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PHRASE
CLAUSEBy: Tira Nur Fitria S.Pd., M.Pd
misstira.stieaas@gmail.com
PHRASE
A phrase is a group or words that express
a concept and is used as a unit within a
sentence. A phrase is two or more words
that do not contain the subject-verb pair
necessary to form a clause.
TYPE OF PHRASE
Certain phrases have specific names based
on the type of word that begins or governs
the word group: noun phrase, verb phrase,
prepositional phrase, infinitive phrase,
participle phrase, gerund phrase, and
absolute phrase.
Noun Phrases
A noun phrase includes a noun—a person, place, or thing
—and the modifiers—either before or after—which
distinguish it. The pattern looks like this:
Optional Modifier(s) + Noun + Optional Modifier(s)
Here are some examples:
A cat that refused to meow
Cat = noun; a, that refused to meow = modifiers.
Beautiful Indonesian girl
Beautiful & Indonesian = modifiers, girl = noun
A great English teacher
Teacher = noun; a, great & English = modifiers.
These are the phrases contains a noun- name, place
or things and at least one modifier associated to the
noun. The modifier can prefix or suffix the noun.
The entire phrase will act as a noun for that
particular sentence.
He was wearing a black linen shirt.
They live in a small, tidy cottage
Alex rode his old black bicycle to their new school
The beautiful diligent girl in this school
VERB PHRASE
Sometimes a sentence can communicate its meaning with a one-
word verb. Other times, however, a sentence will use a
verb phrase, a multi-word verb, to express more nuanced action
or condition. A verb phrase can have up to four parts. The pattern
looks like this:
Auxiliary Verb(s) + Main Verb + Verb Ending When Necessary
Here are some examples:
Form of HAVE: Have, has, had
Form of DO: Do, does, did
Form of BE: is/am/are, was/were, been
AUXILIARY: can, could, should, shall, will, be going to, would,
may, might, etc
Every sentence will generally contain a verb. But
sometimes the action being described requires a more
nuanced multi-words verb phrase. The phrase consists
of the main verb/verbs and then auxiliary verbs, i.e.
helping verbs.
Some such verb phrases are as follows,
The teacher is writing the answer
My parent will go to Jakarta at 5 o’clock
They have been playing since the last two hours
You must call your mom at once
He has taken the dog in the petshop
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
Any phrase that consists of a preposition, and the object of the
preposition, which will be a noun or a pronoun s what we call a
prepositional phrase. Such a phrase also at times consists of other
modifiers describing the object of the prepositional phrase.
Students are advised to be on time
Please turn towards the right at the intersection
Please get the book above the cupboard. (Which book?)
The student at the end of the street is acting again. (Which
student?)
The cat is hiding behind the tree. (Where is the cat?)
The family go to shop after breakfast. (When did the family
leave?)
INFINITIVE PHRASE
A phrase that includes an infinitive along with a simple verb is an
infinitive phrase. There may also be modifiers attached to the
object in the phrase, It contains a verb, so it plays the role of
expressing an action in the sentence.
Infinitive phrases can act as a noun, adjective or adverb in a
complete sentence.
Alex likes to read comics (functions as a noun here)
To attend the morning lecture, I set my alarm for 6 am. (noun
form)
To keep his dogs calm, Alex turned on the radio. (functions as
an adverb here)
PARTICIPLE PHRASES
A participle phrase will begin with a participle, which can be a
present participle (ending with -ing) or a past participle
(ending with -ed). There may be a few modifiers and
associated words included in the phrase. One thing to
remember is that a participle phrase always takes the form of
an adjective in a sentence.
We got a call from my aunt today telling us the good
news.
The house was severely damaged by the flood.
Please sit down without making a sound
GERUND PHRASE
Now a gerund is a word that invariably ends with “-ing”,
without exception. So a gerund phrase is a phrase that contains
an ‘ing” word, with some modifiers in some cases. But
participle phrases also have a similar pattern (-ing words), so
how do you tell the difference between the two?
Well while participle phrases function as adjectives, Gerund
Phrases exclusively function as nouns.
 My hobby is writing poem.
Good habit is waking up early in the morning
Washing the dishes is Alex’s job in the restaurant
Waking up before sunrise had become his habit.
ABSOLUTE PHRASE
An absolute phrase will contain a noun or a pronoun with a
participle. Again it may also contain additional associative
words and modifiers. An absolute participle will modify a whole
clause, or even a whole sentence, not only one word. However,
it does not constitute a complete sentence or a clause.
Generally, an absolute phrase is separated by commas.
He looked towards the beggar, his face expressing pity
We were glued to the match, our eyes always following the
ball.
He sat on the bed, his clothes neatly folded by his side.
CLAUSE
A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and
a verb. A clause can be distinguished from a phrase,
which does not contain a subject and a verb.
An independent clause can express a complete
thought (and can be a standalone sentence).
A dependent clause is usually a supporting part of a
sentence, and it cannot stand by itself as a meaningful
proposition (idea).
Independent Clauses
 Mary is writing a letter. [Mary is the subject, writes
is the predicate]
 The boys are swimming in the pool
 I went to school
 I eat fried rice
 I have a doll
 I run slowly
 My mother sang me a song.
 You haven’t changed much.
 You should eat this.
Dependent clause – it expresses a
complete thought and can stand alone.
For example:
When Jim studied in the classroom
but I dislike the cake
When I was young, …
…since the last time I see you
… before you leave my room.
Dependent Clauses
Some common dependent markers are: after, although, as, as
if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since,
though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether,
and while.
The seven coordinating conjunctions used as connecting words
at the beginning of an independent clause are and, but, for,
or, nor, so, and yet.
When the second independent clause in a sentence begins
with a coordinating conjunction, a comma is needed before
the coordinating conjunction:
EXAMPLE CLAUSE
 John was hired by an IT company, but Mary did not find a job.
 We have to finish the project first, and then we can take a
holiday.
 Shortly after his graduation in Computer Science, John was
hired by an IT company.
 She cried loudly because her doll was broken
 When it is raining, I come to your house, then we eat together
 After the movie ended, we ate ice cream
 I remember what you said yesterday
REFERENCES
https://www.toppr.com/guides/english/vocabulary/types-of-phrases/
http://www.studyandexam.com/types-of-phrase.html
https://www.aims.edu/student/online-writing-lab/grammar/independent-vs-
dependent

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PHRASE AND CLAUSE

  • 1. PHRASE CLAUSEBy: Tira Nur Fitria S.Pd., M.Pd misstira.stieaas@gmail.com
  • 2. PHRASE A phrase is a group or words that express a concept and is used as a unit within a sentence. A phrase is two or more words that do not contain the subject-verb pair necessary to form a clause.
  • 3. TYPE OF PHRASE Certain phrases have specific names based on the type of word that begins or governs the word group: noun phrase, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, infinitive phrase, participle phrase, gerund phrase, and absolute phrase.
  • 4. Noun Phrases A noun phrase includes a noun—a person, place, or thing —and the modifiers—either before or after—which distinguish it. The pattern looks like this: Optional Modifier(s) + Noun + Optional Modifier(s) Here are some examples: A cat that refused to meow Cat = noun; a, that refused to meow = modifiers. Beautiful Indonesian girl Beautiful & Indonesian = modifiers, girl = noun A great English teacher Teacher = noun; a, great & English = modifiers.
  • 5. These are the phrases contains a noun- name, place or things and at least one modifier associated to the noun. The modifier can prefix or suffix the noun. The entire phrase will act as a noun for that particular sentence. He was wearing a black linen shirt. They live in a small, tidy cottage Alex rode his old black bicycle to their new school The beautiful diligent girl in this school
  • 6. VERB PHRASE Sometimes a sentence can communicate its meaning with a one- word verb. Other times, however, a sentence will use a verb phrase, a multi-word verb, to express more nuanced action or condition. A verb phrase can have up to four parts. The pattern looks like this: Auxiliary Verb(s) + Main Verb + Verb Ending When Necessary Here are some examples: Form of HAVE: Have, has, had Form of DO: Do, does, did Form of BE: is/am/are, was/were, been AUXILIARY: can, could, should, shall, will, be going to, would, may, might, etc
  • 7. Every sentence will generally contain a verb. But sometimes the action being described requires a more nuanced multi-words verb phrase. The phrase consists of the main verb/verbs and then auxiliary verbs, i.e. helping verbs. Some such verb phrases are as follows, The teacher is writing the answer My parent will go to Jakarta at 5 o’clock They have been playing since the last two hours You must call your mom at once He has taken the dog in the petshop
  • 8. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE Any phrase that consists of a preposition, and the object of the preposition, which will be a noun or a pronoun s what we call a prepositional phrase. Such a phrase also at times consists of other modifiers describing the object of the prepositional phrase. Students are advised to be on time Please turn towards the right at the intersection Please get the book above the cupboard. (Which book?) The student at the end of the street is acting again. (Which student?) The cat is hiding behind the tree. (Where is the cat?) The family go to shop after breakfast. (When did the family leave?)
  • 9. INFINITIVE PHRASE A phrase that includes an infinitive along with a simple verb is an infinitive phrase. There may also be modifiers attached to the object in the phrase, It contains a verb, so it plays the role of expressing an action in the sentence. Infinitive phrases can act as a noun, adjective or adverb in a complete sentence. Alex likes to read comics (functions as a noun here) To attend the morning lecture, I set my alarm for 6 am. (noun form) To keep his dogs calm, Alex turned on the radio. (functions as an adverb here)
  • 10. PARTICIPLE PHRASES A participle phrase will begin with a participle, which can be a present participle (ending with -ing) or a past participle (ending with -ed). There may be a few modifiers and associated words included in the phrase. One thing to remember is that a participle phrase always takes the form of an adjective in a sentence. We got a call from my aunt today telling us the good news. The house was severely damaged by the flood. Please sit down without making a sound
  • 11. GERUND PHRASE Now a gerund is a word that invariably ends with “-ing”, without exception. So a gerund phrase is a phrase that contains an ‘ing” word, with some modifiers in some cases. But participle phrases also have a similar pattern (-ing words), so how do you tell the difference between the two? Well while participle phrases function as adjectives, Gerund Phrases exclusively function as nouns.  My hobby is writing poem. Good habit is waking up early in the morning Washing the dishes is Alex’s job in the restaurant Waking up before sunrise had become his habit.
  • 12. ABSOLUTE PHRASE An absolute phrase will contain a noun or a pronoun with a participle. Again it may also contain additional associative words and modifiers. An absolute participle will modify a whole clause, or even a whole sentence, not only one word. However, it does not constitute a complete sentence or a clause. Generally, an absolute phrase is separated by commas. He looked towards the beggar, his face expressing pity We were glued to the match, our eyes always following the ball. He sat on the bed, his clothes neatly folded by his side.
  • 13. CLAUSE A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and a verb. A clause can be distinguished from a phrase, which does not contain a subject and a verb. An independent clause can express a complete thought (and can be a standalone sentence). A dependent clause is usually a supporting part of a sentence, and it cannot stand by itself as a meaningful proposition (idea).
  • 14. Independent Clauses  Mary is writing a letter. [Mary is the subject, writes is the predicate]  The boys are swimming in the pool  I went to school  I eat fried rice  I have a doll  I run slowly  My mother sang me a song.  You haven’t changed much.  You should eat this.
  • 15. Dependent clause – it expresses a complete thought and can stand alone. For example: When Jim studied in the classroom but I dislike the cake When I was young, … …since the last time I see you … before you leave my room.
  • 16. Dependent Clauses Some common dependent markers are: after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while. The seven coordinating conjunctions used as connecting words at the beginning of an independent clause are and, but, for, or, nor, so, and yet. When the second independent clause in a sentence begins with a coordinating conjunction, a comma is needed before the coordinating conjunction:
  • 17. EXAMPLE CLAUSE  John was hired by an IT company, but Mary did not find a job.  We have to finish the project first, and then we can take a holiday.  Shortly after his graduation in Computer Science, John was hired by an IT company.  She cried loudly because her doll was broken  When it is raining, I come to your house, then we eat together  After the movie ended, we ate ice cream  I remember what you said yesterday