SlideShare a Scribd company logo
PHARMACODYNAMICS
By
Dr. Faraza Javaid
Pharmacon = Drug , Dynamics = Action/Power
“What a drug does to the body”
Pharmacodynamics describes the
actions of a drug on the body.
Action
How and Where the effect is produced is called as
Action.
Effect
The type of response producing by drug.
Site of Drug Action
1. Extra cellular
2. Intracellular
Types of Drug Action
EFFECT (Type of responses):
1.Stimulation
2.Inhibition/Depression
3.Replacement
4.Irritation
5.Cytotoxic
Mechanism of Action of Drugs
Drug act either by receptor or by non receptor or by
targeting specific genetic changes.
Majority of drugs acts by (HOW)
Receptor mediated Non receptor mediated
Receptor Mediated Action
 Drug produce their effect through interacting
with some chemical compartment of living
organism c/s Receptor.
 Receptors are macromolecules
 Most are proteins
 Present either on the cell surface, cytoplasm or
in the nucleus
Receptors
Receptor is a macromolecule in the membrane or
inside the cell that specifically (chemically) bind a
ligand (drug).
Unoccupied receptors does not influence
intracellular processes.
Drug + Receptor Drug receptor complex Response
Signal Transduction
Signal transduction (also known as cell signaling) is the
transmission of molecular signals from a cell's
exterior to its interior.
Signals received by cells must be transmitted
effectively into the cell to ensure an appropriate
response.
Drugs act as signals, and receptors act as signal
detectors.
“Second messenger” or effector molecules are part of the
cascade of events that translates agonist binding into a
cellular response.
Receptor Functions
1. Recognization of specific ligand molecule
(Ligand binding domain)
2. Transduction of signal into response (Effector
domain)
Ligand binding
domain
Transduction of
signal into response
Drug Receptor Interaction
1. Selectivity:- Degree of complimentary co relation
between drug and receptor.
Ex:- Adrenaline Selectivity for α, ß Receptor
2. Affinity:- Ability of drug to get bound to the
receptor.
3. Intrinsic activity (IA) or Efficacy:- Ability of drug
to produce a pharmacological response after
making the drug receptor complex.
Drug Classification
(on the basis of affinity & efficacy)
Response No response
Receptor Families
Four types of receptors families:
1. Ligand-gated ion channels
2. G-protein coupled receptor
3. Enzyme Linked receptors
4. Intracellular/ Receptor regulating gene expression
(transcription factors/ Steroid )
Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins whose
function is establishing a resting membrane potential,
shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by
gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane,
controlling the flow of ions across membranes, and
regulating cell volume.
Functions:
Neurotransmission
Muscle contraction
G-Protein Coupled Receptor
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-
binding proteins, involved in transmitting signals
and function as molecular switches.
Produce effects by:
 Adenylyl Cyclase
 Phospholipase C
There are many kinds of
G proteins (for example,
Gs, Gi, and Gq), but all
types are composed of
three protein subunits.
The α subunit binds
guanosine triphosphate
(GTP), and the β and γ
subunits anchor the G
protein in the cell
membrane.
GTP
GDP
 GDP
GTP

ATP
cAMP
Cell response
AT
Protein
kinase
ADP
P
Inactive
protein
Active
protein
hormone
Adenylate cyclase
Signaling System
AC
RS
Inhibitor
Ri


Varieties of G-protein
G-protein Receptor for Signaling pathway/
Effector
Gs ß adrenergic,
5HT,
AC— cAMP
Gi α2 adrenergic, Ach, AC— cAMP,
Open K+
Gq Ach Phospholipase-C, IP3
Go Neurotransmitters
in brain
Not yet clear
Enzyme Linked Receptors
A group of transmembrane proteins that contain
either intrinsic enzyme activity on their
intracellular domain or associate directly with an
intracellular enzyme.
1. Receptor tyrosine kinases
2. Tyrosine-kinase-associated receptors
3. Receptor serine/threonine kinases
4. Histidine-kinase-associated receptors
5. Receptor tyrosine phosphatases
6. Receptor guanylyl cyclase
Basic Receptor Structure
1. Ligand-binding domain
Extracellular to allow easy access for ligands.
Bind to same receptor to produce particular
cellular responses.
2. Transmembrane domain
Contains a series of hydrophobic amino acids.
3. Cytosolic
"active" enzyme
domain
The intracellular
domain of receptor
itself is an enzyme
or interacts directly
with an enzyme.
Intracellular/ Receptor
The fourth family of receptors differs considerably from
the other three in that the receptor is entirely intracellular,
and, therefore, the ligand (for example, steroid hormones)
must have sufficient lipid solubility to diffuse into the cell to
interact with the receptor.
The primary targets of activated intracellular receptors are
transcription factors in the cell nucleus that regulate gene
expression. The activation or inactivation of transcription
factors alters the transcription of DNA into RNA and
subsequently translation of RNA into proteins.
Other targets of intracellular ligands are structural
proteins, enzymes, RNA, and ribosomes.
Characteristics of Receptor Families
Ligand
gated
G-protein
coupled
Enzymatic Nuclear
Location Membrane Membrane Membrane Intracellular
Effector Ion channel Ion Channel
or enzyme
Enzyme Gene
coupling Direct G-protein Direct Via DNA
Example Nicotinic Muscarinic Insulin Steroid ,
hormone
Characteristics of Signal Transduction
Signal transduction has two important features:
1)The ability to amplify small signals and
2)Mechanisms to protect the cell from excessive
stimulation
 Desensitization or down regulation of receptor
 Tachyphylaxis
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF DRUGS
MECHANISM OF ACTION  OF DRUGSMECHANISM OF ACTION  OF DRUGS
MECHANISM OF ACTION OF DRUGS
Prathyusha Rani
 
Pharmacodynamics
PharmacodynamicsPharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics
IPMS- KMU KPK PAKISTAN
 
Drug receptors
Drug receptorsDrug receptors
Drug receptors
Shubham Patil
 
Pharmacokinetics
PharmacokineticsPharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
BikashAdhikari26
 
Types of receptors
Types of receptorsTypes of receptors
Types of receptors
DrSahilKumar
 
Drug Pharmacokinetics
Drug Pharmacokinetics Drug Pharmacokinetics
Drug Pharmacokinetics
A M O L D E O R E
 
Receptor Pharmacology
Receptor PharmacologyReceptor Pharmacology
Receptor Pharmacology
Tulasi Raman
 
Nomenclature and classification of drugs
Nomenclature and classification of drugsNomenclature and classification of drugs
Nomenclature and classification of drugs
draadil
 
3.pharmacodynamics
3.pharmacodynamics 3.pharmacodynamics
3.pharmacodynamics
Dr.Manish Kumar
 
Pharmacokinetics
PharmacokineticsPharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
Lawrence James
 
Drug absorption
Drug absorption Drug absorption
Drug absorption
Animesh Gupta
 
2.pharmacodynamics
2.pharmacodynamics2.pharmacodynamics
2.pharmacodynamics
IAU Dent
 
Receptors
ReceptorsReceptors
Receptors
Raju Sanghvi
 
UNIT II: DRUGS ACTING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
UNIT II: DRUGS ACTING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMUNIT II: DRUGS ACTING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
UNIT II: DRUGS ACTING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
SONALI PAWAR
 
Mechanism of drug action
Mechanism of drug actionMechanism of drug action
Mechanism of drug action
Deepthi P Ramachandran
 
Biotransformation of drug
Biotransformation of drugBiotransformation of drug
Biotransformation of drug
Satigayatri
 
Neuro humoral transmission
Neuro humoral transmissionNeuro humoral transmission
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamicPharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
Mohd Khaffizullah Mohd Rajali
 
Factors modifying the drug action
Factors modifying the drug actionFactors modifying the drug action
Factors modifying the drug action
OPTOM FASLU MUHAMMED
 
Drug distribution
Drug distributionDrug distribution

What's hot (20)

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF DRUGS
MECHANISM OF ACTION  OF DRUGSMECHANISM OF ACTION  OF DRUGS
MECHANISM OF ACTION OF DRUGS
 
Pharmacodynamics
PharmacodynamicsPharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics
 
Drug receptors
Drug receptorsDrug receptors
Drug receptors
 
Pharmacokinetics
PharmacokineticsPharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
 
Types of receptors
Types of receptorsTypes of receptors
Types of receptors
 
Drug Pharmacokinetics
Drug Pharmacokinetics Drug Pharmacokinetics
Drug Pharmacokinetics
 
Receptor Pharmacology
Receptor PharmacologyReceptor Pharmacology
Receptor Pharmacology
 
Nomenclature and classification of drugs
Nomenclature and classification of drugsNomenclature and classification of drugs
Nomenclature and classification of drugs
 
3.pharmacodynamics
3.pharmacodynamics 3.pharmacodynamics
3.pharmacodynamics
 
Pharmacokinetics
PharmacokineticsPharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
 
Drug absorption
Drug absorption Drug absorption
Drug absorption
 
2.pharmacodynamics
2.pharmacodynamics2.pharmacodynamics
2.pharmacodynamics
 
Receptors
ReceptorsReceptors
Receptors
 
UNIT II: DRUGS ACTING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
UNIT II: DRUGS ACTING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMUNIT II: DRUGS ACTING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
UNIT II: DRUGS ACTING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
 
Mechanism of drug action
Mechanism of drug actionMechanism of drug action
Mechanism of drug action
 
Biotransformation of drug
Biotransformation of drugBiotransformation of drug
Biotransformation of drug
 
Neuro humoral transmission
Neuro humoral transmissionNeuro humoral transmission
Neuro humoral transmission
 
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamicPharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
 
Factors modifying the drug action
Factors modifying the drug actionFactors modifying the drug action
Factors modifying the drug action
 
Drug distribution
Drug distributionDrug distribution
Drug distribution
 

Similar to Pharmacodynamics.pptx

Pharmacodynamics
PharmacodynamicsPharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics
Ravi kumar
 
Chemical Signalling.pptx
Chemical Signalling.pptxChemical Signalling.pptx
Chemical Signalling.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
Pharmacodynamic
Pharmacodynamic Pharmacodynamic
Pharmacodynamic
Ravi kumar
 
Pharmacodynamics and ADR
Pharmacodynamics and ADRPharmacodynamics and ADR
Pharmacodynamics and ADR
GaneshBharskar
 
Receptor pharmacology
Receptor pharmacologyReceptor pharmacology
Receptor pharmacology
Shweta Tyagi
 
Receptor
ReceptorReceptor
Pharmacodynamics
PharmacodynamicsPharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics
promotemedical
 
Pharmacology Unit - 2.pptx
Pharmacology Unit - 2.pptxPharmacology Unit - 2.pptx
Pharmacology Unit - 2.pptx
Nikita Gupta
 
Receptors and receptors classification
Receptors and receptors classificationReceptors and receptors classification
Receptors and receptors classification
caucasus international university
 
Pharmacodynamics (1)
Pharmacodynamics (1)Pharmacodynamics (1)
Pharmacodynamics (1)
Khalid Aftab, Ph.D.
 
Physiological receptors
Physiological receptorsPhysiological receptors
Physiological receptors
Santosh Mogali
 
Receptor
ReceptorReceptor
Receptor
ramya bhairavi
 
Signal transduction
Signal transductionSignal transduction
Signal transduction
Ayman Hany
 
Receptor
ReceptorReceptor
Receptor
Stanley Palma
 
Cell signalling 1
Cell signalling 1Cell signalling 1
Cell signalling 1
Dr. Khuram Aziz
 
Cell signalling 1
Cell signalling 1Cell signalling 1
Cell signalling 1
Dr. Khuram Aziz
 
Enzyme linked receptors (1)
Enzyme linked receptors (1)Enzyme linked receptors (1)
Enzyme linked receptors (1)
Sahar Musarrat
 
Cell signaling
Cell signalingCell signaling
Cell signaling
ShrutiGautam18
 
Pharmacodynamics mechanism of durg action
Pharmacodynamics mechanism of durg actionPharmacodynamics mechanism of durg action
Pharmacodynamics mechanism of durg action
Archita Srivastava
 
Pharmacodynamics
PharmacodynamicsPharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics
Hiba Hamid
 

Similar to Pharmacodynamics.pptx (20)

Pharmacodynamics
PharmacodynamicsPharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics
 
Chemical Signalling.pptx
Chemical Signalling.pptxChemical Signalling.pptx
Chemical Signalling.pptx
 
Pharmacodynamic
Pharmacodynamic Pharmacodynamic
Pharmacodynamic
 
Pharmacodynamics and ADR
Pharmacodynamics and ADRPharmacodynamics and ADR
Pharmacodynamics and ADR
 
Receptor pharmacology
Receptor pharmacologyReceptor pharmacology
Receptor pharmacology
 
Receptor
ReceptorReceptor
Receptor
 
Pharmacodynamics
PharmacodynamicsPharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics
 
Pharmacology Unit - 2.pptx
Pharmacology Unit - 2.pptxPharmacology Unit - 2.pptx
Pharmacology Unit - 2.pptx
 
Receptors and receptors classification
Receptors and receptors classificationReceptors and receptors classification
Receptors and receptors classification
 
Pharmacodynamics (1)
Pharmacodynamics (1)Pharmacodynamics (1)
Pharmacodynamics (1)
 
Physiological receptors
Physiological receptorsPhysiological receptors
Physiological receptors
 
Receptor
ReceptorReceptor
Receptor
 
Signal transduction
Signal transductionSignal transduction
Signal transduction
 
Receptor
ReceptorReceptor
Receptor
 
Cell signalling 1
Cell signalling 1Cell signalling 1
Cell signalling 1
 
Cell signalling 1
Cell signalling 1Cell signalling 1
Cell signalling 1
 
Enzyme linked receptors (1)
Enzyme linked receptors (1)Enzyme linked receptors (1)
Enzyme linked receptors (1)
 
Cell signaling
Cell signalingCell signaling
Cell signaling
 
Pharmacodynamics mechanism of durg action
Pharmacodynamics mechanism of durg actionPharmacodynamics mechanism of durg action
Pharmacodynamics mechanism of durg action
 
Pharmacodynamics
PharmacodynamicsPharmacodynamics
Pharmacodynamics
 

More from FarazaJaved

Endocrine Physiology.pptx
Endocrine Physiology.pptxEndocrine Physiology.pptx
Endocrine Physiology.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
AntidiarrhealAgents.pptx
AntidiarrhealAgents.pptxAntidiarrhealAgents.pptx
AntidiarrhealAgents.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
Treatment of Parkinsonism.pptx
Treatment of Parkinsonism.pptxTreatment of Parkinsonism.pptx
Treatment of Parkinsonism.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
Epilepsy and its treatment.pptx
Epilepsy and its treatment.pptxEpilepsy and its treatment.pptx
Epilepsy and its treatment.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
Drugs Excretion
Drugs ExcretionDrugs Excretion
Drugs Excretion
FarazaJaved
 
Design and Dose Optimization.pptx
Design and Dose Optimization.pptxDesign and Dose Optimization.pptx
Design and Dose Optimization.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
Routes of Drug Administration.ppt
Routes of Drug Administration.pptRoutes of Drug Administration.ppt
Routes of Drug Administration.ppt
FarazaJaved
 
Drug Metabolism.pptx
Drug Metabolism.pptxDrug Metabolism.pptx
Drug Metabolism.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
Drug Distribution.ppt
Drug Distribution.pptDrug Distribution.ppt
Drug Distribution.ppt
FarazaJaved
 
Absorption Pharmacokinetics.pptx
Absorption Pharmacokinetics.pptxAbsorption Pharmacokinetics.pptx
Absorption Pharmacokinetics.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
Pharmacodynamics.ppt
Pharmacodynamics.pptPharmacodynamics.ppt
Pharmacodynamics.ppt
FarazaJaved
 
Drug Response.pptx
Drug Response.pptxDrug Response.pptx
Drug Response.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
Adverse Drug Reactions.ppt
Adverse Drug Reactions.pptAdverse Drug Reactions.ppt
Adverse Drug Reactions.ppt
FarazaJaved
 
Drugs Interactions.ppt
Drugs Interactions.pptDrugs Interactions.ppt
Drugs Interactions.ppt
FarazaJaved
 
Blood Coagulation and Clotting Mechanism.pptx
Blood Coagulation and Clotting Mechanism.pptxBlood Coagulation and Clotting Mechanism.pptx
Blood Coagulation and Clotting Mechanism.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
Estrogen and Antiestrogen.pptx
Estrogen and Antiestrogen.pptxEstrogen and Antiestrogen.pptx
Estrogen and Antiestrogen.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
Androgens and Anabolic Steroids and Anti-androgens.pptx
Androgens and Anabolic Steroids and Anti-androgens.pptxAndrogens and Anabolic Steroids and Anti-androgens.pptx
Androgens and Anabolic Steroids and Anti-androgens.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
CNS Physiology.pptx
CNS Physiology.pptxCNS Physiology.pptx
CNS Physiology.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
Local Anesthetics.pptx
Local Anesthetics.pptxLocal Anesthetics.pptx
Local Anesthetics.pptx
FarazaJaved
 
General Anestheics.pptx
General Anestheics.pptxGeneral Anestheics.pptx
General Anestheics.pptx
FarazaJaved
 

More from FarazaJaved (20)

Endocrine Physiology.pptx
Endocrine Physiology.pptxEndocrine Physiology.pptx
Endocrine Physiology.pptx
 
AntidiarrhealAgents.pptx
AntidiarrhealAgents.pptxAntidiarrhealAgents.pptx
AntidiarrhealAgents.pptx
 
Treatment of Parkinsonism.pptx
Treatment of Parkinsonism.pptxTreatment of Parkinsonism.pptx
Treatment of Parkinsonism.pptx
 
Epilepsy and its treatment.pptx
Epilepsy and its treatment.pptxEpilepsy and its treatment.pptx
Epilepsy and its treatment.pptx
 
Drugs Excretion
Drugs ExcretionDrugs Excretion
Drugs Excretion
 
Design and Dose Optimization.pptx
Design and Dose Optimization.pptxDesign and Dose Optimization.pptx
Design and Dose Optimization.pptx
 
Routes of Drug Administration.ppt
Routes of Drug Administration.pptRoutes of Drug Administration.ppt
Routes of Drug Administration.ppt
 
Drug Metabolism.pptx
Drug Metabolism.pptxDrug Metabolism.pptx
Drug Metabolism.pptx
 
Drug Distribution.ppt
Drug Distribution.pptDrug Distribution.ppt
Drug Distribution.ppt
 
Absorption Pharmacokinetics.pptx
Absorption Pharmacokinetics.pptxAbsorption Pharmacokinetics.pptx
Absorption Pharmacokinetics.pptx
 
Pharmacodynamics.ppt
Pharmacodynamics.pptPharmacodynamics.ppt
Pharmacodynamics.ppt
 
Drug Response.pptx
Drug Response.pptxDrug Response.pptx
Drug Response.pptx
 
Adverse Drug Reactions.ppt
Adverse Drug Reactions.pptAdverse Drug Reactions.ppt
Adverse Drug Reactions.ppt
 
Drugs Interactions.ppt
Drugs Interactions.pptDrugs Interactions.ppt
Drugs Interactions.ppt
 
Blood Coagulation and Clotting Mechanism.pptx
Blood Coagulation and Clotting Mechanism.pptxBlood Coagulation and Clotting Mechanism.pptx
Blood Coagulation and Clotting Mechanism.pptx
 
Estrogen and Antiestrogen.pptx
Estrogen and Antiestrogen.pptxEstrogen and Antiestrogen.pptx
Estrogen and Antiestrogen.pptx
 
Androgens and Anabolic Steroids and Anti-androgens.pptx
Androgens and Anabolic Steroids and Anti-androgens.pptxAndrogens and Anabolic Steroids and Anti-androgens.pptx
Androgens and Anabolic Steroids and Anti-androgens.pptx
 
CNS Physiology.pptx
CNS Physiology.pptxCNS Physiology.pptx
CNS Physiology.pptx
 
Local Anesthetics.pptx
Local Anesthetics.pptxLocal Anesthetics.pptx
Local Anesthetics.pptx
 
General Anestheics.pptx
General Anestheics.pptxGeneral Anestheics.pptx
General Anestheics.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

anatomy of submandibular region presentation
anatomy of submandibular region presentationanatomy of submandibular region presentation
anatomy of submandibular region presentation
MalaM67
 
2nd-generation Antihistaminic Part I.pptx
2nd-generation Antihistaminic Part I.pptx2nd-generation Antihistaminic Part I.pptx
2nd-generation Antihistaminic Part I.pptx
Madhumita Dixit
 
Call Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl Mumbai
Call Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl MumbaiCall Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl Mumbai
Call Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl Mumbai
Mobile Problem
 
Microbiology & Parasitology Exercises Parts of the Microscope
Microbiology & Parasitology Exercises Parts of the MicroscopeMicrobiology & Parasitology Exercises Parts of the Microscope
Microbiology & Parasitology Exercises Parts of the Microscope
ThaShee2
 
Gene Expression System-viral gene delivery Mpharm(Pharamaceutics)
Gene Expression System-viral gene delivery Mpharm(Pharamaceutics)Gene Expression System-viral gene delivery Mpharm(Pharamaceutics)
Gene Expression System-viral gene delivery Mpharm(Pharamaceutics)
MuskanShingari
 
biomechanics of running. Dr.dhwani.pptx
biomechanics of running.   Dr.dhwani.pptxbiomechanics of running.   Dr.dhwani.pptx
biomechanics of running. Dr.dhwani.pptx
Dr. Dhwani kawedia
 
Call Girls Electronic City 🥰 Bangalore Call Girl No Advance Book Now
Call Girls Electronic City 🥰 Bangalore Call Girl No Advance Book NowCall Girls Electronic City 🥰 Bangalore Call Girl No Advance Book Now
Call Girls Electronic City 🥰 Bangalore Call Girl No Advance Book Now
saftyhealth48
 
Helminthiasis or Worm infestation in Children for Nursing students
Helminthiasis or Worm infestation in Children for Nursing studentsHelminthiasis or Worm infestation in Children for Nursing students
Helminthiasis or Worm infestation in Children for Nursing students
RAJU B N
 
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdfpharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
KerlynIgnacio
 
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public HealthAgeing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
phuakl
 
Pune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOW
Pune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOWPune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOW
Pune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOW
Get New Sim
 
Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)
Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)
Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)
MuskanShingari
 
Selective α1-Blocker.pptx
Selective α1-Blocker.pptxSelective α1-Blocker.pptx
Selective α1-Blocker.pptx
Madhumita Dixit
 
Storyboard on Skin- Innovative Learning (M-pharm) 2nd sem. (Cosmetics)
Storyboard on Skin- Innovative Learning (M-pharm) 2nd sem. (Cosmetics)Storyboard on Skin- Innovative Learning (M-pharm) 2nd sem. (Cosmetics)
Storyboard on Skin- Innovative Learning (M-pharm) 2nd sem. (Cosmetics)
MuskanShingari
 
13. PROM premature rupture of membranes
13.  PROM premature rupture of membranes13.  PROM premature rupture of membranes
13. PROM premature rupture of membranes
TigistuMelak
 
Storyboard on Acne-Innovative Learning-M. pharm. (2nd sem.) Cosmetics
Storyboard on Acne-Innovative Learning-M. pharm. (2nd sem.) CosmeticsStoryboard on Acne-Innovative Learning-M. pharm. (2nd sem.) Cosmetics
Storyboard on Acne-Innovative Learning-M. pharm. (2nd sem.) Cosmetics
MuskanShingari
 
Call Girls Lucknow 9024918724 Vip Call Girls Lucknow
Call Girls Lucknow 9024918724 Vip Call Girls LucknowCall Girls Lucknow 9024918724 Vip Call Girls Lucknow
Call Girls Lucknow 9024918724 Vip Call Girls Lucknow
nandinirastogi03
 
Tele Optometry (kunj'sppt) / Basics of tele optometry.
Tele Optometry (kunj'sppt) / Basics of tele optometry.Tele Optometry (kunj'sppt) / Basics of tele optometry.
Tele Optometry (kunj'sppt) / Basics of tele optometry.
Kunj Vihari
 
STUDIES IN SUPPORT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS: GERIATRICS E7
STUDIES IN SUPPORT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS: GERIATRICS E7STUDIES IN SUPPORT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS: GERIATRICS E7
STUDIES IN SUPPORT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS: GERIATRICS E7
shruti jagirdar
 
Brain specific drug delivery.pptx -Mpharm
Brain specific drug delivery.pptx -MpharmBrain specific drug delivery.pptx -Mpharm
Brain specific drug delivery.pptx -Mpharm
MuskanShingari
 

Recently uploaded (20)

anatomy of submandibular region presentation
anatomy of submandibular region presentationanatomy of submandibular region presentation
anatomy of submandibular region presentation
 
2nd-generation Antihistaminic Part I.pptx
2nd-generation Antihistaminic Part I.pptx2nd-generation Antihistaminic Part I.pptx
2nd-generation Antihistaminic Part I.pptx
 
Call Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl Mumbai
Call Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl MumbaiCall Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl Mumbai
Call Girls In Mumbai +91-7426014248 High Profile Call Girl Mumbai
 
Microbiology & Parasitology Exercises Parts of the Microscope
Microbiology & Parasitology Exercises Parts of the MicroscopeMicrobiology & Parasitology Exercises Parts of the Microscope
Microbiology & Parasitology Exercises Parts of the Microscope
 
Gene Expression System-viral gene delivery Mpharm(Pharamaceutics)
Gene Expression System-viral gene delivery Mpharm(Pharamaceutics)Gene Expression System-viral gene delivery Mpharm(Pharamaceutics)
Gene Expression System-viral gene delivery Mpharm(Pharamaceutics)
 
biomechanics of running. Dr.dhwani.pptx
biomechanics of running.   Dr.dhwani.pptxbiomechanics of running.   Dr.dhwani.pptx
biomechanics of running. Dr.dhwani.pptx
 
Call Girls Electronic City 🥰 Bangalore Call Girl No Advance Book Now
Call Girls Electronic City 🥰 Bangalore Call Girl No Advance Book NowCall Girls Electronic City 🥰 Bangalore Call Girl No Advance Book Now
Call Girls Electronic City 🥰 Bangalore Call Girl No Advance Book Now
 
Helminthiasis or Worm infestation in Children for Nursing students
Helminthiasis or Worm infestation in Children for Nursing studentsHelminthiasis or Worm infestation in Children for Nursing students
Helminthiasis or Worm infestation in Children for Nursing students
 
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdfpharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
pharmacology for dummies free pdf download.pdf
 
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public HealthAgeing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
Ageing, the Elderly, Gerontology and Public Health
 
Pune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOW
Pune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOWPune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOW
Pune Call Girls 7339748667 AVAILABLE HOT GIRLS AUNTY BOOK NOW
 
Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)
Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)
Computer in pharmaceutical research and development-Mpharm(Pharmaceutics)
 
Selective α1-Blocker.pptx
Selective α1-Blocker.pptxSelective α1-Blocker.pptx
Selective α1-Blocker.pptx
 
Storyboard on Skin- Innovative Learning (M-pharm) 2nd sem. (Cosmetics)
Storyboard on Skin- Innovative Learning (M-pharm) 2nd sem. (Cosmetics)Storyboard on Skin- Innovative Learning (M-pharm) 2nd sem. (Cosmetics)
Storyboard on Skin- Innovative Learning (M-pharm) 2nd sem. (Cosmetics)
 
13. PROM premature rupture of membranes
13.  PROM premature rupture of membranes13.  PROM premature rupture of membranes
13. PROM premature rupture of membranes
 
Storyboard on Acne-Innovative Learning-M. pharm. (2nd sem.) Cosmetics
Storyboard on Acne-Innovative Learning-M. pharm. (2nd sem.) CosmeticsStoryboard on Acne-Innovative Learning-M. pharm. (2nd sem.) Cosmetics
Storyboard on Acne-Innovative Learning-M. pharm. (2nd sem.) Cosmetics
 
Call Girls Lucknow 9024918724 Vip Call Girls Lucknow
Call Girls Lucknow 9024918724 Vip Call Girls LucknowCall Girls Lucknow 9024918724 Vip Call Girls Lucknow
Call Girls Lucknow 9024918724 Vip Call Girls Lucknow
 
Tele Optometry (kunj'sppt) / Basics of tele optometry.
Tele Optometry (kunj'sppt) / Basics of tele optometry.Tele Optometry (kunj'sppt) / Basics of tele optometry.
Tele Optometry (kunj'sppt) / Basics of tele optometry.
 
STUDIES IN SUPPORT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS: GERIATRICS E7
STUDIES IN SUPPORT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS: GERIATRICS E7STUDIES IN SUPPORT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS: GERIATRICS E7
STUDIES IN SUPPORT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS: GERIATRICS E7
 
Brain specific drug delivery.pptx -Mpharm
Brain specific drug delivery.pptx -MpharmBrain specific drug delivery.pptx -Mpharm
Brain specific drug delivery.pptx -Mpharm
 

Pharmacodynamics.pptx

  • 2.
  • 3. Pharmacon = Drug , Dynamics = Action/Power “What a drug does to the body” Pharmacodynamics describes the actions of a drug on the body.
  • 4. Action How and Where the effect is produced is called as Action. Effect The type of response producing by drug.
  • 5. Site of Drug Action 1. Extra cellular 2. Intracellular
  • 6. Types of Drug Action EFFECT (Type of responses): 1.Stimulation 2.Inhibition/Depression 3.Replacement 4.Irritation 5.Cytotoxic
  • 7. Mechanism of Action of Drugs Drug act either by receptor or by non receptor or by targeting specific genetic changes. Majority of drugs acts by (HOW) Receptor mediated Non receptor mediated
  • 8. Receptor Mediated Action  Drug produce their effect through interacting with some chemical compartment of living organism c/s Receptor.  Receptors are macromolecules  Most are proteins  Present either on the cell surface, cytoplasm or in the nucleus
  • 9. Receptors Receptor is a macromolecule in the membrane or inside the cell that specifically (chemically) bind a ligand (drug). Unoccupied receptors does not influence intracellular processes. Drug + Receptor Drug receptor complex Response
  • 10. Signal Transduction Signal transduction (also known as cell signaling) is the transmission of molecular signals from a cell's exterior to its interior. Signals received by cells must be transmitted effectively into the cell to ensure an appropriate response. Drugs act as signals, and receptors act as signal detectors. “Second messenger” or effector molecules are part of the cascade of events that translates agonist binding into a cellular response.
  • 11. Receptor Functions 1. Recognization of specific ligand molecule (Ligand binding domain) 2. Transduction of signal into response (Effector domain) Ligand binding domain Transduction of signal into response
  • 12. Drug Receptor Interaction 1. Selectivity:- Degree of complimentary co relation between drug and receptor. Ex:- Adrenaline Selectivity for α, ß Receptor 2. Affinity:- Ability of drug to get bound to the receptor. 3. Intrinsic activity (IA) or Efficacy:- Ability of drug to produce a pharmacological response after making the drug receptor complex.
  • 13. Drug Classification (on the basis of affinity & efficacy)
  • 15. Receptor Families Four types of receptors families: 1. Ligand-gated ion channels 2. G-protein coupled receptor 3. Enzyme Linked receptors 4. Intracellular/ Receptor regulating gene expression (transcription factors/ Steroid )
  • 16. Ligand-Gated Ion Channels Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins whose function is establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across membranes, and regulating cell volume. Functions: Neurotransmission Muscle contraction
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. G-Protein Coupled Receptor G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide- binding proteins, involved in transmitting signals and function as molecular switches. Produce effects by:  Adenylyl Cyclase  Phospholipase C
  • 21. There are many kinds of G proteins (for example, Gs, Gi, and Gq), but all types are composed of three protein subunits. The α subunit binds guanosine triphosphate (GTP), and the β and γ subunits anchor the G protein in the cell membrane.
  • 22.
  • 24.
  • 25. Varieties of G-protein G-protein Receptor for Signaling pathway/ Effector Gs ß adrenergic, 5HT, AC— cAMP Gi α2 adrenergic, Ach, AC— cAMP, Open K+ Gq Ach Phospholipase-C, IP3 Go Neurotransmitters in brain Not yet clear
  • 26. Enzyme Linked Receptors A group of transmembrane proteins that contain either intrinsic enzyme activity on their intracellular domain or associate directly with an intracellular enzyme. 1. Receptor tyrosine kinases 2. Tyrosine-kinase-associated receptors 3. Receptor serine/threonine kinases 4. Histidine-kinase-associated receptors 5. Receptor tyrosine phosphatases 6. Receptor guanylyl cyclase
  • 27. Basic Receptor Structure 1. Ligand-binding domain Extracellular to allow easy access for ligands. Bind to same receptor to produce particular cellular responses. 2. Transmembrane domain Contains a series of hydrophobic amino acids.
  • 28. 3. Cytosolic "active" enzyme domain The intracellular domain of receptor itself is an enzyme or interacts directly with an enzyme.
  • 29.
  • 30. Intracellular/ Receptor The fourth family of receptors differs considerably from the other three in that the receptor is entirely intracellular, and, therefore, the ligand (for example, steroid hormones) must have sufficient lipid solubility to diffuse into the cell to interact with the receptor. The primary targets of activated intracellular receptors are transcription factors in the cell nucleus that regulate gene expression. The activation or inactivation of transcription factors alters the transcription of DNA into RNA and subsequently translation of RNA into proteins. Other targets of intracellular ligands are structural proteins, enzymes, RNA, and ribosomes.
  • 31.
  • 32. Characteristics of Receptor Families Ligand gated G-protein coupled Enzymatic Nuclear Location Membrane Membrane Membrane Intracellular Effector Ion channel Ion Channel or enzyme Enzyme Gene coupling Direct G-protein Direct Via DNA Example Nicotinic Muscarinic Insulin Steroid , hormone
  • 33.
  • 34. Characteristics of Signal Transduction Signal transduction has two important features: 1)The ability to amplify small signals and 2)Mechanisms to protect the cell from excessive stimulation  Desensitization or down regulation of receptor  Tachyphylaxis