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Design guidelines for multi-display environments
in command and control centers
Simone Mora
Tangible Tabletops for
Response: An Explora
Abstract
Effective hand
emergency res
members co-lo
events while d
physical place
functions are f
recipients, sea
freeform areas
leaving others
mouse and ke
graspable solu
(TUIs), may b
CoTracker, a t
potential for E
expert team m
Andreas Kunz
ICVR, ETH Zurich
Ali Alavi
t2i interaction lab, Chalmers
ICVR, ETH Zurich
Jonas Landgren
Dept. of Applied IT, Chalmers
Asim Evren Yantaç
Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul
t2i interaction lab, Chalmers
Paweł Woźniak
t2i interaction lab, Chalmers
Zoltán Sárosi
INSPIRE, ICVR, Zurich
Morten Fjeld
INSPIRE, ICVR, Zurich
t2i interaction lab, Chalmers
.
.
Andreas Kunz
ICVR, ETH Zurich
Ali Alavi
t2i interaction lab, Chalmers
ICVR, ETH Zurich
Jonas Landgren
Dept. of Applied IT, Chalmers
Asim Evren Yanta
Yildiz Technical Uni
t2i interaction lab,
Paweł Woźniak
t2i interaction lab,
Zoltán Sárosi
INSPIRE, ICVR, Zu
Morten Fjeld
INSPIRE, ICVR, Zu
t2i interaction lab,
Figure 1. Collaboration in control
rooms has changed over the
decades, starting with early plotting
rooms featuring physical models
(top). During the 1990s, control
rooms were equipped with vertical
Dept. of Applie
Figure 1. Collaboration in control
rooms has changed over the
decades, starting with early plotting
rooms featuring physical models
(top). During the 1990s, control
rooms were equipped with vertical
and spatially distributed screens
(center). Now control rooms make
use of larger vertical displays
together with horizontal surfaces
(bottom).
Kunz, Andreas, et al. "Tangible tabletops for emergency response: an exploratory study." Proceedings of the
International Conference on Multimedia, Interaction, Design and Innovation. ACM, 2013.
TRIAL LECTURE - JUNE 1ST 2015
3
Picture: NASA, PHO-TR155: MCC Operational Configuration Picture: NASA/Aurich Lawson
4
SITUATIONAL AWARENESS & COMMAND
Outline
• The Apollo mission control room
• Role of Command and Control centers
• Methodology
• Design space
• Public - Personal
• Static - Dynamic
• Analog - Digital
• Physical - Virtual
• Mobile - Fixed
• Design guidelines
• Conclusions
5
• Bader, Thomas, Andreas Meissner, and Rolf Tscherney. "Digital map table
with Fovea-Tablett®: Smart furniture for emergency operation centers."
Proc. of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis
Response and Management ISCRAM. 2008.
• Chokshi, Apoorve, et al. "ePlan Multi-Surface: A Multi-Surface Environment
for Emergency Response Planning Exercises." Proceedings of the Ninth
ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces. ACM,
2014.
• Heath, Christian, and Paul Luff. "Collaboration and control Crisis
management and multimedia technology in London Underground Line
Control Rooms." Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 1.1-2
(1992): 69-94.
• Bowers, John, and David Martin. "Informing collaborative information
visualisation through an ethnography of ambulance control." ECSCW’99.
Springer Netherlands, 1999.
• MacKay, Wendy E. "Is paper safer? The role of paper flight strips in air
traffic control." ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)
6.4 (1999): 311-340.
• Kunz, Andreas, et al. "Tangible tabletops for emergency response: an
exploratory study." Proceedings of the International Conference on
Multimedia, Interaction, Design and Innovation. ACM, 2013.
• Doeweling, Sebastian, et al. "Support for collaborative situation analysis
and planning in crisis management teams using interactive tabletops."
Proceedings of the international conference on Interactive tabletops and
surfaces. ACM, 2013.
• Malcolm, S.; Harmon, D.L., "Advanced Control Room Design," Power and
Energy Magazine, IEEE , vol.4, no.6, pp.43,48, 2006
• Per Lundmark. “Control room ergonomics with the operator in focus for an
attractive collaborative environment.” ABB Technical document, 2014
• Müller, Jens, et al. "Back to tangibility: a post-WIMP perspective on control
room design." Proceedings of the International Working Conference on
Advanced Visual Interfaces. ACM, 2014.
• C. M. Mitchel et al., "Human factors aspects of control room design:
guidelines and annotated bibliography" NASA Technical Memorandum
84942, 1982
• Fischer, J. E., Reeves, S., Rodden, T., Reece, S., Ramchurn, S. D., &
Jones, D. Building a Birds Eye View: Collaborative Work in Disaster
Response. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in
Computing Systems. 2015
• Nacenta, Miguel A., et al. "E-conic: a perspective-aware interface for multi-
display environments." Proceedings of the symposium on User interface
software and technology. ACM, 2007.
• Letondal, Catherine, et al. "Flights in my hands: coherence concerns in
designing Strip'TIC, a tangible space for air traffic controllers." Proceedings
of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM,
2013.
• Erica Härefors. Use of large screen displays in nuclear control room.
Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet UTH-enheten. 2008
• Chokshi, Apoorve, et al. "ePlan Multi-Surface: A Multi-Surface Environment
for Emergency Response Planning Exercises." Proceedings of the
International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces. ACM,
2014.
6
Bibliography
7
Public
displays
Personal
displays
PUBLIC
PERSONAL
Group
displays
DISPLAY
8
DYNAMIC STATIC
DYNAMIC
STATIC
SEMI-DYNAMIC
STATIC
STATIC
DISPLAY
9
Photo: nationalgrid75.com
UK Nuclear power plant CR (1950s) Massachusetts Bay
Transportation Authority CR (2010s)
Photo: MBTA
ANALOG
PHYSICAL
DIGITAL
VIRTUALDISPLAY
10
FIXEDMOBILE
DISPLAY
11
Design dimensions for displays in control rooms
PUBLIC - PRIVATE
MOBILE - FIXED
STATIC - DYNAMIC
ANALOG - DIGITAL
PHYSICAL - VIRTUAL
Outline
• The Apollo mission control room
• Role of Command and Control centers
• Design space
• Design guidelines
• Balance information on multiple displays
• Design for ecologies
• Leverage the constraints
• Avoid information overload
• Design for tangible displays
• Augment static displays
• Introduce incremental changes
• Conclusions
12
13
Balance information on public,
private and group displays
Photo:
forbes.com
Figure 1. The coMAP system running on a Samsung SUR40
with Microsoft Pixelsense tabletop
CT
nagement requires the collaboration of a variety of
ith different roles, often across organizational
s. It has been shown that geographic information
an improve the efficiency of disaster management
s. However, workstation-based solutions fail to
same ease of collaboration as the large analog
rently in use. Recent research prototypes, which
active tabletops for this purpose, often do not
ndividual roles and the need for accountability of
n this paper, we present coMAP, a system built for
e tabletops that facilitates collaborative situation
and planning in crisis management teams. Users
ct with coMAP using multi-touch as well as pen
e latter is realized by new methods for the use of
gital pens without the Anoto microdot pattern. A
mized pie menu provides access to role-specific
on and system functions. A combination of role-
ess control and indoor tracking via Bluetooth is
upport accountability of actions while still allow-
boration and information sharing. Initial user
on our system, collected in two focus group
shows promising trends.
eywords
Management; Collaboration; Interactive Tabletops
ssification Keywords
up and Organization Interfaces: Computer-
Red Cross). When a crisis situation occurs, experienced
members of these organizations gather in one place and
form a crisis management team (CMT), typically in a
specific command and control room. These people collabo-
rate as required for situation assessment and planning of the
necessary measures to address the crisis.
As geospatial information plays a crucial role in crises
response scenarios, one of the central artifacts for collabo-
ration in the CMT is a large (analog) map with pins and
paper-symbols representing the current understanding of the
situation in the field. While easy to use and effective for
Photo: ACM
PUBLIC GROUP PERSONAL
14
284 J. Geisler et al.
While tracking server and application server are connected by a wired LAN, the FTs
and the application server communicate wirelessly, actually via Bluetooth. Bluetooth
has been selected, because we decided for the current experimental system to run the
application software not only on the server but also on the FTs (see, chapter 2.3).
Therefore only position and orientation have to be transmitted for which a small
bandwidth is sufficient. In the future the communication will move to wireless LAN.
application server tracking server
tracking camera
camera signal
FT ID, position
and rotation
application data
FT
overview
table
Fig. 7. System architecture of the digital map table
For reference calculation between work table and FTs the MC-MXT tracker must
be calibrated. During the calibration process the coordinate transformation between
the tracking camera images, which are the input for the MC-MXT tracker, and the
viewer of the work table is calculated. In a first step, that has to be carried out only
once for the whole table arrangement, the camera image gets referenced to the
overview table. Therefore an calibration image with four defined cross points is
projected onto the table. Each cross point is identified by its own colour. Four special
MC-MXT calibration markers, only used within the calibration process, are marked
with the same colors and laid on the projected cross points. So the camera »knows«
the size of the overview table and the size of the markers. The second step has to be
carried out for every Fovea-Tablett separately. For an FT calibration two images of
the FT with the fixed identity marker are taken, whereby the FT has to be positioned
on two defined regions of the work table. These regions are also indicated by the
calibration image.
2.3 Interaction
interaction techniques and a flexible software infrastructure which enables easy integration
information sources and interaction devices.
Figure 4: Team working on Digital Map Table with Fovea-Tablett
Proceedings of the 5th
International ISCRAM Conference – Washington, DC, U
F. Fiedrich and B. Van de Walle, eds.
Bader, Thomas, Andreas Meissner, and Rolf Tscherney.
"Digital map table with Fovea-Tablett®: Smart furniture
for emergency operation centers." Proc. of the 5th
International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis
Response and Management ISCRAM. 2008.
Design for ecologies of displays
and “layers of seeing”
15
Figure 3 - An overview of ePlan MultiSurface. (a) Highlighting the ePlan Multi-Surface environment, with different roles
collaborating in an emergency scenario (green represents EMS, red represents fire, blue represents police and orange represent
HAZMAT). (b) The wall display application and it’s different components. (c) The tabletop application. (d) An iPad running in
A
B
C D
4
A
B
C D
1
2
5
6
7
83 4
Figure 3 - An overview of ePlan MultiSurface. (a) Highlighting the ePlan Multi-Surface environment, with different ro
A
C D
Figure 3 - An overview of ePlan MultiSurface. (a) Highlighting the ePlan Multi-Surface environment, with different roles
collaborating in an emergency scenario (green represents EMS, red represents fire, blue represents police and orange represe
A
C D
Chokshi, Apoorve, et al. "ePlan Multi-Surface: A Multi-Surface
Environment for Emergency Response Planning Exercises."
Proceedings of the Ninth ACM International Conference on
Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces. ACM, 2014.
16
Leverage the constraints of
displays
Photo: The Wall Street Journal
17
18
Each person is an implicit
information display
19
The technology in the control room
The Bakerloo Line, London Underground is currently undergoing extensive
modernisation. By 1991 signalling will be fully computerised and monitored from
the Line Control Room at Baker Street. At the present time, the Bakerloo Line
Control Room houses the Line Controller, who coordinates the day to day running
of the railway and the Divisional Information Assistant (DIA) whose
responsibilities include providing information to passengers through a public
address (PA) system and communicating with station managers. Figure 1 shows
the general layout of the Control Room.
I
Line Controller's
position

Signalmens'desk '  L lnot yet in use DIA's position .->
=-
r1 "
Fixed Line Diagrarr
Fig. 1. The Bakerloo Line Control Room
The Controller and DIA sit together at a semicircular console which faces a tiled,
real time, hard line display which runs nearly the entire length of the room and
shows traffic movement along the Bakerloo Line (from the Elephant and Castle to
Queens Park). The console includes touch screen telephones, a radio system for
contact with drivers, the PA control keys, and close circuit television (CCTV)
monitors and controls for viewing platforms (see Figure 2). Occasionally a trainee
Heath, Christian, and Paul Luff. "Collaboration and control Crisis management and multimedia technology in
London Underground Line Control Rooms." Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 1.1-2 (1992): 69-94.
Photo: trainweb.org
20
Avoid information overload
21
Bowers, John, and David Martin. "Informing collaborative information visualisation through an ethnography of
ambulance control." ECSCW’99. Springer Netherlands, 1999.
and identify potential problems of cover. (The detail of the VAM is shown in Figure 3 with the colour
highlighting given a greyscale approximation.)
Figure 3: The Vehicle Availability Map (VAM) which lists ambulances by regions. Ambulances active on
emergencies are here shown with their IDs against a black background. Ambulances on urgent calls are shown
against a grey background. Ambulances on standby are shown 'flashing'. Available ambulances are just depicted
by their ID. See main text for further explanation.
Contingencies
Although often the ambulance suggested on the Dispatch Selection screen (the nearest available one) is chosen,
there are multiple varying contingencies that must be considered in the on-going flow of work. Each dispatch
decision is in the context of various previous decisions and in turn will influence others. In addition to proximity
and availability and a consideration of implications for cover, the kinds of contingencies which must be
22
large monitor clock
large monitor television
screen
automatic vehicle
location system (AVLS)
whiteboard
DISPATCHERS
SUPERVISORS
terafix screen
extra CO
position
tape recorder
monitoring screen
database
screen
cupboard
tape
recorder
printer
figures screen
S T A I R S
extra
supervisor
position
extra CO position
CONTROL MANAGER
control
manager's PC
windows are located
all down this wall
CALL OPERATORS
clock
CORRIDOR
main
entrance
side entrance
see figure 2
Figure 1: Plan view of the ambulance control room (most of the technologies noted in the figure are discussed in
the main text).
ashes this indicates that the ambulance is on standby, placed at a designated location between two or more
ations to provide emergency cover for not only its home station but another nearby that is low or without
over. Thus, the Dispatchers and Supervisors can see at a glance what the general configuration for the region is
nd identify potential problems of cover. (The detail of the VAM is shown in Figure 3 with the colour
ghlighting given a greyscale approximation.)
Figure 3: The Vehicle Availability Map (VAM) which lists ambulances by regions. Ambulances active on
emergencies are here shown with their IDs against a black background. Ambulances on urgent calls are shown
gainst a grey background. Ambulances on standby are shown 'flashing'. Available ambulances are just depicted
by their ID. See main text for further explanation.
Contingencies
lthough often the ambulance suggested on the Dispatch Selection screen (the nearest available one) is chosen,
ere are multiple varying contingencies that must be considered in the on-going flow of work. Each dispatch
ecision is in the context of various previous decisions and in turn will influence others. In addition to proximity
nd availability and a consideration of implications for cover, the kinds of contingencies which must be
ckoned with from time to time include:
• Are the crew due a meal-break?
• When does the crew's shift end? When will a new crew's shift begin?
• Have the crew just dealt with one or more harrowing incidents?
• Does the ambulance have the right equipment for the incident?
• Is the nearest (as the crow flies) ambulance on the fastest route?
• Are there road works, traffic problems etc. on a particular route?
• Which side of the motorway is a particular accident on?
• How serious is the incident?
th FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com
Bowers, John, and David Martin.
"Informing collaborative information
visualisation through an
ethnography of ambulance control."
ECSCW’99. Springer Netherlands,
1999.
23
Design for tangible displays
Tangible Tabletops for Emerge
Response: An Exploratory Stu
Abstract
Effective handling of location-bas
emergency response manageme
members co-located around map
events while drawing freeform ar
physical placeholders representin
functions are filtering data, selec
recipients, searching datasets, d
freeform areas, and zooming in o
leaving others unchanged. Under
mouse and keyboard could be in
graspable solutions, such as tang
(TUIs), may be better suited for
CoTracker, a tangible tabletop sy
potential for ERM teamwork. On
expert team members can discus
Andreas Kunz
ICVR, ETH Zurich
Ali Alavi
t2i interaction lab, Chalmers
ICVR, ETH Zurich
Jonas Landgren
Dept. of Applied IT, Chalmers
Asim Evren Yantaç
Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul
t2i interaction lab, Chalmers
Paweł Woźniak
t2i interaction lab, Chalmers
Zoltán Sárosi
INSPIRE, ICVR, Zurich
Morten Fjeld
INSPIRE, ICVR, Zurich
t2i interaction lab, Chalmers
Andreas Kunz
ICVR, ETH Zurich
Ali Alavi
t2i interaction lab, Chalmers
ICVR, ETH Zurich
Jonas Landgren
Dept. of Applied IT, Chalmers
Asi
Yild
t2i
Paw
t2i
Zol
INS
Mo
INS
t2i
Figure 1. Collaboration in control
Figure 1. Collaboration in control
rooms has changed over the
decades, starting with early plotting
rooms featuring physical models
(top). During the 1990s, control
rooms were equipped with vertical
and spatially distributed screens
(center). Now control rooms make
Kunz, Andreas, et al. "Tangible tabletops
for emergency response: an exploratory
study." Proceedings of the International
Conference on Multimedia, Interaction,
Design and Innovation. ACM, 2013.
24
Figure 1. The coMAP system running on a Samsung SUR40
Doeweling, Sebastian, et al. "Support for
collaborative situation analysis and
planning in crisis management teams
using interactive tabletops." Proceedings
of the 2013 ACM international
conference on Interactive tabletops and
surfaces. ACM, 2013.
Figure 2. Tangible tools examined
here (top to bottom): pen, block,
and frame
25
Figure 4: Tangible-object manipulation: the rotatory control
(top) and the slider control (bottom) element. Level indicators
are in passive mode (left) until the tangible is detected (right).
An example of tangible control elements on interactive tabletop
ems is presented by Weiss et al. [13] who introduce “Silicon
minated Purpose” (SLAP) Widgets. The widget set consists of
tipurpose tangibles including a slider element. In an empirical
dy the physical widgets were tested against respective direct-
ch concepts. Physical control elements outperformed the
ual control elements regarding accuracy and overall
raction time. “Madgets” [14], a continuation of the passive
AP widget set, can actively synchronize with the system’s state
thereby avoid inconsistencies.
Hennecke et al. [2] investigated several adhesion techniques
materials to place tangibles on vertical displays. The
hniques were considered under design criteria typical to
ractive displays, such as the support of several tracking
hnologies or reusability of the tangible. As a result, applying
uum-based adhesion turned out to be the best solution.
OPERATING CONCEPTS
The presented post-WIMP concepts for the manipulation of
cess variables were designed under the tradeoff consideration
uggested by Jacob et al. [5]. In order to investigate the effects
he tradeoff decisions, operating concepts were designed for
input modalities with different power and reality proportions:
ngible-object and a direct-touch concept. As common actuator
For the rotatory control concept (Figure 4, top) the digital level
indicator appears in a concentric circle around the contact area.
The shape of the level indicator corresponds to a bent triangle,
which emphasizes the direction code. In the sense of readability
Müller, Jens, et al. "Back to tangibility: a post-WIMP
perspective on control room design." Proceedings of the
2014 International Working Conference on Advanced
Visual Interfaces. ACM, 2014.
field enabled us to extend our understanding of the
requirements for interactive artifacts in an ERM
environment. 2) Based on one of the authors’ (of this
paper) extensive ethnographic research on IT use in the
domain of crisis management, user needs and design
considerations could be formulated and mapped to
findings in previous field studies [3,11]. 3) In addition,
an expert group was formed, consisting of crisis
management specialists and fire fighters from the local
municipality, to explore possibilities and insights related
to the specific class of technological capabilities.
Furthermore, the exploratory nature of our work meant
that we were to preliminarily evaluate ideas and
eliminate potential culs-de-sac. Overall, we were
guided by the need to provide the means for rapid
coordination of multiple resources within a temporal
dimension. We aimed to make the interaction intuitive
enough to move the focus from the planning table to
the actual units in the field and effectively utilizing the
knowledge of the experts.
CoTracker enables following the course of actions in a
S
sp
b
a
b
co
Im
T
th
a
p
E
e
e
th
co
p
b
in
fi
re
a
Image03
Figure 3 (top to bottom): The
Kunz, Andreas, et al. "Tangible tabletops for emergency
response: an exploratory study." Proceedings of the
International Conference on Multimedia, Interaction,
Design and Innovation. ACM, 2013.
26
Augment static displays rather
than virtualise
27
MacKay, Wendy E. "Is paper safer? The role of paper flight strips in air traffic control."
ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 6.4 (1999): 311-340.
ciologists, a different group of social scientists, are more interested in
social and historical context of the work. Harper et al. [1991] and
Three controllers working collaboratively at west sector UX in Athis Mons. Behind
two controllers are working at the adjacent sector.
currently controlled by that position; when the light flashes, it indicates not
only that a pilot is speaking, but also on which frequency and sector.
Controllers glance at the quantity of strips and corresponding level of
annotations to get a sense of the traffic. For example, during a storm or
Fig. 6. Two controllers simultaneously annotating two different flight strips (Athis Mons).
Is Paper Safer? The Role of Paper Flight Strips in Air Traffic Control • 327
28
Photo: simsoft-atc.com
29
FORUM LET'S GET PHYSICAL
must give an interception heading
clearance to another aircraft to let it
rejoin the landing pattern. As a physical
reminder, she holds the EZY4262 strip
in her left hand so she won’t forget to
send it to the tower controller.
Augmented strips as a mix of
virtual and physical media. The
system provides a hybrid artifact, in
which paper and digital media are
identical and have equal importance.
When one controller holds a paper
strip, the other controllers can use
the digital pen to interact with its
virtual twin: They can write on it or
move it by dragging on its border.
When repositioning the paper strip
on the board, the virtual strip is
aligned under it. The then obscured
handwritten notes of the virtual
strip are projected onto the paper
strip. The system lets the controller
extend the physical strip virtually.
Thirty minutes later, the traffic gets
quite intense, so Tessa’s sector needs to be
split up. Two colleagues are on standby
in the control room. Tessa initiates the
degrouping mode in the system. She
decides to hand off the area around the
spatial arrangements of strips help
(Top) A controller collaboratively optimizes an arrival sequence, using a paper strip, numeric pen,
and projected information. (Bottom) Free-hand writing and drawings convey key information.
strip. The system acknowledges this
of this “window management” activity.
Figure 13: tangible strips (b) acting as controls and as
containers for augmented data (a) and as representations and
tokens for cognitive elements (c).
Implications for allocation of physical and virtual components
This analysis sheds light on our choices of allocation. As
we described in the previous section, physical objects and
associated manipulations have their inner coherence. So, as
long as physical objects are able to provide the controller
with external representations of their concerns, there is no
need to overload them with additional explicit information.
As described in the previous section, physical and spatial
tools provide a sufficient encoding of objective time, orders
and internal clock. By contrast, augmented data (Figure
13a) are needed to provide real-time perception and
dynamic information on the current state of flights. Our
analysis also helps to understand potential complexity
issues, where the physical manipulations, such as tangible
computation of stack exit times, did not exactly correspond
to current practices, i.e., at least for some controllers, to
externalizations on which they rely today.
A seamless and understandable interactive space
Complexity is also dealt with through the properties and the
behavior of the components. Several of our observations
and projected data. 2) merged displays: projected data
cannot occlude printed information and vice versa, which
adds to this seamless combination of tangible and virtual
dimensions. Finally, coherence in Strip’TIC does not
assume a constant coupling between physical and virtual
components: disrupting strip tracking by removing a strip
from the board does not prevent continuous use of the
system, and most importantly, disrupting Anoto does not
break the system either, since handwriting still works.
CONCLUSION
The Strip’TIC system provides us with the ability to
explore mixed interaction in a context where physical
interactions are effective and secure. Throughout our design
reflections, we have seen that unlike usual TUI approaches,
which rely on mapping and coupling of physical objects to
virtual objects, coherence in Strip’TIC is based on other
aspects. First, it relies on the mapping of virtual to physical
objects that play a primary role as externalization of
controllers internal concerns. Second, coherence
consequently relies on a seamless connection of cognitive
and tangible spaces that help the users to build a physical
and virtual image of the situation. Third, the properties of
the interactive space components and continuous feedback
help users understand the mixed behavior of the system.
Thus, compared to existing TUI models, our approach is
complementary: we include the understanding and
integration of artefact cognitive mechanisms as part of our
design choices. Future work involves exploring issues about
how augmented data may support externalization too, since
this matter seems to be overlooked in current research. We
also plan to investigate further about multitouch gestures
combined with handwriting and pen-based interaction.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank the air traffic controllers for their participation to
the workshops, M. Cordeil for his help on coding and C.
Savery and R. Moreau for the work on the video.
REFERENCES
Letondal, Catherine, et al. "Flights in my hands: coherence concerns in designing Strip'TIC, a tangible space for air traffic controllers."
Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, 2013.
30
Aim at incremental changes in
design
Conclusions
• Balance information on public, private and group displays
• Design for ecologies of displays and “layers of seeing”
• Leverage the constraints of displays
• Each person is an implicit information display
• Avoid information overload
• Design for tangible displays
• Augment static displays rather than virtualise
• Aim at incremental changes in design
31
Thanks!
Simone Mora

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PhD Trial Lecture: Design guidelines for multi-display environments in command and control centers

  • 1. Design guidelines for multi-display environments in command and control centers Simone Mora Tangible Tabletops for Response: An Explora Abstract Effective hand emergency res members co-lo events while d physical place functions are f recipients, sea freeform areas leaving others mouse and ke graspable solu (TUIs), may b CoTracker, a t potential for E expert team m Andreas Kunz ICVR, ETH Zurich Ali Alavi t2i interaction lab, Chalmers ICVR, ETH Zurich Jonas Landgren Dept. of Applied IT, Chalmers Asim Evren Yantaç Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul t2i interaction lab, Chalmers Paweł Woźniak t2i interaction lab, Chalmers Zoltán Sárosi INSPIRE, ICVR, Zurich Morten Fjeld INSPIRE, ICVR, Zurich t2i interaction lab, Chalmers . . Andreas Kunz ICVR, ETH Zurich Ali Alavi t2i interaction lab, Chalmers ICVR, ETH Zurich Jonas Landgren Dept. of Applied IT, Chalmers Asim Evren Yanta Yildiz Technical Uni t2i interaction lab, Paweł Woźniak t2i interaction lab, Zoltán Sárosi INSPIRE, ICVR, Zu Morten Fjeld INSPIRE, ICVR, Zu t2i interaction lab, Figure 1. Collaboration in control rooms has changed over the decades, starting with early plotting rooms featuring physical models (top). During the 1990s, control rooms were equipped with vertical Dept. of Applie Figure 1. Collaboration in control rooms has changed over the decades, starting with early plotting rooms featuring physical models (top). During the 1990s, control rooms were equipped with vertical and spatially distributed screens (center). Now control rooms make use of larger vertical displays together with horizontal surfaces (bottom). Kunz, Andreas, et al. "Tangible tabletops for emergency response: an exploratory study." Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia, Interaction, Design and Innovation. ACM, 2013. TRIAL LECTURE - JUNE 1ST 2015
  • 2. 3 Picture: NASA, PHO-TR155: MCC Operational Configuration Picture: NASA/Aurich Lawson
  • 4. Outline • The Apollo mission control room • Role of Command and Control centers • Methodology • Design space • Public - Personal • Static - Dynamic • Analog - Digital • Physical - Virtual • Mobile - Fixed • Design guidelines • Conclusions 5
  • 5. • Bader, Thomas, Andreas Meissner, and Rolf Tscherney. "Digital map table with Fovea-Tablett®: Smart furniture for emergency operation centers." Proc. of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management ISCRAM. 2008. • Chokshi, Apoorve, et al. "ePlan Multi-Surface: A Multi-Surface Environment for Emergency Response Planning Exercises." Proceedings of the Ninth ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces. ACM, 2014. • Heath, Christian, and Paul Luff. "Collaboration and control Crisis management and multimedia technology in London Underground Line Control Rooms." Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 1.1-2 (1992): 69-94. • Bowers, John, and David Martin. "Informing collaborative information visualisation through an ethnography of ambulance control." ECSCW’99. Springer Netherlands, 1999. • MacKay, Wendy E. "Is paper safer? The role of paper flight strips in air traffic control." ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 6.4 (1999): 311-340. • Kunz, Andreas, et al. "Tangible tabletops for emergency response: an exploratory study." Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia, Interaction, Design and Innovation. ACM, 2013. • Doeweling, Sebastian, et al. "Support for collaborative situation analysis and planning in crisis management teams using interactive tabletops." Proceedings of the international conference on Interactive tabletops and surfaces. ACM, 2013. • Malcolm, S.; Harmon, D.L., "Advanced Control Room Design," Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE , vol.4, no.6, pp.43,48, 2006 • Per Lundmark. “Control room ergonomics with the operator in focus for an attractive collaborative environment.” ABB Technical document, 2014 • Müller, Jens, et al. "Back to tangibility: a post-WIMP perspective on control room design." Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. ACM, 2014. • C. M. Mitchel et al., "Human factors aspects of control room design: guidelines and annotated bibliography" NASA Technical Memorandum 84942, 1982 • Fischer, J. E., Reeves, S., Rodden, T., Reece, S., Ramchurn, S. D., & Jones, D. Building a Birds Eye View: Collaborative Work in Disaster Response. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 2015 • Nacenta, Miguel A., et al. "E-conic: a perspective-aware interface for multi- display environments." Proceedings of the symposium on User interface software and technology. ACM, 2007. • Letondal, Catherine, et al. "Flights in my hands: coherence concerns in designing Strip'TIC, a tangible space for air traffic controllers." Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, 2013. • Erica Härefors. Use of large screen displays in nuclear control room. Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet UTH-enheten. 2008 • Chokshi, Apoorve, et al. "ePlan Multi-Surface: A Multi-Surface Environment for Emergency Response Planning Exercises." Proceedings of the International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces. ACM, 2014. 6 Bibliography
  • 8. 9 Photo: nationalgrid75.com UK Nuclear power plant CR (1950s) Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority CR (2010s) Photo: MBTA ANALOG PHYSICAL DIGITAL VIRTUALDISPLAY
  • 10. 11 Design dimensions for displays in control rooms PUBLIC - PRIVATE MOBILE - FIXED STATIC - DYNAMIC ANALOG - DIGITAL PHYSICAL - VIRTUAL
  • 11. Outline • The Apollo mission control room • Role of Command and Control centers • Design space • Design guidelines • Balance information on multiple displays • Design for ecologies • Leverage the constraints • Avoid information overload • Design for tangible displays • Augment static displays • Introduce incremental changes • Conclusions 12
  • 12. 13 Balance information on public, private and group displays Photo: forbes.com Figure 1. The coMAP system running on a Samsung SUR40 with Microsoft Pixelsense tabletop CT nagement requires the collaboration of a variety of ith different roles, often across organizational s. It has been shown that geographic information an improve the efficiency of disaster management s. However, workstation-based solutions fail to same ease of collaboration as the large analog rently in use. Recent research prototypes, which active tabletops for this purpose, often do not ndividual roles and the need for accountability of n this paper, we present coMAP, a system built for e tabletops that facilitates collaborative situation and planning in crisis management teams. Users ct with coMAP using multi-touch as well as pen e latter is realized by new methods for the use of gital pens without the Anoto microdot pattern. A mized pie menu provides access to role-specific on and system functions. A combination of role- ess control and indoor tracking via Bluetooth is upport accountability of actions while still allow- boration and information sharing. Initial user on our system, collected in two focus group shows promising trends. eywords Management; Collaboration; Interactive Tabletops ssification Keywords up and Organization Interfaces: Computer- Red Cross). When a crisis situation occurs, experienced members of these organizations gather in one place and form a crisis management team (CMT), typically in a specific command and control room. These people collabo- rate as required for situation assessment and planning of the necessary measures to address the crisis. As geospatial information plays a crucial role in crises response scenarios, one of the central artifacts for collabo- ration in the CMT is a large (analog) map with pins and paper-symbols representing the current understanding of the situation in the field. While easy to use and effective for Photo: ACM PUBLIC GROUP PERSONAL
  • 13. 14 284 J. Geisler et al. While tracking server and application server are connected by a wired LAN, the FTs and the application server communicate wirelessly, actually via Bluetooth. Bluetooth has been selected, because we decided for the current experimental system to run the application software not only on the server but also on the FTs (see, chapter 2.3). Therefore only position and orientation have to be transmitted for which a small bandwidth is sufficient. In the future the communication will move to wireless LAN. application server tracking server tracking camera camera signal FT ID, position and rotation application data FT overview table Fig. 7. System architecture of the digital map table For reference calculation between work table and FTs the MC-MXT tracker must be calibrated. During the calibration process the coordinate transformation between the tracking camera images, which are the input for the MC-MXT tracker, and the viewer of the work table is calculated. In a first step, that has to be carried out only once for the whole table arrangement, the camera image gets referenced to the overview table. Therefore an calibration image with four defined cross points is projected onto the table. Each cross point is identified by its own colour. Four special MC-MXT calibration markers, only used within the calibration process, are marked with the same colors and laid on the projected cross points. So the camera »knows« the size of the overview table and the size of the markers. The second step has to be carried out for every Fovea-Tablett separately. For an FT calibration two images of the FT with the fixed identity marker are taken, whereby the FT has to be positioned on two defined regions of the work table. These regions are also indicated by the calibration image. 2.3 Interaction interaction techniques and a flexible software infrastructure which enables easy integration information sources and interaction devices. Figure 4: Team working on Digital Map Table with Fovea-Tablett Proceedings of the 5th International ISCRAM Conference – Washington, DC, U F. Fiedrich and B. Van de Walle, eds. Bader, Thomas, Andreas Meissner, and Rolf Tscherney. "Digital map table with Fovea-Tablett®: Smart furniture for emergency operation centers." Proc. of the 5th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management ISCRAM. 2008. Design for ecologies of displays and “layers of seeing”
  • 14. 15 Figure 3 - An overview of ePlan MultiSurface. (a) Highlighting the ePlan Multi-Surface environment, with different roles collaborating in an emergency scenario (green represents EMS, red represents fire, blue represents police and orange represent HAZMAT). (b) The wall display application and it’s different components. (c) The tabletop application. (d) An iPad running in A B C D 4 A B C D 1 2 5 6 7 83 4 Figure 3 - An overview of ePlan MultiSurface. (a) Highlighting the ePlan Multi-Surface environment, with different ro A C D Figure 3 - An overview of ePlan MultiSurface. (a) Highlighting the ePlan Multi-Surface environment, with different roles collaborating in an emergency scenario (green represents EMS, red represents fire, blue represents police and orange represe A C D Chokshi, Apoorve, et al. "ePlan Multi-Surface: A Multi-Surface Environment for Emergency Response Planning Exercises." Proceedings of the Ninth ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces. ACM, 2014.
  • 16. Photo: The Wall Street Journal 17
  • 17. 18 Each person is an implicit information display
  • 18. 19 The technology in the control room The Bakerloo Line, London Underground is currently undergoing extensive modernisation. By 1991 signalling will be fully computerised and monitored from the Line Control Room at Baker Street. At the present time, the Bakerloo Line Control Room houses the Line Controller, who coordinates the day to day running of the railway and the Divisional Information Assistant (DIA) whose responsibilities include providing information to passengers through a public address (PA) system and communicating with station managers. Figure 1 shows the general layout of the Control Room. I Line Controller's position Signalmens'desk ' L lnot yet in use DIA's position .-> =- r1 " Fixed Line Diagrarr Fig. 1. The Bakerloo Line Control Room The Controller and DIA sit together at a semicircular console which faces a tiled, real time, hard line display which runs nearly the entire length of the room and shows traffic movement along the Bakerloo Line (from the Elephant and Castle to Queens Park). The console includes touch screen telephones, a radio system for contact with drivers, the PA control keys, and close circuit television (CCTV) monitors and controls for viewing platforms (see Figure 2). Occasionally a trainee Heath, Christian, and Paul Luff. "Collaboration and control Crisis management and multimedia technology in London Underground Line Control Rooms." Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 1.1-2 (1992): 69-94. Photo: trainweb.org
  • 20. 21 Bowers, John, and David Martin. "Informing collaborative information visualisation through an ethnography of ambulance control." ECSCW’99. Springer Netherlands, 1999. and identify potential problems of cover. (The detail of the VAM is shown in Figure 3 with the colour highlighting given a greyscale approximation.) Figure 3: The Vehicle Availability Map (VAM) which lists ambulances by regions. Ambulances active on emergencies are here shown with their IDs against a black background. Ambulances on urgent calls are shown against a grey background. Ambulances on standby are shown 'flashing'. Available ambulances are just depicted by their ID. See main text for further explanation. Contingencies Although often the ambulance suggested on the Dispatch Selection screen (the nearest available one) is chosen, there are multiple varying contingencies that must be considered in the on-going flow of work. Each dispatch decision is in the context of various previous decisions and in turn will influence others. In addition to proximity and availability and a consideration of implications for cover, the kinds of contingencies which must be
  • 21. 22 large monitor clock large monitor television screen automatic vehicle location system (AVLS) whiteboard DISPATCHERS SUPERVISORS terafix screen extra CO position tape recorder monitoring screen database screen cupboard tape recorder printer figures screen S T A I R S extra supervisor position extra CO position CONTROL MANAGER control manager's PC windows are located all down this wall CALL OPERATORS clock CORRIDOR main entrance side entrance see figure 2 Figure 1: Plan view of the ambulance control room (most of the technologies noted in the figure are discussed in the main text). ashes this indicates that the ambulance is on standby, placed at a designated location between two or more ations to provide emergency cover for not only its home station but another nearby that is low or without over. Thus, the Dispatchers and Supervisors can see at a glance what the general configuration for the region is nd identify potential problems of cover. (The detail of the VAM is shown in Figure 3 with the colour ghlighting given a greyscale approximation.) Figure 3: The Vehicle Availability Map (VAM) which lists ambulances by regions. Ambulances active on emergencies are here shown with their IDs against a black background. Ambulances on urgent calls are shown gainst a grey background. Ambulances on standby are shown 'flashing'. Available ambulances are just depicted by their ID. See main text for further explanation. Contingencies lthough often the ambulance suggested on the Dispatch Selection screen (the nearest available one) is chosen, ere are multiple varying contingencies that must be considered in the on-going flow of work. Each dispatch ecision is in the context of various previous decisions and in turn will influence others. In addition to proximity nd availability and a consideration of implications for cover, the kinds of contingencies which must be ckoned with from time to time include: • Are the crew due a meal-break? • When does the crew's shift end? When will a new crew's shift begin? • Have the crew just dealt with one or more harrowing incidents? • Does the ambulance have the right equipment for the incident? • Is the nearest (as the crow flies) ambulance on the fastest route? • Are there road works, traffic problems etc. on a particular route? • Which side of the motorway is a particular accident on? • How serious is the incident? th FinePrint pdfFactory trial version http://www.fineprint.com Bowers, John, and David Martin. "Informing collaborative information visualisation through an ethnography of ambulance control." ECSCW’99. Springer Netherlands, 1999.
  • 22. 23 Design for tangible displays Tangible Tabletops for Emerge Response: An Exploratory Stu Abstract Effective handling of location-bas emergency response manageme members co-located around map events while drawing freeform ar physical placeholders representin functions are filtering data, selec recipients, searching datasets, d freeform areas, and zooming in o leaving others unchanged. Under mouse and keyboard could be in graspable solutions, such as tang (TUIs), may be better suited for CoTracker, a tangible tabletop sy potential for ERM teamwork. On expert team members can discus Andreas Kunz ICVR, ETH Zurich Ali Alavi t2i interaction lab, Chalmers ICVR, ETH Zurich Jonas Landgren Dept. of Applied IT, Chalmers Asim Evren Yantaç Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul t2i interaction lab, Chalmers Paweł Woźniak t2i interaction lab, Chalmers Zoltán Sárosi INSPIRE, ICVR, Zurich Morten Fjeld INSPIRE, ICVR, Zurich t2i interaction lab, Chalmers Andreas Kunz ICVR, ETH Zurich Ali Alavi t2i interaction lab, Chalmers ICVR, ETH Zurich Jonas Landgren Dept. of Applied IT, Chalmers Asi Yild t2i Paw t2i Zol INS Mo INS t2i Figure 1. Collaboration in control Figure 1. Collaboration in control rooms has changed over the decades, starting with early plotting rooms featuring physical models (top). During the 1990s, control rooms were equipped with vertical and spatially distributed screens (center). Now control rooms make Kunz, Andreas, et al. "Tangible tabletops for emergency response: an exploratory study." Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia, Interaction, Design and Innovation. ACM, 2013.
  • 23. 24 Figure 1. The coMAP system running on a Samsung SUR40 Doeweling, Sebastian, et al. "Support for collaborative situation analysis and planning in crisis management teams using interactive tabletops." Proceedings of the 2013 ACM international conference on Interactive tabletops and surfaces. ACM, 2013. Figure 2. Tangible tools examined here (top to bottom): pen, block, and frame
  • 24. 25 Figure 4: Tangible-object manipulation: the rotatory control (top) and the slider control (bottom) element. Level indicators are in passive mode (left) until the tangible is detected (right). An example of tangible control elements on interactive tabletop ems is presented by Weiss et al. [13] who introduce “Silicon minated Purpose” (SLAP) Widgets. The widget set consists of tipurpose tangibles including a slider element. In an empirical dy the physical widgets were tested against respective direct- ch concepts. Physical control elements outperformed the ual control elements regarding accuracy and overall raction time. “Madgets” [14], a continuation of the passive AP widget set, can actively synchronize with the system’s state thereby avoid inconsistencies. Hennecke et al. [2] investigated several adhesion techniques materials to place tangibles on vertical displays. The hniques were considered under design criteria typical to ractive displays, such as the support of several tracking hnologies or reusability of the tangible. As a result, applying uum-based adhesion turned out to be the best solution. OPERATING CONCEPTS The presented post-WIMP concepts for the manipulation of cess variables were designed under the tradeoff consideration uggested by Jacob et al. [5]. In order to investigate the effects he tradeoff decisions, operating concepts were designed for input modalities with different power and reality proportions: ngible-object and a direct-touch concept. As common actuator For the rotatory control concept (Figure 4, top) the digital level indicator appears in a concentric circle around the contact area. The shape of the level indicator corresponds to a bent triangle, which emphasizes the direction code. In the sense of readability Müller, Jens, et al. "Back to tangibility: a post-WIMP perspective on control room design." Proceedings of the 2014 International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. ACM, 2014. field enabled us to extend our understanding of the requirements for interactive artifacts in an ERM environment. 2) Based on one of the authors’ (of this paper) extensive ethnographic research on IT use in the domain of crisis management, user needs and design considerations could be formulated and mapped to findings in previous field studies [3,11]. 3) In addition, an expert group was formed, consisting of crisis management specialists and fire fighters from the local municipality, to explore possibilities and insights related to the specific class of technological capabilities. Furthermore, the exploratory nature of our work meant that we were to preliminarily evaluate ideas and eliminate potential culs-de-sac. Overall, we were guided by the need to provide the means for rapid coordination of multiple resources within a temporal dimension. We aimed to make the interaction intuitive enough to move the focus from the planning table to the actual units in the field and effectively utilizing the knowledge of the experts. CoTracker enables following the course of actions in a S sp b a b co Im T th a p E e e th co p b in fi re a Image03 Figure 3 (top to bottom): The Kunz, Andreas, et al. "Tangible tabletops for emergency response: an exploratory study." Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia, Interaction, Design and Innovation. ACM, 2013.
  • 25. 26 Augment static displays rather than virtualise
  • 26. 27 MacKay, Wendy E. "Is paper safer? The role of paper flight strips in air traffic control." ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 6.4 (1999): 311-340. ciologists, a different group of social scientists, are more interested in social and historical context of the work. Harper et al. [1991] and Three controllers working collaboratively at west sector UX in Athis Mons. Behind two controllers are working at the adjacent sector. currently controlled by that position; when the light flashes, it indicates not only that a pilot is speaking, but also on which frequency and sector. Controllers glance at the quantity of strips and corresponding level of annotations to get a sense of the traffic. For example, during a storm or Fig. 6. Two controllers simultaneously annotating two different flight strips (Athis Mons). Is Paper Safer? The Role of Paper Flight Strips in Air Traffic Control • 327
  • 28. 29 FORUM LET'S GET PHYSICAL must give an interception heading clearance to another aircraft to let it rejoin the landing pattern. As a physical reminder, she holds the EZY4262 strip in her left hand so she won’t forget to send it to the tower controller. Augmented strips as a mix of virtual and physical media. The system provides a hybrid artifact, in which paper and digital media are identical and have equal importance. When one controller holds a paper strip, the other controllers can use the digital pen to interact with its virtual twin: They can write on it or move it by dragging on its border. When repositioning the paper strip on the board, the virtual strip is aligned under it. The then obscured handwritten notes of the virtual strip are projected onto the paper strip. The system lets the controller extend the physical strip virtually. Thirty minutes later, the traffic gets quite intense, so Tessa’s sector needs to be split up. Two colleagues are on standby in the control room. Tessa initiates the degrouping mode in the system. She decides to hand off the area around the spatial arrangements of strips help (Top) A controller collaboratively optimizes an arrival sequence, using a paper strip, numeric pen, and projected information. (Bottom) Free-hand writing and drawings convey key information. strip. The system acknowledges this of this “window management” activity. Figure 13: tangible strips (b) acting as controls and as containers for augmented data (a) and as representations and tokens for cognitive elements (c). Implications for allocation of physical and virtual components This analysis sheds light on our choices of allocation. As we described in the previous section, physical objects and associated manipulations have their inner coherence. So, as long as physical objects are able to provide the controller with external representations of their concerns, there is no need to overload them with additional explicit information. As described in the previous section, physical and spatial tools provide a sufficient encoding of objective time, orders and internal clock. By contrast, augmented data (Figure 13a) are needed to provide real-time perception and dynamic information on the current state of flights. Our analysis also helps to understand potential complexity issues, where the physical manipulations, such as tangible computation of stack exit times, did not exactly correspond to current practices, i.e., at least for some controllers, to externalizations on which they rely today. A seamless and understandable interactive space Complexity is also dealt with through the properties and the behavior of the components. Several of our observations and projected data. 2) merged displays: projected data cannot occlude printed information and vice versa, which adds to this seamless combination of tangible and virtual dimensions. Finally, coherence in Strip’TIC does not assume a constant coupling between physical and virtual components: disrupting strip tracking by removing a strip from the board does not prevent continuous use of the system, and most importantly, disrupting Anoto does not break the system either, since handwriting still works. CONCLUSION The Strip’TIC system provides us with the ability to explore mixed interaction in a context where physical interactions are effective and secure. Throughout our design reflections, we have seen that unlike usual TUI approaches, which rely on mapping and coupling of physical objects to virtual objects, coherence in Strip’TIC is based on other aspects. First, it relies on the mapping of virtual to physical objects that play a primary role as externalization of controllers internal concerns. Second, coherence consequently relies on a seamless connection of cognitive and tangible spaces that help the users to build a physical and virtual image of the situation. Third, the properties of the interactive space components and continuous feedback help users understand the mixed behavior of the system. Thus, compared to existing TUI models, our approach is complementary: we include the understanding and integration of artefact cognitive mechanisms as part of our design choices. Future work involves exploring issues about how augmented data may support externalization too, since this matter seems to be overlooked in current research. We also plan to investigate further about multitouch gestures combined with handwriting and pen-based interaction. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank the air traffic controllers for their participation to the workshops, M. Cordeil for his help on coding and C. Savery and R. Moreau for the work on the video. REFERENCES Letondal, Catherine, et al. "Flights in my hands: coherence concerns in designing Strip'TIC, a tangible space for air traffic controllers." Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, 2013.
  • 29. 30 Aim at incremental changes in design
  • 30. Conclusions • Balance information on public, private and group displays • Design for ecologies of displays and “layers of seeing” • Leverage the constraints of displays • Each person is an implicit information display • Avoid information overload • Design for tangible displays • Augment static displays rather than virtualise • Aim at incremental changes in design 31