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PETRONAS TOWER
MALAYSIA
PRESENTED BY –
RADHIKA SARDA
RICHA SINGH
AARTI PRAJAPATI
Tower 1 : Petronas head quarters
Tower 2 : Local and international private, Tenants, Klcc holdings
LOCATION : KUALA LUMPUR
NO. OF FLOORS : 88 (+5 BELOW GROUND)
CONSTRUCTIONPERIOD : MARCH 1993- 1996
Jan1992
Start of project planning
Mar 1993
Start of foundation works
Apr1994
Construction of the superstructure
Jan1996
Fitting out of the interiors complete with furniture
Mar 1996
Jacking of the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2
Jan1997
Moving in of the first batch of PETRONAS' personnel
31 Aug1999
Official opening by YAB Dato Seri Dr Mahathir Mohamad, the 4th Prime Minister of Malaysia
TIMELINE
HISTORY AND FACTS
ARCHITECT : Cesar Pelli
HEIGHT : 451.9 metres,
Its supported by world’s deepest
foundation
World’s highest sky bridge.
STRUCTURAL
ENGINEER : Charlie Thornton
TOWER 1 : Foreman Bob
Pratt
TOWER 2: John Dunsford
Single largest and longest concrete pour in Malaysian history.
They were building on a decayed limestone and were sitting on
edge of the cliff”
• one side : solid limestone
• rest : softer brittle rock.
Hence building was shifted – 60 m on softer ground
CONCEPT
Construction - FACTS
Site rested on concrete mat anchored with concrete
friction piles.
No. of piles : 104
4.5 m thick raft supported on 45-120 m deep rectangular
piles
M45 concrete used for piles,
13200 cu m of m60 concrete
used in raft
Chilled water used- minimize
differential temperaure
500 truckloads of earth every night.
continuously poured
through a period of
54 hours for each
tower
longest concrete pour in
Malaysian history.
created a record
Construction - FACTS
The biggest concrete slab
Malaysia didn’t had enough steel & importing steel
could have blown up their budget henceuseof
concretewasin abundance.
CHICAGO – CTL – Concrete testing laboratory
GRAVEL , WATER, CEMENT
CAN WITHSTAND 20,000 POUNDS A
SQAURE INCH
1
NEXT TRIAL : THEY ADDED
HIGHTECHSILICIA– LEFT FROM COMPUTER
MANUFACTURE
SUCCESS
Concrete as strong as steel
Ring of 16 concrete pillars
each building
Linked by beams - needed to
support 2,70,000 tongues
3 concrete plants on site.
Bad concrete – laid on one
floor
Construction -pinnacle
Each tower crowned by- 73 m tapering
top
Accommodates – building maintenance
machine ,
aviation lighting and lighting protection
Due to steep sloping column
Concrete construction impractical
Steel used throughout
Lower pinnacle- 8 structural steel frames
Upper pinnacle – single mast of tapering
circular cross section
Construction –cental core
•Central core in each tower, accommodate – lifts, exit
stairs, mechanical services
•Highly reinforced thick corner walls- resist wind
•Core varies from 22 sq m to 19 x 22 m in four steps
•Outer walls 750 to 350 mm
•Inner walls - 350 mm- to avoid complication with lift
shaft concrete grade drops from 80 -40 mpa as it
accents
Construction – VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION
COMPANY – OTISELEVATORS
Requirement – 4x thespaceavailable
They stacked two elevators on top of each other
double-decker cars
ENTRY CHOOSE EVEN FLOOR
OR ODD
• For odd floors-LOBBY LEVEL.
• For even floors-UP A FLOOR
• 58 double deckers can service for both the
buildings.
SOLUTION
II want to go to 26th floor
II want to go to 35th floor
LOBBYLEVEL.
Double decker car
Express elevators
Sky lobby
Local elevators
Double deck bridge spanning 58.4 m
Connects two tower at sky lobby elevator transfer station on
floor 41 and 42
Easy circulation b/w upper tower floors
Minimize lift usage
Reduces fire exit requirement
Construction – sky bridge
Great height and span requires steel for light weight and easy const.
Assembled on ground and lifted as a whole piece.
16 hydraulic jacks were used.
20hrs- 170m
Construction – sky bridge
The sky bridge's legs are lifted up one
at a time by tower cranes. Once they are
in position, control cables are used to
lower them over their permanent
bearings at level 29.
The two end block girder frames of
the skybridge are lifted individually.
The blocks are installed about
100mm above their final position at
level 41. They are also retracted about
100mm into the tower to provide
sufficient clearance for the skybridge
centre section during lifting.
The four lifting jacks located at level 50 of
both towers are connected on the bridge
centre. The other four lifting jacks located on
level 48 of both towers are connected to the
bridge ends.
The centre section which weighs 325
tonnes is lifted about 11 metres and
restrained. This is to allow the upper 10
metres of the legs to be connected to the
girder on the bridge.
After a final check, lifting of the centre section
commences
Construction – sky bridge
At a minimum lifting
speed of 12 metres per
hour, the centre section is
gradually lifted to its final
level.
Steps Seven to Nine took
about two weeks. A
temporary connection
secures together the centre
section and the end block
girder frame to ensure there
is no stress.
The legs are moved into place. When the
legs are in their final position, the
skybridge end blocks are lowered on
their permanent bearings at Level 41.
The centre section is then lowered to
meet the legs.
After the lifting system has been
removed, the floors were concreted,
the skybridge roofed. The
maintenance equipment is set up
on stainless steel rails on top of the
bridge.
CONCLUSION
Construction – GALLERY
Construction – final result

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Petronas tower - Malaysia (Theory of Structures)

  • 1. PETRONAS TOWER MALAYSIA PRESENTED BY – RADHIKA SARDA RICHA SINGH AARTI PRAJAPATI
  • 2. Tower 1 : Petronas head quarters Tower 2 : Local and international private, Tenants, Klcc holdings LOCATION : KUALA LUMPUR NO. OF FLOORS : 88 (+5 BELOW GROUND) CONSTRUCTIONPERIOD : MARCH 1993- 1996
  • 3. Jan1992 Start of project planning Mar 1993 Start of foundation works Apr1994 Construction of the superstructure Jan1996 Fitting out of the interiors complete with furniture Mar 1996 Jacking of the spires of Tower 1 and Tower 2 Jan1997 Moving in of the first batch of PETRONAS' personnel 31 Aug1999 Official opening by YAB Dato Seri Dr Mahathir Mohamad, the 4th Prime Minister of Malaysia TIMELINE
  • 4. HISTORY AND FACTS ARCHITECT : Cesar Pelli HEIGHT : 451.9 metres, Its supported by world’s deepest foundation World’s highest sky bridge. STRUCTURAL ENGINEER : Charlie Thornton TOWER 1 : Foreman Bob Pratt TOWER 2: John Dunsford Single largest and longest concrete pour in Malaysian history. They were building on a decayed limestone and were sitting on edge of the cliff” • one side : solid limestone • rest : softer brittle rock. Hence building was shifted – 60 m on softer ground
  • 6. Construction - FACTS Site rested on concrete mat anchored with concrete friction piles. No. of piles : 104 4.5 m thick raft supported on 45-120 m deep rectangular piles M45 concrete used for piles, 13200 cu m of m60 concrete used in raft Chilled water used- minimize differential temperaure 500 truckloads of earth every night. continuously poured through a period of 54 hours for each tower longest concrete pour in Malaysian history. created a record
  • 7. Construction - FACTS The biggest concrete slab Malaysia didn’t had enough steel & importing steel could have blown up their budget henceuseof concretewasin abundance. CHICAGO – CTL – Concrete testing laboratory GRAVEL , WATER, CEMENT CAN WITHSTAND 20,000 POUNDS A SQAURE INCH 1 NEXT TRIAL : THEY ADDED HIGHTECHSILICIA– LEFT FROM COMPUTER MANUFACTURE SUCCESS Concrete as strong as steel Ring of 16 concrete pillars each building Linked by beams - needed to support 2,70,000 tongues 3 concrete plants on site. Bad concrete – laid on one floor
  • 8. Construction -pinnacle Each tower crowned by- 73 m tapering top Accommodates – building maintenance machine , aviation lighting and lighting protection Due to steep sloping column Concrete construction impractical Steel used throughout Lower pinnacle- 8 structural steel frames Upper pinnacle – single mast of tapering circular cross section
  • 9. Construction –cental core •Central core in each tower, accommodate – lifts, exit stairs, mechanical services •Highly reinforced thick corner walls- resist wind •Core varies from 22 sq m to 19 x 22 m in four steps •Outer walls 750 to 350 mm •Inner walls - 350 mm- to avoid complication with lift shaft concrete grade drops from 80 -40 mpa as it accents
  • 10. Construction – VERTICAL TRANSPORTATION COMPANY – OTISELEVATORS Requirement – 4x thespaceavailable They stacked two elevators on top of each other double-decker cars ENTRY CHOOSE EVEN FLOOR OR ODD • For odd floors-LOBBY LEVEL. • For even floors-UP A FLOOR • 58 double deckers can service for both the buildings. SOLUTION II want to go to 26th floor II want to go to 35th floor LOBBYLEVEL. Double decker car Express elevators Sky lobby Local elevators
  • 11. Double deck bridge spanning 58.4 m Connects two tower at sky lobby elevator transfer station on floor 41 and 42 Easy circulation b/w upper tower floors Minimize lift usage Reduces fire exit requirement Construction – sky bridge Great height and span requires steel for light weight and easy const. Assembled on ground and lifted as a whole piece. 16 hydraulic jacks were used. 20hrs- 170m
  • 12. Construction – sky bridge The sky bridge's legs are lifted up one at a time by tower cranes. Once they are in position, control cables are used to lower them over their permanent bearings at level 29. The two end block girder frames of the skybridge are lifted individually. The blocks are installed about 100mm above their final position at level 41. They are also retracted about 100mm into the tower to provide sufficient clearance for the skybridge centre section during lifting. The four lifting jacks located at level 50 of both towers are connected on the bridge centre. The other four lifting jacks located on level 48 of both towers are connected to the bridge ends. The centre section which weighs 325 tonnes is lifted about 11 metres and restrained. This is to allow the upper 10 metres of the legs to be connected to the girder on the bridge. After a final check, lifting of the centre section commences
  • 13. Construction – sky bridge At a minimum lifting speed of 12 metres per hour, the centre section is gradually lifted to its final level. Steps Seven to Nine took about two weeks. A temporary connection secures together the centre section and the end block girder frame to ensure there is no stress. The legs are moved into place. When the legs are in their final position, the skybridge end blocks are lowered on their permanent bearings at Level 41. The centre section is then lowered to meet the legs. After the lifting system has been removed, the floors were concreted, the skybridge roofed. The maintenance equipment is set up on stainless steel rails on top of the bridge.