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DR.SHIVA
Physical and Chemical Properties of Dental Materials part - 2.pptx
COLORS AND COLOR MIXING
•Primary, Secondary and
Complementary Colors
• primary colors, combining of suitable
proportions of these colors results in
white color
• Secondary Colors A secondary color is
obtained by the addition of two
primary colors
E.g.: Blue + Green = Cyan (peacock blue).
Green + Red =Yellow. Red + Blue =
Magenta.
• Complementary ColorsTwo colors are
said to be complementary if they are
combined to produce white color
E.g.: Blue +Yellow Green + Magenta Red +
Cyan
parameters
Hue Value Chroma
According to Grassmann’s laws, the
eye can distinguish differences in
only three parameters of colors.
Hue
• Hue is commonly referred to as color.
• It is the dominant wavelength of a
color and is the wavelength of a
monochromatic light that when
mixed in suitable proportions with an
achromatic color will match the color
perceived.
Value
• Value is the luminous reflectance.
• It is the lightness or darkness of a color.
• Value is the most important color factor in
tooth color matching.
• black luminous reflectance = zero
• white luminous reflectance = 100.
Chroma
• Chroma is excitation purity and is a
measurement of color intensity.
• the amount of a saturation of hue in a color
(degree of saturation of a particular hue).The
higher the chroma more intenseis the color
(dark).
• So chroma, it can not exist itself but it is always
associated with hue and value.
Physical and Chemical Properties of Dental Materials part - 2.pptx
COLOR MIXING
Addition or Additive Mixing
• This process applies only to colored lights reflecting
from white surface, the resultant is an additive
combination of colors. It can be represented by an
equilateral triangle In which primary colors are at the
corners and secondary colors at the midpoint of sides.
Two colors said to be complement if they combine to
produce white.
Physical and Chemical Properties of Dental Materials part - 2.pptx
Subtractive
• MixingThis process
applies to pigments and
paints. Each component
reflects its own color
and absorbs other color,
resultant is the color,
which is nonabsorbed
MEASUREMENT OF COLOR
The color of dental restorative materials is most commonly measured
in reflected light by two techniques.
• Instrumental technique
done with the help of
spectrophotometers and
colorimeters
•Visual technique
a popular system for visual
determination of color is the
Munsell color system
Physical and Chemical Properties of Dental Materials part - 2.pptx
LIGHTAND INTERFACES
When a beam of light strikes on an
object the following things can
happen:
• 1. Reflection
• 2. Refraction
• 3.Transmission
• 4. Absorption
• 5. Scattering of light.
Reflection
• When a light, traveling in a
homogeneous medium, falls on
the surface of another medium,
a part of incident light is sent
back to the first medium
Opacity
• Opacity is the property of
materials that prevents the
passage of light.
Translucency
• The translucency of an object is the amount
of incident light transmitted by the object
that scatters part of the light.
• Some translucent materials used in
dentistry are porcelain, composite resins,
plastics, etc.
Transparency
• Transparent materials allow the passage
of light in such a manner that little
distortion takes place and objects may be
clearly seen through them,
• e.g. glass
Y does car glass has black colour dots at
its periphery ?
Refractive Index or Index of Refraction
• The index of refraction for any
substance is the ratio of the velocity of
light in a vacuum or air to its velocity in
the medium.
• When a ray of light travels from one
medium to another, the ratio between
‘sin’ of angle of incidence and ‘sin’ of
angle of reflection is called refractive
index of second medium with respect
to first medium
Y primary teeth is called as
milk teeth?
METAMERISM
• The change in color
matching of two objects
under different light sources
is called metamerism.
• Two objects that are
matched under one light
source but are not matched
under other light sources are
called a metameric pair.
Science behind Lights in restaurants?
science behind lights in shopping mall?
Science behind movie making lights?
• An example of metamerism is when a
shade guide tooth matches the tooth
under incandescent light.
• Metamerism results from possible
differences in illumination between the
dental clinic and the dental laboratory,
causing poor matching in a fabricated
restoration such as a porcelain crown.
then called as an isomeric pair; they are
color matched under all light sources.
• The ideal situation is to have objects
possess the same color reflectance.The
objects are then called as an isomeric
pair
FLUORESCENCE
• Fluorescence is the emission of
light by an object at different
wavelengths from those of the
incident light.
• When the molecules of a
substance absorb radiation they
are raised to a high energy state
and the excess energy is emitted
out with greater wavelength within
short time (approximately 10–8
seconds), this phenomenon is
called as fluorescence. ZIRCONIA BLACK HOLE EFFECT
Physical and Chemical Properties of Dental Materials part - 2.pptx
BIOMATERIALS
REQUIREMENTSOF BIOCOMPATIBILITY
Should not
• 1. Produce allergic reactions.
• 2. Harmful to the tooth or soft tissues.
• 3. Be containing toxic substances.
• 4. Be carcinogenic.
• 5. Undergo biodegradations.
• 6. Show estrogenicity.
• 7. Create immunotoxicity.
TESTS FOR EVALUATION OF BIOCOMPATIBILITY
Group I
Primary-
screening tests
Group II
Secondary–
animal tests
Group III
Preclinical–
usage tests.
Primary ScreeningTests
•CytotoxicityTests
•GenotoxicityTests
•MutagenesisAssay
SecondaryTests
• Mucous Membrane IrritationTests
• Skin SensitizationTest
• ImplantationTests
Preclinical UsageTests
•Dentin – Pulp UsageTests
•Mucosal and Gingival UsageTests
•Pulp Capping and Pulpotomy UsageTests
•Endodontic UsageTest
TARNISH
• Tarnish is surface
discoloration on a metal or
even as a slight loss or
alteration of the surface
finish or luster.
CORROSION
• Corrosion is a process in
which deterioration of a
metal is caused by reaction
with its environment
Physical and Chemical Properties of Dental Materials part - 2.pptx
Drshivasai
MIND MAPPING
Physical and chemical properties
Optic
properties
Hue Value Chroma Colour mixing
Addition
Subtraction
Measuring of
colour
Refractive
index
Metamerism Fluorescence
Light
interphases
Reflection
Transmission
Absorption
Scattering
BIOMATERIALS
Primary test Secondary test Preclinical test
Tarnish Corrosion

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Physical and Chemical Properties of Dental Materials part - 2.pptx

  • 4. •Primary, Secondary and Complementary Colors • primary colors, combining of suitable proportions of these colors results in white color • Secondary Colors A secondary color is obtained by the addition of two primary colors E.g.: Blue + Green = Cyan (peacock blue). Green + Red =Yellow. Red + Blue = Magenta. • Complementary ColorsTwo colors are said to be complementary if they are combined to produce white color E.g.: Blue +Yellow Green + Magenta Red + Cyan
  • 5. parameters Hue Value Chroma According to Grassmann’s laws, the eye can distinguish differences in only three parameters of colors.
  • 6. Hue • Hue is commonly referred to as color. • It is the dominant wavelength of a color and is the wavelength of a monochromatic light that when mixed in suitable proportions with an achromatic color will match the color perceived.
  • 7. Value • Value is the luminous reflectance. • It is the lightness or darkness of a color. • Value is the most important color factor in tooth color matching. • black luminous reflectance = zero • white luminous reflectance = 100.
  • 8. Chroma • Chroma is excitation purity and is a measurement of color intensity. • the amount of a saturation of hue in a color (degree of saturation of a particular hue).The higher the chroma more intenseis the color (dark). • So chroma, it can not exist itself but it is always associated with hue and value.
  • 10. COLOR MIXING Addition or Additive Mixing • This process applies only to colored lights reflecting from white surface, the resultant is an additive combination of colors. It can be represented by an equilateral triangle In which primary colors are at the corners and secondary colors at the midpoint of sides. Two colors said to be complement if they combine to produce white.
  • 12. Subtractive • MixingThis process applies to pigments and paints. Each component reflects its own color and absorbs other color, resultant is the color, which is nonabsorbed
  • 13. MEASUREMENT OF COLOR The color of dental restorative materials is most commonly measured in reflected light by two techniques. • Instrumental technique done with the help of spectrophotometers and colorimeters •Visual technique a popular system for visual determination of color is the Munsell color system
  • 15. LIGHTAND INTERFACES When a beam of light strikes on an object the following things can happen: • 1. Reflection • 2. Refraction • 3.Transmission • 4. Absorption • 5. Scattering of light.
  • 16. Reflection • When a light, traveling in a homogeneous medium, falls on the surface of another medium, a part of incident light is sent back to the first medium
  • 17. Opacity • Opacity is the property of materials that prevents the passage of light.
  • 18. Translucency • The translucency of an object is the amount of incident light transmitted by the object that scatters part of the light. • Some translucent materials used in dentistry are porcelain, composite resins, plastics, etc.
  • 19. Transparency • Transparent materials allow the passage of light in such a manner that little distortion takes place and objects may be clearly seen through them, • e.g. glass
  • 20. Y does car glass has black colour dots at its periphery ?
  • 21. Refractive Index or Index of Refraction • The index of refraction for any substance is the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum or air to its velocity in the medium. • When a ray of light travels from one medium to another, the ratio between ‘sin’ of angle of incidence and ‘sin’ of angle of reflection is called refractive index of second medium with respect to first medium
  • 22. Y primary teeth is called as milk teeth?
  • 23. METAMERISM • The change in color matching of two objects under different light sources is called metamerism. • Two objects that are matched under one light source but are not matched under other light sources are called a metameric pair.
  • 24. Science behind Lights in restaurants? science behind lights in shopping mall? Science behind movie making lights?
  • 25. • An example of metamerism is when a shade guide tooth matches the tooth under incandescent light. • Metamerism results from possible differences in illumination between the dental clinic and the dental laboratory, causing poor matching in a fabricated restoration such as a porcelain crown. then called as an isomeric pair; they are color matched under all light sources. • The ideal situation is to have objects possess the same color reflectance.The objects are then called as an isomeric pair
  • 26. FLUORESCENCE • Fluorescence is the emission of light by an object at different wavelengths from those of the incident light. • When the molecules of a substance absorb radiation they are raised to a high energy state and the excess energy is emitted out with greater wavelength within short time (approximately 10–8 seconds), this phenomenon is called as fluorescence. ZIRCONIA BLACK HOLE EFFECT
  • 29. REQUIREMENTSOF BIOCOMPATIBILITY Should not • 1. Produce allergic reactions. • 2. Harmful to the tooth or soft tissues. • 3. Be containing toxic substances. • 4. Be carcinogenic. • 5. Undergo biodegradations. • 6. Show estrogenicity. • 7. Create immunotoxicity.
  • 30. TESTS FOR EVALUATION OF BIOCOMPATIBILITY Group I Primary- screening tests Group II Secondary– animal tests Group III Preclinical– usage tests.
  • 32. SecondaryTests • Mucous Membrane IrritationTests • Skin SensitizationTest • ImplantationTests
  • 33. Preclinical UsageTests •Dentin – Pulp UsageTests •Mucosal and Gingival UsageTests •Pulp Capping and Pulpotomy UsageTests •Endodontic UsageTest
  • 34. TARNISH • Tarnish is surface discoloration on a metal or even as a slight loss or alteration of the surface finish or luster. CORROSION • Corrosion is a process in which deterioration of a metal is caused by reaction with its environment
  • 38. Physical and chemical properties Optic properties Hue Value Chroma Colour mixing Addition Subtraction Measuring of colour Refractive index Metamerism Fluorescence Light interphases Reflection Transmission Absorption Scattering
  • 39. BIOMATERIALS Primary test Secondary test Preclinical test Tarnish Corrosion