can be tricky!)
• Answers:
• 1) 1090
• 2) 422,715,000
• 3) 0.0003078
• 4) 0.09004
• 5) 518.74
Accuracy indicates how
close a measurement is to
the accepted value.
Precision indicates how
close together or how
repeatable the results
are.
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Trial #1 #2 #3 #4 #5
Student A 14.8 14.1 14.5 14.6 14.2
Student B 14.8 14.2 14.6 14.5 14.8
Student C 14.6 14.5 14.5 14.4 14.6
PRECISION AND ACCURACY -- Quiz
Consider the data obtained for the length of an object as measured by three
students. The length is known to be 14.54 cm. Which of the conclusions
summarizes the data?
a) Student A has done the most precise work and student C the most
accurate.
b) Student C has done the most precise and accurate work.
c) Student C has done the most precise work and student A the most
accurate.
d) Student C has done the most precise work and student B the most
accurate.
e) Student B has done the most precise work and student C the most
accurate.
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
all measurements contain some uncertainty. Such data is reported
in significant figures to inform the reader of the uncertainty of the
measurement. We record all significant figures unto the first
uncertain number.
Whatever you measure,
you have to use units
Example 2: If you are going 50 miles per hour,
how many feet per second are you traveling?
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1
Physics Chapter 1 Part 1

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Physics Chapter 1 Part 1

  • 2. Physics is the study of the motion of matter The scientific study of the relationships between matter, energy, space, and time. A basic science concerned with the properties and behavior of matter; and the resultant energy exchange and the laws that unite these phenomena into a comprehensive system
  • 6. We encounter symmetry of translation, reflection, and rotation all around us…
  • 9. Translations have no fixed points at all, while rotations have exactly one (called a pivot point, around which everything rotates doesn't move at all.
  • 15. With respect to translation Whether you perform an experiment in New York or Los Angeles, at the other edge of the Milky Way or in a galaxy a billion light- years from here, you will be able to describe the results using the same laws. With respect to rotation The laws look precisely the same whether we make measurements from the bottom, top, sides, etc. - physics has no preferred direction in space.
  • 16. With respect to reflection The laws of physics are the same in a right-handed system of coordinates as in a left-handed system With respect to time The laws work exactly the same in experiment today as they did on an experiment performed yesterday or last year.
  • 17. One of Einstein’s main goals in his explanation of general relativity was to formulate a theory in which the laws of nature would look precisely the same to all observers. In other words, the laws had to be symmetrical under any change in our point of view in space and time
  • 18. THUS, A CONSERVED QUANTITY IS SOMETHING THAT YOU WOULDN'T BE ABLE TO GET RID OF EVEN IF YOU WANTED TO.
  • 21. The symmetry properties of a physical system are intimately related to the conservation laws characterizing that system
  • 22. Noether’s theorem states that each symmetry of a physical system implies that some physical property of that system is conserved. Each conserved quantity has a corresponding symmetry Symmetry Space translation Time translation Rotation Conserved quantity Linear momentum Energy Angular momentum
  • 24. Everyone is familiar with energy but no one knows exactly what energy actually is For our purposes we will define Energy as the measure of the ability to generate motion. A system that has energy has the ability to do work (motion in action). Energy is measured in the same units (joules) as work because energy is transferred during the action of work.
  • 25. The SI unit of energy is the joule, J, (rhymes with cool), named after the British physicist James Joule. One Joule is the amount of energy required in order to heat 0.24 g of water by 1 °C. (The number 0.24 is not worth memorizing.)
  • 35. Einstein showed that mass itself could be converted to and from energy, according to his celebrated equation E = mc2, in which c is the speed of light. Thus we can view mass as simply another form of energy, and it is valid to measure it in units of joules. The mass of a 15-gram pencil corresponds to about 1.3 × 1015 J.
  • 37. Cosmic rays, however, are continually striking you and your surroundings and converting part of their energy of motion into the mass of newly created particles. A single high-energy cosmic ray can create a shower of millions of previously nonexistent particles when it strikes the atmosphere.
  • 38. Mass can be defined from two different perspectives: 1) Mass is the measure of the amount of matter that a body contains 2) Mass is a measure of the inertial property of that body, that is, of its resistance to
  • 42. Is Air Matter? • What are the two criteria for matter? –Does it take up space? –Does it have mass?
  • 43. WATER STATES OF MATTER Same for the cup of water as the iceberg
  • 47. Thus, many properties of matter are expressed quantitatively (associated with numbers)
  • 52. . NOTE: The short forms for SI units (such as mm for millimeter) are called symbols, not abbreviations
  • 56. Scientists must often deal with extremely large or small numbers Scientific notation is a way of expressing very large or very small numbers which are awkward to say and write.
  • 59. Writing a number in scientific notation: 1) Put the decimal after the first digit and drop the zeroes 2) Count the number of decimal places moved in step 1 3) Write as a product of the number (step 1) and 10 raised to the power of the count (step 2) The Andromeda Galaxy (the closest one to our Milky Way galaxy) contains at least 200,000,000,000 stars. So we would write 200,000,000,000 in scientific notation as: 2.0 x 1011 This number is read as follows: "two point zero times ten to the eleventh."
  • 60. • Now we try a number that is very small. • Change 0.000000902 to scientific notation • The decimal must be moved behind the 9 • The coefficient will be 9.02 • The decimal moves seven spaces to the right, making the exponent -7 • Answer equals 9.02 x 10-7
  • 61. • Examples • Write each of the following numbers in scientific notation: • (a) 93,000,000 • (b) .00005144 • (c) -33,452.8
  • 63. • Changing numbers from scientific notation to standard notation. • Change 6.03 x 107 to standard notation. • we can simply move the decimal seven places to the right because the exponent is 7. • So, 6.03 x 107 = 60 300 000
  • 64. • Now let us try one with a negative exponent. • Ex.2 Change 5.3 x 10-4 to standard notation. • The exponent tells us to move the decimal four places to the left. • so, 5.3 x 10-4 = 0.00053
  • 65. • Express in standard form: • 1. 1.09 x 103 • 2. 4.22715 x 108 • • 3. 3.078 x 10-4 • • 4. 9.004 x 10-2 • • 5. 5.1874 x 102 (This can be tricky!)
  • 66. • Answers: • 1) 1090 • 2) 422,715,000 • 3) 0.0003078 • 4) 0.09004 • 5) 518.74
  • 67. Accuracy indicates how close a measurement is to the accepted value. Precision indicates how close together or how repeatable the results are.
  • 69. Trial #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 Student A 14.8 14.1 14.5 14.6 14.2 Student B 14.8 14.2 14.6 14.5 14.8 Student C 14.6 14.5 14.5 14.4 14.6 PRECISION AND ACCURACY -- Quiz Consider the data obtained for the length of an object as measured by three students. The length is known to be 14.54 cm. Which of the conclusions summarizes the data? a) Student A has done the most precise work and student C the most accurate. b) Student C has done the most precise and accurate work. c) Student C has done the most precise work and student A the most accurate. d) Student C has done the most precise work and student B the most accurate. e) Student B has done the most precise work and student C the most accurate.
  • 71. all measurements contain some uncertainty. Such data is reported in significant figures to inform the reader of the uncertainty of the measurement. We record all significant figures unto the first uncertain number.
  • 72. Whatever you measure, you have to use units
  • 73. Example 2: If you are going 50 miles per hour, how many feet per second are you traveling?