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CONTENTS :
Introduction
Major causes of deterioration of library
materials
Physical factors
Types of physical deterioration
Preservation techniques for library materials
Conclusion
References
Library materials are mainly based on
book and other paper documents.
Paper documents,itself, deteriorate
due to some internal causes-
The quality of ingredients used to
compose the materials
The methods and techniques followed in
the processimg of the ingredients for
paper makimg
It can be attacked by any organic
agent and chemical reactions with
many materials.
Major Causes of Deterioration of Library
Materials :
Physical Factors
Biological Factors
Chemical Factors
Human Factors
Natural Factors
Climatic Factors Environmental
Pollutants
Radiant Factors
Temperature
Humidity &
Moisture
Rainfall
Dust, Dirt etc.
Various toxic
gases
Light
(Natural , Artificial)
Darkness
Temperature :- 1. Increase the room
temperature ( max. 40 ° c
- 42 ° c approx ).
2. It makes the paper yellowish
and brittle.
3.The cellulose and all other
inorganic
materials like starch, gelatin
start
to decay. 4.High power electric bulbs makes the
paper soggy and accelerates the
growth of biological enemies.
1. Excessive humidity causes weakening
of adhesives , staining of paper and
encourages the growth of molds and
mildews.
2. The cellulose fibers lose their
strength and makes the binding
lose.
3. Moisture enhances the growth of
biological agents.
It makes the paper soggy.
1. Creates humid weather
2. Increases the dampness of the library building
3. Accelerates the growth of
biological species and it destroy
the library materials
Dust , Dirt , Smoke etc. :
1. Emit gases – Sulphur-di-oxide (SO2) , Carbon monoxide (CO) ,
Formaldehyde (CH2O) , Ammonia (NH3) , Ozone (O3) ,
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) .
2. SO2 + H2O = H2SO4
Chemical reactions destroys the library
materials .
3. Brittleness of paper , discolouration
of the pages of books and increase
the growth of micro organisms.
4. Ammonia also harmful for the paper.
Light
Natural
Artificial
Natural
1.The Ultra-violet rays damage cellulose
bonding by photolysis
2.The modern ink , dyes,
colour , and pigment
become fade
Artificial ( Fluoroscent tubes)
1. Radiate high percentage of ultra
violet rays
2. Generate heat
1. Accelerates the growth of biological agents
2. Rise to dampness
3. Encourages growth of deteriorating
environment agents and it damage the
library materials
Importance
The process of preservation , conservation and
restoration are applied to safeguard the library
materials from further decay and deterioration .
Conservation work is the sum total of
preservation and restoration work.The
total conservation work can be divided
into four steps- 1. Examination of the documents
2. Preventive conservation
3. Curative conservation
4. Restorative conservation
Plantation of trees
Use electric fans for decrease
temperature
The Library of Congress
recommends a temperature of
12.8° C in book storage areas and
a maximum m of 21.1 ° C in
reading areas
Installing Air-conditioner
In summer months the windows should
kept closed
1. Ideal relative humidity is
45% - 50% for paper
documents , 30%- 40% for
micro-forms and 30%-45% for
magnetic media
2. Installing Air-conditioner
3.Thermo- hygrometer or
Hand – held electronic
hygrometer.
4. Use of Silica Gel to minimize
humidity
5. Use thimol chemical for treatment
6. NIKKA PELLETS
Precautionary Measures for Environmental
Pollutants :
1. Dusting &cleaning
2. Air conditioner
3.Vacuum cleaner
4. Heating,Ventilating , Air-cooling
systems
5. Using & cleaning doormats
6. Containers, covering or enclosures for
documents and manuscripts can be several
types:
-Manuscript boxes
-Slip book cases
-Wrapping by cloth
Sunlight should be prevented
from falling directly on papers
Planting shade trees
Glass panels may be used in the
windows to cut off the UV rays
Reading hall should be separate
Switching of light
Monitoring on off light
Illuminating
different areas in
library building or
rooms with sufficient
appropriate lights,
darkness can be
minimized within
the library building.
Preventive conservation play a key role in
preserving library collection. Every library should,
therefore, practice preventive conservation to
keep the documents in healthy , good and useable
condition.
THANK YOU
Chakraborty,B & Mahapatra, P (2007) Library and
Information Science.Kolkata: World Press.
Chakraborty,B & Chakraborty,A(2011)Preservation and
Restoration of Library Materials,Kolkata:Progressive
publisher
Library of Congress Preservation
http://www.loc.gov/preserve

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Physical deterioration

  • 1.
  • 2. CONTENTS : Introduction Major causes of deterioration of library materials Physical factors Types of physical deterioration Preservation techniques for library materials Conclusion References
  • 3. Library materials are mainly based on book and other paper documents. Paper documents,itself, deteriorate due to some internal causes- The quality of ingredients used to compose the materials The methods and techniques followed in the processimg of the ingredients for paper makimg It can be attacked by any organic agent and chemical reactions with many materials.
  • 4. Major Causes of Deterioration of Library Materials : Physical Factors Biological Factors Chemical Factors Human Factors Natural Factors
  • 5. Climatic Factors Environmental Pollutants Radiant Factors Temperature Humidity & Moisture Rainfall Dust, Dirt etc. Various toxic gases Light (Natural , Artificial) Darkness
  • 6. Temperature :- 1. Increase the room temperature ( max. 40 ° c - 42 ° c approx ). 2. It makes the paper yellowish and brittle. 3.The cellulose and all other inorganic materials like starch, gelatin start to decay. 4.High power electric bulbs makes the paper soggy and accelerates the growth of biological enemies.
  • 7. 1. Excessive humidity causes weakening of adhesives , staining of paper and encourages the growth of molds and mildews. 2. The cellulose fibers lose their strength and makes the binding lose. 3. Moisture enhances the growth of biological agents. It makes the paper soggy.
  • 8. 1. Creates humid weather 2. Increases the dampness of the library building 3. Accelerates the growth of biological species and it destroy the library materials
  • 9. Dust , Dirt , Smoke etc. : 1. Emit gases – Sulphur-di-oxide (SO2) , Carbon monoxide (CO) , Formaldehyde (CH2O) , Ammonia (NH3) , Ozone (O3) , Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) . 2. SO2 + H2O = H2SO4 Chemical reactions destroys the library materials . 3. Brittleness of paper , discolouration of the pages of books and increase the growth of micro organisms. 4. Ammonia also harmful for the paper.
  • 10. Light Natural Artificial Natural 1.The Ultra-violet rays damage cellulose bonding by photolysis 2.The modern ink , dyes, colour , and pigment become fade Artificial ( Fluoroscent tubes) 1. Radiate high percentage of ultra violet rays 2. Generate heat
  • 11. 1. Accelerates the growth of biological agents 2. Rise to dampness 3. Encourages growth of deteriorating environment agents and it damage the library materials
  • 12. Importance The process of preservation , conservation and restoration are applied to safeguard the library materials from further decay and deterioration . Conservation work is the sum total of preservation and restoration work.The total conservation work can be divided into four steps- 1. Examination of the documents 2. Preventive conservation 3. Curative conservation 4. Restorative conservation
  • 13. Plantation of trees Use electric fans for decrease temperature The Library of Congress recommends a temperature of 12.8° C in book storage areas and a maximum m of 21.1 ° C in reading areas Installing Air-conditioner In summer months the windows should kept closed
  • 14. 1. Ideal relative humidity is 45% - 50% for paper documents , 30%- 40% for micro-forms and 30%-45% for magnetic media 2. Installing Air-conditioner 3.Thermo- hygrometer or Hand – held electronic hygrometer. 4. Use of Silica Gel to minimize humidity 5. Use thimol chemical for treatment 6. NIKKA PELLETS
  • 15. Precautionary Measures for Environmental Pollutants : 1. Dusting &cleaning 2. Air conditioner 3.Vacuum cleaner 4. Heating,Ventilating , Air-cooling systems 5. Using & cleaning doormats 6. Containers, covering or enclosures for documents and manuscripts can be several types: -Manuscript boxes -Slip book cases -Wrapping by cloth
  • 16. Sunlight should be prevented from falling directly on papers Planting shade trees Glass panels may be used in the windows to cut off the UV rays Reading hall should be separate Switching of light Monitoring on off light
  • 17. Illuminating different areas in library building or rooms with sufficient appropriate lights, darkness can be minimized within the library building.
  • 18. Preventive conservation play a key role in preserving library collection. Every library should, therefore, practice preventive conservation to keep the documents in healthy , good and useable condition.
  • 20. Chakraborty,B & Mahapatra, P (2007) Library and Information Science.Kolkata: World Press. Chakraborty,B & Chakraborty,A(2011)Preservation and Restoration of Library Materials,Kolkata:Progressive publisher Library of Congress Preservation http://www.loc.gov/preserve