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Climate Change, Health, and Equity
December 16, 2014
Linda Rudolph, MD, MPH
linda.rudolph@phi.org
1
2
“Climate change is the defining health challenge of
our time.” Margaret Chan, World Health Organization
“Climate change threatens our fragile existence on
this planet.” Jim Kim, World Bank
"Social injustice is killing people
on a grand scale.”
WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, 2008
3
Living Conditions:
Physical, Social, Economic, Services
Environments
4
Adapted from Bay Area Regional Health Inequities Initiative
Adapted from Patz et.al. 2000 EnvHlthPersp
5
Greenhouse
Gas
Emissions
Climate Behaviors
Warming
6
Global Climate Impacts
Hydrologic Variability
Ocean Acidification Sea Level Rise
Glacier & Snowpack Loss
7
Local Climate Impacts
WildfiresDrought
Decreased Snowpack
http://c-change.la/temperature/Extreme Heat
Coastal Flooding
Extreme Weather
Environmental & Socioeconomic
Intermediate
Factors
Resources ConflictEconomic Losses
Declines in Crop Yield
Vector Habitat Microbial & Toxics
Contamination
Water impacts
 Extreme weather injuries, drownings, fatalities
 Heat-related illnesses and deaths
 Air pollution impacts – respiratory, cardiovascular
 Allergic disease
 Infectious disease
 Water and food-borne disease
 Vector-borne disease
 Food insecurity and malnutrition
 Water insecurity
 Displacement, conflict, and migration
 Stress and mental health impacts 9
Climate Health Impacts
10
 Leading weather-related cause of death
 Urban Heat Islands, chronic disease, work
 Worsens air pollution
Climate Health Impacts: Heat
Wildfire Smoke
Energy Use
Pollen
Urban Heat Islands
Increased Ozone Levels
Dust
Deaths
11
Other Environmental Impacts
Air Pollution
Deforestation
Topsoil Depletion
Water
Contamination
Ocean Dead Zones
Ecosystems Collapse
Climate Change Vulnerability & Resilience
12
“Climate Gap”
13
Climate
Health
Inequities
14
Climate Interventions
Health Interventions
15
Health Co-Benefits or Co-Harms of Climate Interventions
 Reduce
 Greenhouse gases
 Air pollution
 Fuel poverty
16
• Reduce
• Asthma
• Respiratory
disease
• CVD
• Adverse birth
outcomes
Clean Energy/Energy Efficiency Co-Benefits
17
 Reductions
 GHG emissions
 Pesticide use
 Synthetic fertilizer use
 Food miles
 Antibiotic use
 Water pollution
 Soil erosion
 Biodiversity loss
 Meat consumption
 Unsustainable H2O consumption
 Increases
 Access affordable healthy food
 Rural community strength
 Agricultural land preservation
 Reductions
 Obesity
 Cardiovascular disease
 Cancer (breast, prostate,
colorectal)
 Type II Diabetes
 Antibiotic resistance
 Pesticide illness
Sustainable Food Systems/Consumption Co-Benefits
18
 Urban greening
 Reduce heat illness risk
 Places to be active
 Healthy food access
 Reduce storm water
run-off & flooding risk
 Replenish groundwater
 Reduce crime
 Decrease energy
consumption
 Lower energy costs
 Reduce air pollution
18
Heat Resilience Co-Benefits
ITHIM Preliminary Projections of Health Impacts of Increased Bicycling and
Walking: 4 to 19 minutes of daily physical activity, SCAG Region
19
Change in disease
burden
Change in premature
deaths/yr
Cardiovascular Dis.* 12% 3,134
Diabetes 12% 374
Depression 3% <2
Dementia 6% 465
Breast cancer 3% 60
Colon Cancer 3% 75
Road traffic crashes 22% 315
* Ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertensive heart disease
Active Transportation Co-Benefits
20
Maizlish 2012 Technical Report
Co-Harms
21
LCFS: Food Prices & Insecurity
Market Mechanisms:
Pollution in EJ Communities
Groundwater Use:
Subsidence
TOD: Gentrification
Green Jobs: Occupational Risks
Job Loss
Root Causes
22
23
24
Highest levels CO2 in at least 800,000 years
25
The Costs of Inaction
"We do not face a choice between protecting our
environment or protecting our economy. We face a
choice between protecting our economy by
protecting our environment — or allowing
environmental havoc to create economic havoc.”
Former Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin
26
IPCC AR5 Synthesis
Report
The window for action is rapidly closing
65% of our carbon budget compatible with a 2°C goal already used
Amount Used
1870-2011:
515
GtC
Amount
Remaining:
275
GtC
Total Carbon
Budget:
790
GtC
AR5 WGI SPM
Climate Change is
a Health Emergency.
IPCC AR5 Synthesis
Report
The Choices We Make Will Create Different Outcomes
With substantial
mitigation
Without
additional
mitigation
Change in average surface temperature (1986–2005 to 2081–2100)
AR5 WGI SPM
The Choice is Ours
30
Public Concern is Rising….. But…
 Scientific consensus for climate change: 62%
 Local government and states should act: 82%
 Climate change a serious threat to California’s future and
quality of life:
 Latinos: 67%
 African-Americans: 63%
 Whites: 40%
 Asians: 38%
 Most have not yet connected the dots between
global climate change and health impacts
 Uncomfortable expressing opinions if think they
differ from personal networks
 Many confused, cognitive dissonance
32
Health sector has a vital role
 Health frame elicits support for climate action
 Health co-benefits and community empowerment
provide antidote to despair and helplessness
 Health and equity opportunities are real and
current
 Health workers are trusted, credible messengers
in community
 Health works in and with vulnerable communities
 Health voice has been critical – in partnership
with community advocates
 e.g. nuclear weapons, tobacco, HIV/AIDs
33
What we can do?
34
 Be a leader - talk to colleagues, communities, decision makers
 Support local, state, and federal climate actions with health
and equity co-benefits, eg EPA Clean Power Plant rules
 Oppose expansion of fossil fuel extraction/production
 Support clean, safe, renewable, energy
 Support rapid acceleration/ funding for active transportation
 Support funding and policies for sustainable ag & peri-urban ag
 Advocate for green zones and just transition
 Support building standards for climate resilience
 Divest endowments and pension funds from fossil fuels
 Advocate to end fossil fuel subsidies
 Develop and implement urban heat island mitigation strategies
 Support regulations of carbon, methane, ozone pollution
 Make polluters pay e.g. carbon tax, nitrogen fertilizer tax
CHEAP:
Climate, Health, & Equity in All Policies
 Integrate health & equity explicitly into climate
change policies and programs
 Integrate climate change reduction and
resilience explicitly into health and CED policies
& programs
35
Build capacity
 Provide venues and resources for peer support & TA
 Support climate and health learning collaboratives
36
Communications and Social Marketing
 Research, develop, train, and deliver effective climate,
health, and equity communications and social marketing
campaign tools
37
Promote and support greater cross-
sectoral collaboration and alignment
 Health-social justice-EJ-community economic
development-climate change advocates
 Local government-NGOs-CBOs
38
Support Movement Building
39
40
http://climatehealthconnect.org/climate-and-health-alliance/
Thank you.
http://climatehealthconnect.org

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PHI - Climate Change Health Equity

  • 1. Climate Change, Health, and Equity December 16, 2014 Linda Rudolph, MD, MPH linda.rudolph@phi.org 1
  • 2. 2 “Climate change is the defining health challenge of our time.” Margaret Chan, World Health Organization “Climate change threatens our fragile existence on this planet.” Jim Kim, World Bank "Social injustice is killing people on a grand scale.” WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, 2008
  • 3. 3 Living Conditions: Physical, Social, Economic, Services Environments
  • 4. 4 Adapted from Bay Area Regional Health Inequities Initiative Adapted from Patz et.al. 2000 EnvHlthPersp
  • 6. Warming 6 Global Climate Impacts Hydrologic Variability Ocean Acidification Sea Level Rise Glacier & Snowpack Loss
  • 7. 7 Local Climate Impacts WildfiresDrought Decreased Snowpack http://c-change.la/temperature/Extreme Heat Coastal Flooding Extreme Weather
  • 8. Environmental & Socioeconomic Intermediate Factors Resources ConflictEconomic Losses Declines in Crop Yield Vector Habitat Microbial & Toxics Contamination Water impacts
  • 9.  Extreme weather injuries, drownings, fatalities  Heat-related illnesses and deaths  Air pollution impacts – respiratory, cardiovascular  Allergic disease  Infectious disease  Water and food-borne disease  Vector-borne disease  Food insecurity and malnutrition  Water insecurity  Displacement, conflict, and migration  Stress and mental health impacts 9 Climate Health Impacts
  • 10. 10  Leading weather-related cause of death  Urban Heat Islands, chronic disease, work  Worsens air pollution Climate Health Impacts: Heat Wildfire Smoke Energy Use Pollen Urban Heat Islands Increased Ozone Levels Dust Deaths
  • 11. 11 Other Environmental Impacts Air Pollution Deforestation Topsoil Depletion Water Contamination Ocean Dead Zones Ecosystems Collapse
  • 12. Climate Change Vulnerability & Resilience 12
  • 15. 15 Health Co-Benefits or Co-Harms of Climate Interventions
  • 16.  Reduce  Greenhouse gases  Air pollution  Fuel poverty 16 • Reduce • Asthma • Respiratory disease • CVD • Adverse birth outcomes Clean Energy/Energy Efficiency Co-Benefits
  • 17. 17  Reductions  GHG emissions  Pesticide use  Synthetic fertilizer use  Food miles  Antibiotic use  Water pollution  Soil erosion  Biodiversity loss  Meat consumption  Unsustainable H2O consumption  Increases  Access affordable healthy food  Rural community strength  Agricultural land preservation  Reductions  Obesity  Cardiovascular disease  Cancer (breast, prostate, colorectal)  Type II Diabetes  Antibiotic resistance  Pesticide illness Sustainable Food Systems/Consumption Co-Benefits
  • 18. 18  Urban greening  Reduce heat illness risk  Places to be active  Healthy food access  Reduce storm water run-off & flooding risk  Replenish groundwater  Reduce crime  Decrease energy consumption  Lower energy costs  Reduce air pollution 18 Heat Resilience Co-Benefits
  • 19. ITHIM Preliminary Projections of Health Impacts of Increased Bicycling and Walking: 4 to 19 minutes of daily physical activity, SCAG Region 19 Change in disease burden Change in premature deaths/yr Cardiovascular Dis.* 12% 3,134 Diabetes 12% 374 Depression 3% <2 Dementia 6% 465 Breast cancer 3% 60 Colon Cancer 3% 75 Road traffic crashes 22% 315 * Ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertensive heart disease Active Transportation Co-Benefits
  • 21. Co-Harms 21 LCFS: Food Prices & Insecurity Market Mechanisms: Pollution in EJ Communities Groundwater Use: Subsidence TOD: Gentrification Green Jobs: Occupational Risks Job Loss
  • 23. 23
  • 24. 24
  • 25. Highest levels CO2 in at least 800,000 years 25
  • 26. The Costs of Inaction "We do not face a choice between protecting our environment or protecting our economy. We face a choice between protecting our economy by protecting our environment — or allowing environmental havoc to create economic havoc.” Former Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin 26
  • 27. IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report The window for action is rapidly closing 65% of our carbon budget compatible with a 2°C goal already used Amount Used 1870-2011: 515 GtC Amount Remaining: 275 GtC Total Carbon Budget: 790 GtC AR5 WGI SPM
  • 28. Climate Change is a Health Emergency.
  • 29. IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report The Choices We Make Will Create Different Outcomes With substantial mitigation Without additional mitigation Change in average surface temperature (1986–2005 to 2081–2100) AR5 WGI SPM
  • 30. The Choice is Ours 30
  • 31. Public Concern is Rising….. But…  Scientific consensus for climate change: 62%  Local government and states should act: 82%  Climate change a serious threat to California’s future and quality of life:  Latinos: 67%  African-Americans: 63%  Whites: 40%  Asians: 38%  Most have not yet connected the dots between global climate change and health impacts  Uncomfortable expressing opinions if think they differ from personal networks  Many confused, cognitive dissonance
  • 32. 32
  • 33. Health sector has a vital role  Health frame elicits support for climate action  Health co-benefits and community empowerment provide antidote to despair and helplessness  Health and equity opportunities are real and current  Health workers are trusted, credible messengers in community  Health works in and with vulnerable communities  Health voice has been critical – in partnership with community advocates  e.g. nuclear weapons, tobacco, HIV/AIDs 33
  • 34. What we can do? 34  Be a leader - talk to colleagues, communities, decision makers  Support local, state, and federal climate actions with health and equity co-benefits, eg EPA Clean Power Plant rules  Oppose expansion of fossil fuel extraction/production  Support clean, safe, renewable, energy  Support rapid acceleration/ funding for active transportation  Support funding and policies for sustainable ag & peri-urban ag  Advocate for green zones and just transition  Support building standards for climate resilience  Divest endowments and pension funds from fossil fuels  Advocate to end fossil fuel subsidies  Develop and implement urban heat island mitigation strategies  Support regulations of carbon, methane, ozone pollution  Make polluters pay e.g. carbon tax, nitrogen fertilizer tax
  • 35. CHEAP: Climate, Health, & Equity in All Policies  Integrate health & equity explicitly into climate change policies and programs  Integrate climate change reduction and resilience explicitly into health and CED policies & programs 35
  • 36. Build capacity  Provide venues and resources for peer support & TA  Support climate and health learning collaboratives 36
  • 37. Communications and Social Marketing  Research, develop, train, and deliver effective climate, health, and equity communications and social marketing campaign tools 37
  • 38. Promote and support greater cross- sectoral collaboration and alignment  Health-social justice-EJ-community economic development-climate change advocates  Local government-NGOs-CBOs 38