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PHASES OF
MATTER
BY
S.ANGEL
M.SC NEURO
OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the class the students will be able to
Define matter
Explain the phases of matter
Define an atom and a molecule
Explain the properties of an atom and a molecule
Phases of matter
Matter exist in four phases
Solid
Liquid
Air
plasma
Solid:
A solid is matter in which the molecules are
very close together and cannot move around.
Examples of solids include rocks, wood, and
ice (frozen water).
Liquid:
A liquid is matter in which the molecules are
close together and move around slowly.
Examples of liquids include drinking water,
mercury at room temperature, and lava.
Gas:
A gas is matter in which the molecules
are widely separated, move around
freely, and move at high speeds.
Examples of gases include the gases we
breathe (nitrogen, oxygen, and others),
the helium in balloons, and steam (water
vapor).
Plasma:
A plasma is a gas that is composed of
free-floating ions and free electrons. A
plasma conducts electrical currents. There
are many different types of plasmas.
There is plasma in stars (including our
Sun); our Solar System is made of
plasma.
PHASES OF
MATTER
SOLID TO LIQUID
MELTING:
• Melting is the process by which a substance
changes from the solid phase to the liquid
phase.
• Example: melting of an ice cube into water
LIQUID TO GAS:
BOILING
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a
liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to
its boiling point, the temperature at which
the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to
the pressure exerted on the liquid by the
surrounding atmosphere
SOLID TO GAS:
SUBLIMING:
Sometimes solid matters can go directly from
solid to gas.
This is called SUBLIMING.
LIQUID TO SOLID:
FREEZING:
The process through which a substance
changes from a liquid to a solid. All liquids
except helium undergo freezing when the
temperature becomes sufficiently cold.
Example: water changing to ice.
• GAS TO LIQUID:
• CONDENSATION:
• Condensation is the process of a substance in a
gaseous state transforming into a liquid state. This change is
caused by a change in pressure and temperature of the
substance.
• Example: your hot shower cooled when it met the surface
of the cold mirror. This caused the water vapour to
condense, or turn into its liquid form.
GAS TO SOLID:
DEPOSITION:
The direct solidification of a vapour by
cooling; the reverse of sublimation.
example:
Phases of matter

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Phases of matter

  • 2. OBJECTIVES: At the end of the class the students will be able to Define matter Explain the phases of matter Define an atom and a molecule Explain the properties of an atom and a molecule
  • 3. Phases of matter Matter exist in four phases Solid Liquid Air plasma
  • 4. Solid: A solid is matter in which the molecules are very close together and cannot move around. Examples of solids include rocks, wood, and ice (frozen water).
  • 5. Liquid: A liquid is matter in which the molecules are close together and move around slowly. Examples of liquids include drinking water, mercury at room temperature, and lava.
  • 6. Gas: A gas is matter in which the molecules are widely separated, move around freely, and move at high speeds. Examples of gases include the gases we breathe (nitrogen, oxygen, and others), the helium in balloons, and steam (water vapor).
  • 7. Plasma: A plasma is a gas that is composed of free-floating ions and free electrons. A plasma conducts electrical currents. There are many different types of plasmas. There is plasma in stars (including our Sun); our Solar System is made of plasma.
  • 9.
  • 10. SOLID TO LIQUID MELTING: • Melting is the process by which a substance changes from the solid phase to the liquid phase. • Example: melting of an ice cube into water
  • 11. LIQUID TO GAS: BOILING Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere
  • 12. SOLID TO GAS: SUBLIMING: Sometimes solid matters can go directly from solid to gas. This is called SUBLIMING.
  • 13. LIQUID TO SOLID: FREEZING: The process through which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid. All liquids except helium undergo freezing when the temperature becomes sufficiently cold. Example: water changing to ice.
  • 14. • GAS TO LIQUID: • CONDENSATION: • Condensation is the process of a substance in a gaseous state transforming into a liquid state. This change is caused by a change in pressure and temperature of the substance. • Example: your hot shower cooled when it met the surface of the cold mirror. This caused the water vapour to condense, or turn into its liquid form.
  • 15. GAS TO SOLID: DEPOSITION: The direct solidification of a vapour by cooling; the reverse of sublimation. example: