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Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria
IJGM
Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its
environs, North Central Nigeria
1
Ekeleme I.A., 2
Uzoegbu M.U., 3
Abalaka I.E., and 4
Olorunyomi A.E.
1,3,4
Department of Geology, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
2
Department of Geology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.
The study area covers Arikiya and parts of Wayopini in Lafia Local Government Area of
Nassarawa State, situated in central Nigeria. This falls within the Basement Complex of central
Nigeria that forms part of the Upper Proterozoic mobile belt extending from Algeria across the
Sahara into Nigeria, Benin and the Cameroon. The area consists of gneisses, granite gneisses,
migmatites and Porphyroblastic gneiss. Dolerite dyke and Pegmatite form intrusions into the
host rocks. The major rock forming minerals are plagioclase, orthoclase, quartz and biotite, The
major structures includes joints, foliations, quartz vein, fold and fault, Predominant structural
trends include the NE-SW and NW-SE with minor E-W and N-S structural trends which are in
agreement with the general trend of structures in the Basement Complex. Mineral resource
potential of the study area include feldspar and mica from the gneiss and pegmatites as well as
alluvial garnets, columbites, tantalite, and cassiterite (derived from the pegmatites) as
evidenced from mining activities along river channels in the entire area.
Key words: Basement Complex, Gneiss, Minerals, Older granite, Petrography, structures.
INTRODUCTION
The studied area is located North West of Wamba Sheet
210 NW. The area is underlain by basement complex
rocks of the Precambrian age. The North Central Nigeria
is one of the four major zones where the Basement
complex rocks are exposed in Nigeria. The Basement
Complex rocks found in this area have undergone series
of tectonic deformations, the last of which is the Pan-
African orogeny. The study area is comprises of the rocks
around River Arikya and its environs (Fig. 1). It is
predominantly a basement environment which has been
reactivated by multiple phases of tectonic activities and
events. The area covers about 20km
2
, characterized by
hilly massive outcrops made up of predominantly gneiss
and granite-gneisses. Micro-granites occur as minor
rocks while pegmatite and dolerite are intrusive into the
basement. The hills form steep escarpments. The mineral
suites identified include feldspars, quartz, biotite,
muscovites, hornblende, and opaque minerals probably
iron oxides. The feldspars include plagioclase,
orthoclase, and microcline. The major structural features
in the study area include dykes, veins, joints, folds, faults
and foliations. The major structural directions are oriented
in the NE-SW, NW-SE, E-W and NNE-SSW which
correspond with the structural trend of the Basement
Complex of Nigeria.
*Corresponding Author: Dr. Uzoegbu M. Uche,
Department of Geology, Michael Okpara University of
Agriculture, Umudike, PMB. 7267, Umuahia, Abia State.
E-mail: mu.uzoegbu@mouau.edu.ng, Tel.:
+234088030715958.
Co-authors: +2348061398330; E-mail:
ifeomaokafor49@gmail.com, abalakai4real@yahoo.com
International Journal Geology and Mining
Vol. 3(1), pp. 103-109, June, 2017. © w w w .premierpublishers.org. ISSN: 0907-3409x
ResearchArticle
Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria
Ekeleme et al. 104
Figure 1: Outline Geological Map of Nigeria (after Olugbenga, et al., 2009)
The main lithologic unit in the study area includes
migmatites, gneisses, granite-gneisses, porphyroblastic
gneisses, and dolerites with well delineated geologic
boundaries. These include fractures (faults and fold),
foliation, dyke etc Some of them are not deformational
but are secondary structures developed during
metamorphism of the rocks (Rahaman, 1988)
Representative rock type were sampled on the field
which were taken for thin section for further petrographic
analysis. Cassiterite and subordinate columbite-tantalite
have been mined in the Lafia area on a small scale
mainly from alluvial placers .in the study area There are
not much record of detailed work carried out on the
various areas of the Basement Complex. The study area
is bordered by Farin Ruwa in the East, Konva in the
West, River Arikya in the South and Angwan Mission in
the North. This paper deals with detailed and
comprehensive petrographic studies of the rock types
both on hand specimen and under the microscope.
REGIONAL GEOLOGIC SETTING
The Precambrian Basement Complex of Nigeria lies
within the Pan-African mobile belt, east of the West
African craton and Northwest of the Congo-Gabon
craton. Evidence from the Eastern and Northern margins
of the West African craton indicates that the Pan-African
belt evolved by plate tectonic processes which involved
the collision of the passive continental margin of the
West-African craton and the active margin of the
Pharusian belt (Tuareg shield), about 600Ma (Burke and
Dewey, 1972; Leblanc, 1981; Black et al., 1979). This
includes the presence of mafic to ultramafic rocks
believed to be either remnants of mantle diapirs or a
paleo-oceanic crust. These rocks are characteristic of an
ophiolitic complex. Also a high positive gravity anomaly
which occurs in a narrow zone within the Dahomeyide
orogeny located at the margin of the West African Craton
in Togo and Benin Republic (Schuler and Trauth, 2006).
The collision at this plate margin is believed to have led
to the reactivation of the internal region of the Pan-
African belt which formed part of the Nigerian Basement
Complex (Rahaman, 1976). Radiometric ages indicate
that the Nigerian Basement Complex is polycyclic and
includes rocks of Liberian (2700 ± 200 Ma), Eburnean
(2000 ± 200 Ma), Kibaran (1100 ± 200 Ma), and Pan-
African (600 ± 150 Ma) (Black et al.,1979; Caby et
al.,1981). Recently, the use of International Geological
Time Scale (2002) in Gunter and Mensing (2005) has
further easing the application of geochronology. These
ages can be referred to as “Precambrian to
Mesoproterozoic (3600 to1600 Ma)” for Liberian and
Eburnean, “Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic (1600 to
1000 Ma)” for Kibaran, “Neoproterozoic to Early
Paleozoic (1000 to 545 Ma)” for Pan-African (Obiora,
2008). Two distinct provinces can be recognized in the
Nigerian Basement Complex (Fig. 1), namely; the
western province characterized by narrow sediment
trending N-S with low-grade schist predominantly
migmatite-gneiss and the Mesozoic ring complexes
(Younger Granites) of North Central Nigeria (Ajibade et
Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria
Int. J. Geol. Min. 105
al., 1987; Kogbe, 1989). The evolution of the Nigerian
Basement Complex during the Pan-African can be best
discussed in the regional context of the Pan-African
orogenic belt of West Africa. Geological and geophysical
evidence from the western province of the belt has been
used to erect geophysical evidence for the evolution of
the belt (Grant, 1970; Burke and Dewey, 1972; Black et
al., 1979; Caby et al., 1981). Essentially, the evolution of
the belt is seen as a collision type orogeny with an
eastward dipping subduction zone. Initial crustal
extension and continental rifting at the West African
cratonic margin, about 1000 Ma, led to the formation of
graben-like structures in the Western Nigeria and the
subsequent deposition of the rocks of the Schist belts.
Closure of the oceanic margin, about 600 Ma and crustal
thickening in the Dahomeyan led to the deformation of
the sediments, reactivation of the pre-existing rocks and
the emplacement of the rocks of the Pan-African granites
(McCurry, 1976). The granitoids have been emplaced
within both the migmatites-gneiss complex and the Schist
belts, and they occur in all parts of the Nigerian
Basement Complex, though the extent of the Pan-African
plutonism had not been fully understood (Rahaman,
1976). Fitches et al. (1985) have shown that the Older
Granites are high level intrusions emplaced by diapiric
processes in different parts of the country. The
migmatite-gneiss complex is considered to contain rocks
of the Archean age which have been deformed and
modified several times prior to the Pan-African orogeny
(Rahaman, 1976).
The Basement complex are mostly related to the Pan-
African (900-450 Ma) thermotectonic event, with few
imprints of the older events such as the Liberian,
Eburnean, and the Kibaran (Obiora, 2005). Evidence
from the Ibadan area indicates that Archean rocks
includes meta-sedimentary and meta-volcanic rocks
which were deformed prior to the emplacement of the
Eburnean granite-gneiss (Burke and Dewy, 1972). The
early Proterozoic (Eburnean) event was probably
accompanied by sedimentation, deformation,
metamorphism and syn-tectonic igneous activity (Burke
and Dewy, 1972). Since the recognition of the suture
along the eastern margin of the West African craton,
attempts have been made to relate the Schist belts to the
subduction processes at the cratonic margin (McCurry,
1976). Vaniman (1976), Holt (1982) and Turner (1983)
consider that the Schist belts have been deposited in a
back-arc basin developed after the onset of subduction at
the cratonic margin.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The field activities involved taking traverses and mapping
the study area. Structures of various rock types were
noted in the field. Rock samples from various outcrops
were taken using geological sledge hammer and chisel.
Field photographs of the following rock types were
observed; gneiss, granitic gneiss, microgranite, migmatite
and dolerite.
These were done at University of Ibadan laboratory,
Ibadan. Petrographic studies of the representative
samples were made with the aid of a polarizing
microscope and resultant production of photomicrographs
were obtained.
The photomicrographs of five rock types at ×10
magnifications are shown in figs. 8 to 12. Some of the
major minerals observed under the microscope were;
biotite, muscovite, plagioclase, pyroxenes, and quartz.
The essential features of these minerals in the thin
section as shown by the microscope were described.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Megascopic study is the description of the different rock
types of the study area in hand specimen which was
facilitated with the photographs of the outcrops. The
lithologic units, mineralogy, texture, structures, mode of
occurrence and field relationships, were all considered in
the field mapping to enhance megascopic studies (Fig.
1).
Gneiss
Gneiss is a high grade metamorphic rock characterized
by banding caused by segregation of felsic and mafic
minerals. The gneisses in the studied area are mostly
medium to coarse grained with gneissic textures. They
comprise of mainly quartz and feldspar minerals (Table 1
and Fig. 3). They are foliated, showing gneissocity type of
foliation and are mostly occurring in-situ. There are
evidence of dynamic recrystallization structures and
microtextures.
The gneiss is found mostly in the eastern part of the
studied area. In hand specimen, the bands differ in colour
and composition with some bands richer in feldspar and
quartz (light coloured bands), and others richer in olivine
or mica (the dark coloured bands).
As observed under the microscope both in Plane
Polarized Light (PPL) and Crossed Polarized Light (XPL),
The major minerals observed occurring in the rock type
include quartz, plagioclase feldspar, biotite and
microcline.
Table 1 shows the modal composition of the
representative sample of the gneiss in terms of the
volumetric proportions of the minerals in it. Under PPL
Plagioclase is with anhedral crystal form characterized by
a one-directional cleavage with no pleochroism. Under
XPL it shows a first order birefringence with an
interference colour of gray to white, inclined extinction.
Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria
Ekeleme et al. 106
Figure 2: Photomicrographs of different rocks obtained in the studied area.
Table 1: Average modal composition of the gneiss
MINERALS AVERAGE COMPOSITION (%)
Plagioclase 40
Quartz 30
Biotite 10
Muscovite 5
Microcline 5
Opaque 10
Total 100
Quartz on the other hand, under PPL is colourless, low
relief, anhedral crystal form and has no pleochroism but
the crystals are fractured. There is no cleavage observed.
While under XPL it shows first order birefringence with
first order interference colour.
Biotite under PPL is brown with high relief and euhedral
crystal form. It is characterized with a perfect basal
cleavage in one direction and pleochroism of light brown
to dark brown. Biotite under XPL shows second order
birefringence with interference colour of brown to purple
brown.
Microcline under PPL is colourless shows low relief with
an anhedral to subhedral crystal form. It is characterized
with a perfect cleavage and does not exhibit pleochroism.
Under XPL it shows first order birefringence (gray and
white), Pale yellow interference colour with an inclined
extinction of cross-hatched.
Granite-Gneiss
The granite-gneiss is associated with the gneisses in the
study area. It is a heterogenous group of rock
predominantly granodioritic in composition and fine to
medium grained in texture. It is composed of quartz,
biotite, feldspars and muscovite (Table 2 and Fig. 3). It
shows a low degree of weathering and deformation which
is particularly evident around the contacts with the
Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria
Int. J. Geol. Min. 107
Table 2: Average modal composition of granite-gneiss
MINERALS AVERAGE COMPOSITION (%)
Plagioclase 40
Quartz 30
Biotite 10
Microcline 10
Opaque 10
Total 100
Figure 3: Photomicrograms of selective rock samples. Mineral includes: Bt= Biotite, Pl=
Plagioclase, Qtz= Quartz, Mc= Microcline, Ms= Muscovite, Or=Orthoclase, Hb= Hornblende.
gneisses. They occur as moderate to low-lying hills and
are exposed from the North-central to the South-western
part of the study area.
Micro-Granite
This is a medium-grained intrusive rock which has regular
composition as regular granite, but contains small
crystals which are interlocking and randomly oriented
because it cooled more quickly. It is pinkish in colour. It
contains mostly feldspars and quartz, and also small
specs of mafic (dark coloured) minerals (Table 3 and Fig.
3).
Migmatite
The migmatites in the study area are leucocratic to
melanocratic fine grained to medium grained rock
Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria
Ekeleme et al. 108
Table 3: Average modal composition of micro-granite
MINERALS AVERAGE COMPOSITION (%)
Plagioclase 45
Quartz 30
Biotite 10
Muscovite 5
Opaque 10
Total 100
Table 4: Average modal composition of migmatite
MINERALS AVERAGE COMPOSITION (%)
Plagioclase 40
Quartz 30
Biotite 15
Muscovite 5
Hornblende 5
Opaque 5
Total 100
Table 5: Average modal composition of dolerite.
MINERALS AVERAGE COMPOSITION (%)
Plagioclase 40
Quartz 20
Biotite 20
Hornblende 15
Opaque 5
Total 100
comprising of biotite, quartz, feldspars and some other
mafic minerals as seen in hand specimen. They are
found in the north-western part of the study area.
Dolerites
Dolerites may occur as dykes, sills, lopolith and
laccoliths. The dolerites in the study area occur as dykes
and are fine to medium grained, containing mainly mafic
minerals and feldspars (Table 5 and Fig. 3). They occur
in the rock types of the study area. The dolerites are the
product of magma that cools quickly when it rises into
weak areas and cracks to form crystals and dykes.
Hornblende under PPL is brownish with moderate to high
relief and show a subhedral crystal form with
characterized two-directional cleavage. The pleochroism
is green to brown. Under XPL birefringence is 0.02 with
interference colour of second to third order.
CONCLUSION
Based on the field and microscopic observations, the
petrographic evaluation depict that the studied area is a
metamorphic terrain (Basement Complex). Three major
cycles of deformation, metamorphism and remobilization
including the Liberian, Eburnean and Pan-African
orogeny may have affected the rocks as recorded in the
literature. This is evident from the nature of structures
and their trends (NE-SW, NNE-SSW, NW-SE, E-W) in
the studied area. The intrusions which include dolerite
and pegmatites are relatively the youngest rock units in
the area since they are found to be intruding the
basement rocks. The dolerite and pegmatite dykes are
structurally controlled and assumed a common NE-SW,
NNE-SSW trending direction. Fractures were first formed
before the dykes. Therefore, it is worthy of note that
mineralization in the area is structurally controlled.
REFERENCES
Ajibade AC, Rahaman MA, Ogezi AE (1987). The Pre-
Cambrian Geology of Nigeria. A geochronological
summary. In: Kogbe C.A. (Ed) Geology of Nigeria, 2nd
Revised Edition. Rock View, Elizabethan Publisher
(Nig.) Ltd., Jos. Pp. 191-207.
Black R (1970). Late Paleozoic to recent igneous
activities in the Basement structures. In: Clifford
T.W,Gaas(eds) African magmatism and tectonics.
Oliver and Boyd Ealinburgh, pp 185-210.
Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria
Int. J. Geol. Min. 109
Burke KC, Dewey JF (1972). Orogeny in Africa. In
Dessauvagie TFJ, Whiteman A.J (eds), Africa geology.
University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan. pp 583-608.
Fitches WR, Ajibade AC, Egbuniwe IG, Holt RW, Wright
JB (1985). Late Proterozoic SchistBelts Plutonism in
North Western Nigeria. Geol. Sec. London pp 142,319-
337.
Grant NK (1970). Geochronology of PreCambrian
Basement Rocks from Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria.
Earth plant Sci. Lett., 10: pp 29- 38.
Holt RW (1982). The Geotectonic Evolution of Anka Belt
in the Precambrian Basement Complex North Western
Nigeria. The Open University.
Kogbe CA (1989). Geology of Nigeria. Elizabethan
Publishing Company Lagos, 530pp.
Leblanc M (1981). The Late Proterozoic Ophiolitees of
Bon Azzer (Morocco): Evidence for Pan African plate
tectonics In:Kwoner A (ed).
Macledo WN, Turner DC, Wright EO (1971). The
Geology of the Jos, Plateau Vol. 1:
General Geol. Surv. Nigeria, Bull. No. 32. Pp. 119.
McCurry P. (1976). The Geology of the PreCambrian to
Lower Paleozoic Rocks of Northern Nigeria. A general
review. In: C.A. Kogbe (Ed) Geology of Nigeria.
Elizabethan pub. Co. Lagos. Pp 15-39
Obiora SC (2005). Field Description of Hard Rocks with
examples from the Nigerian Basement Complex1st
(ed.) swap Press (Nig.) Ltd Enugu, 14pp
Obiora SC (2008): Geology and Mineral Resources of the
Precambrian Basement Complex of Nigeria.
Rahaman MA (1976). Review of the basement geology of
southwestern Nigeria, In: Kogbe, C.A. (ed.) Geology of
Nigeria. Elizabethan Publishing Company. Lagos, 41-
58.
Rahaman MA (1988). Recent Advances in study of the
Basement Complex of Nigeria Precambrian geology of
Nigeria. In: Oluyide et al., (eds) Precambrian Geology
of Nigeria. Geological Survey of Nigeria Publication,
Kaduna, 11-43.
Schluter T, Trauth MH (2006). Geological Atlas of Atlas of
Africa.pp.307
Turner DC (1983). Upper Proterozoic Schist Belt in
Northern Sector of pan-African Precambrian Res. P.
21, pp. 55-79.
Vaniman DT (1976). The Godani granodiorite plutons,
Nigeria Petrology and the Regional Settings; Ph.D
Thesis, University of California,Santa Cruz.pp123
Accepted 20 May, 2017.
Citation: Ekeleme IA, Uzoegbu MU, Olorunyomi AE,
Abalaka IE AI (2017). Petrographic evaluation of rocks
around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria.
International Journal Geology and Mining 3(1): 103-109.
Copyright: © 2017 Ekeleme et al. This is an open-
access article distributed under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original author and source are cited.

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Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its environs, North Central Nigeria

  • 1. Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria IJGM Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its environs, North Central Nigeria 1 Ekeleme I.A., 2 Uzoegbu M.U., 3 Abalaka I.E., and 4 Olorunyomi A.E. 1,3,4 Department of Geology, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 2 Department of Geology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria. The study area covers Arikiya and parts of Wayopini in Lafia Local Government Area of Nassarawa State, situated in central Nigeria. This falls within the Basement Complex of central Nigeria that forms part of the Upper Proterozoic mobile belt extending from Algeria across the Sahara into Nigeria, Benin and the Cameroon. The area consists of gneisses, granite gneisses, migmatites and Porphyroblastic gneiss. Dolerite dyke and Pegmatite form intrusions into the host rocks. The major rock forming minerals are plagioclase, orthoclase, quartz and biotite, The major structures includes joints, foliations, quartz vein, fold and fault, Predominant structural trends include the NE-SW and NW-SE with minor E-W and N-S structural trends which are in agreement with the general trend of structures in the Basement Complex. Mineral resource potential of the study area include feldspar and mica from the gneiss and pegmatites as well as alluvial garnets, columbites, tantalite, and cassiterite (derived from the pegmatites) as evidenced from mining activities along river channels in the entire area. Key words: Basement Complex, Gneiss, Minerals, Older granite, Petrography, structures. INTRODUCTION The studied area is located North West of Wamba Sheet 210 NW. The area is underlain by basement complex rocks of the Precambrian age. The North Central Nigeria is one of the four major zones where the Basement complex rocks are exposed in Nigeria. The Basement Complex rocks found in this area have undergone series of tectonic deformations, the last of which is the Pan- African orogeny. The study area is comprises of the rocks around River Arikya and its environs (Fig. 1). It is predominantly a basement environment which has been reactivated by multiple phases of tectonic activities and events. The area covers about 20km 2 , characterized by hilly massive outcrops made up of predominantly gneiss and granite-gneisses. Micro-granites occur as minor rocks while pegmatite and dolerite are intrusive into the basement. The hills form steep escarpments. The mineral suites identified include feldspars, quartz, biotite, muscovites, hornblende, and opaque minerals probably iron oxides. The feldspars include plagioclase, orthoclase, and microcline. The major structural features in the study area include dykes, veins, joints, folds, faults and foliations. The major structural directions are oriented in the NE-SW, NW-SE, E-W and NNE-SSW which correspond with the structural trend of the Basement Complex of Nigeria. *Corresponding Author: Dr. Uzoegbu M. Uche, Department of Geology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB. 7267, Umuahia, Abia State. E-mail: mu.uzoegbu@mouau.edu.ng, Tel.: +234088030715958. Co-authors: +2348061398330; E-mail: ifeomaokafor49@gmail.com, abalakai4real@yahoo.com International Journal Geology and Mining Vol. 3(1), pp. 103-109, June, 2017. © w w w .premierpublishers.org. ISSN: 0907-3409x ResearchArticle
  • 2. Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria Ekeleme et al. 104 Figure 1: Outline Geological Map of Nigeria (after Olugbenga, et al., 2009) The main lithologic unit in the study area includes migmatites, gneisses, granite-gneisses, porphyroblastic gneisses, and dolerites with well delineated geologic boundaries. These include fractures (faults and fold), foliation, dyke etc Some of them are not deformational but are secondary structures developed during metamorphism of the rocks (Rahaman, 1988) Representative rock type were sampled on the field which were taken for thin section for further petrographic analysis. Cassiterite and subordinate columbite-tantalite have been mined in the Lafia area on a small scale mainly from alluvial placers .in the study area There are not much record of detailed work carried out on the various areas of the Basement Complex. The study area is bordered by Farin Ruwa in the East, Konva in the West, River Arikya in the South and Angwan Mission in the North. This paper deals with detailed and comprehensive petrographic studies of the rock types both on hand specimen and under the microscope. REGIONAL GEOLOGIC SETTING The Precambrian Basement Complex of Nigeria lies within the Pan-African mobile belt, east of the West African craton and Northwest of the Congo-Gabon craton. Evidence from the Eastern and Northern margins of the West African craton indicates that the Pan-African belt evolved by plate tectonic processes which involved the collision of the passive continental margin of the West-African craton and the active margin of the Pharusian belt (Tuareg shield), about 600Ma (Burke and Dewey, 1972; Leblanc, 1981; Black et al., 1979). This includes the presence of mafic to ultramafic rocks believed to be either remnants of mantle diapirs or a paleo-oceanic crust. These rocks are characteristic of an ophiolitic complex. Also a high positive gravity anomaly which occurs in a narrow zone within the Dahomeyide orogeny located at the margin of the West African Craton in Togo and Benin Republic (Schuler and Trauth, 2006). The collision at this plate margin is believed to have led to the reactivation of the internal region of the Pan- African belt which formed part of the Nigerian Basement Complex (Rahaman, 1976). Radiometric ages indicate that the Nigerian Basement Complex is polycyclic and includes rocks of Liberian (2700 ± 200 Ma), Eburnean (2000 ± 200 Ma), Kibaran (1100 ± 200 Ma), and Pan- African (600 ± 150 Ma) (Black et al.,1979; Caby et al.,1981). Recently, the use of International Geological Time Scale (2002) in Gunter and Mensing (2005) has further easing the application of geochronology. These ages can be referred to as “Precambrian to Mesoproterozoic (3600 to1600 Ma)” for Liberian and Eburnean, “Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic (1600 to 1000 Ma)” for Kibaran, “Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic (1000 to 545 Ma)” for Pan-African (Obiora, 2008). Two distinct provinces can be recognized in the Nigerian Basement Complex (Fig. 1), namely; the western province characterized by narrow sediment trending N-S with low-grade schist predominantly migmatite-gneiss and the Mesozoic ring complexes (Younger Granites) of North Central Nigeria (Ajibade et
  • 3. Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria Int. J. Geol. Min. 105 al., 1987; Kogbe, 1989). The evolution of the Nigerian Basement Complex during the Pan-African can be best discussed in the regional context of the Pan-African orogenic belt of West Africa. Geological and geophysical evidence from the western province of the belt has been used to erect geophysical evidence for the evolution of the belt (Grant, 1970; Burke and Dewey, 1972; Black et al., 1979; Caby et al., 1981). Essentially, the evolution of the belt is seen as a collision type orogeny with an eastward dipping subduction zone. Initial crustal extension and continental rifting at the West African cratonic margin, about 1000 Ma, led to the formation of graben-like structures in the Western Nigeria and the subsequent deposition of the rocks of the Schist belts. Closure of the oceanic margin, about 600 Ma and crustal thickening in the Dahomeyan led to the deformation of the sediments, reactivation of the pre-existing rocks and the emplacement of the rocks of the Pan-African granites (McCurry, 1976). The granitoids have been emplaced within both the migmatites-gneiss complex and the Schist belts, and they occur in all parts of the Nigerian Basement Complex, though the extent of the Pan-African plutonism had not been fully understood (Rahaman, 1976). Fitches et al. (1985) have shown that the Older Granites are high level intrusions emplaced by diapiric processes in different parts of the country. The migmatite-gneiss complex is considered to contain rocks of the Archean age which have been deformed and modified several times prior to the Pan-African orogeny (Rahaman, 1976). The Basement complex are mostly related to the Pan- African (900-450 Ma) thermotectonic event, with few imprints of the older events such as the Liberian, Eburnean, and the Kibaran (Obiora, 2005). Evidence from the Ibadan area indicates that Archean rocks includes meta-sedimentary and meta-volcanic rocks which were deformed prior to the emplacement of the Eburnean granite-gneiss (Burke and Dewy, 1972). The early Proterozoic (Eburnean) event was probably accompanied by sedimentation, deformation, metamorphism and syn-tectonic igneous activity (Burke and Dewy, 1972). Since the recognition of the suture along the eastern margin of the West African craton, attempts have been made to relate the Schist belts to the subduction processes at the cratonic margin (McCurry, 1976). Vaniman (1976), Holt (1982) and Turner (1983) consider that the Schist belts have been deposited in a back-arc basin developed after the onset of subduction at the cratonic margin. MATERIALS AND METHODS The field activities involved taking traverses and mapping the study area. Structures of various rock types were noted in the field. Rock samples from various outcrops were taken using geological sledge hammer and chisel. Field photographs of the following rock types were observed; gneiss, granitic gneiss, microgranite, migmatite and dolerite. These were done at University of Ibadan laboratory, Ibadan. Petrographic studies of the representative samples were made with the aid of a polarizing microscope and resultant production of photomicrographs were obtained. The photomicrographs of five rock types at ×10 magnifications are shown in figs. 8 to 12. Some of the major minerals observed under the microscope were; biotite, muscovite, plagioclase, pyroxenes, and quartz. The essential features of these minerals in the thin section as shown by the microscope were described. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Megascopic study is the description of the different rock types of the study area in hand specimen which was facilitated with the photographs of the outcrops. The lithologic units, mineralogy, texture, structures, mode of occurrence and field relationships, were all considered in the field mapping to enhance megascopic studies (Fig. 1). Gneiss Gneiss is a high grade metamorphic rock characterized by banding caused by segregation of felsic and mafic minerals. The gneisses in the studied area are mostly medium to coarse grained with gneissic textures. They comprise of mainly quartz and feldspar minerals (Table 1 and Fig. 3). They are foliated, showing gneissocity type of foliation and are mostly occurring in-situ. There are evidence of dynamic recrystallization structures and microtextures. The gneiss is found mostly in the eastern part of the studied area. In hand specimen, the bands differ in colour and composition with some bands richer in feldspar and quartz (light coloured bands), and others richer in olivine or mica (the dark coloured bands). As observed under the microscope both in Plane Polarized Light (PPL) and Crossed Polarized Light (XPL), The major minerals observed occurring in the rock type include quartz, plagioclase feldspar, biotite and microcline. Table 1 shows the modal composition of the representative sample of the gneiss in terms of the volumetric proportions of the minerals in it. Under PPL Plagioclase is with anhedral crystal form characterized by a one-directional cleavage with no pleochroism. Under XPL it shows a first order birefringence with an interference colour of gray to white, inclined extinction.
  • 4. Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria Ekeleme et al. 106 Figure 2: Photomicrographs of different rocks obtained in the studied area. Table 1: Average modal composition of the gneiss MINERALS AVERAGE COMPOSITION (%) Plagioclase 40 Quartz 30 Biotite 10 Muscovite 5 Microcline 5 Opaque 10 Total 100 Quartz on the other hand, under PPL is colourless, low relief, anhedral crystal form and has no pleochroism but the crystals are fractured. There is no cleavage observed. While under XPL it shows first order birefringence with first order interference colour. Biotite under PPL is brown with high relief and euhedral crystal form. It is characterized with a perfect basal cleavage in one direction and pleochroism of light brown to dark brown. Biotite under XPL shows second order birefringence with interference colour of brown to purple brown. Microcline under PPL is colourless shows low relief with an anhedral to subhedral crystal form. It is characterized with a perfect cleavage and does not exhibit pleochroism. Under XPL it shows first order birefringence (gray and white), Pale yellow interference colour with an inclined extinction of cross-hatched. Granite-Gneiss The granite-gneiss is associated with the gneisses in the study area. It is a heterogenous group of rock predominantly granodioritic in composition and fine to medium grained in texture. It is composed of quartz, biotite, feldspars and muscovite (Table 2 and Fig. 3). It shows a low degree of weathering and deformation which is particularly evident around the contacts with the
  • 5. Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria Int. J. Geol. Min. 107 Table 2: Average modal composition of granite-gneiss MINERALS AVERAGE COMPOSITION (%) Plagioclase 40 Quartz 30 Biotite 10 Microcline 10 Opaque 10 Total 100 Figure 3: Photomicrograms of selective rock samples. Mineral includes: Bt= Biotite, Pl= Plagioclase, Qtz= Quartz, Mc= Microcline, Ms= Muscovite, Or=Orthoclase, Hb= Hornblende. gneisses. They occur as moderate to low-lying hills and are exposed from the North-central to the South-western part of the study area. Micro-Granite This is a medium-grained intrusive rock which has regular composition as regular granite, but contains small crystals which are interlocking and randomly oriented because it cooled more quickly. It is pinkish in colour. It contains mostly feldspars and quartz, and also small specs of mafic (dark coloured) minerals (Table 3 and Fig. 3). Migmatite The migmatites in the study area are leucocratic to melanocratic fine grained to medium grained rock
  • 6. Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria Ekeleme et al. 108 Table 3: Average modal composition of micro-granite MINERALS AVERAGE COMPOSITION (%) Plagioclase 45 Quartz 30 Biotite 10 Muscovite 5 Opaque 10 Total 100 Table 4: Average modal composition of migmatite MINERALS AVERAGE COMPOSITION (%) Plagioclase 40 Quartz 30 Biotite 15 Muscovite 5 Hornblende 5 Opaque 5 Total 100 Table 5: Average modal composition of dolerite. MINERALS AVERAGE COMPOSITION (%) Plagioclase 40 Quartz 20 Biotite 20 Hornblende 15 Opaque 5 Total 100 comprising of biotite, quartz, feldspars and some other mafic minerals as seen in hand specimen. They are found in the north-western part of the study area. Dolerites Dolerites may occur as dykes, sills, lopolith and laccoliths. The dolerites in the study area occur as dykes and are fine to medium grained, containing mainly mafic minerals and feldspars (Table 5 and Fig. 3). They occur in the rock types of the study area. The dolerites are the product of magma that cools quickly when it rises into weak areas and cracks to form crystals and dykes. Hornblende under PPL is brownish with moderate to high relief and show a subhedral crystal form with characterized two-directional cleavage. The pleochroism is green to brown. Under XPL birefringence is 0.02 with interference colour of second to third order. CONCLUSION Based on the field and microscopic observations, the petrographic evaluation depict that the studied area is a metamorphic terrain (Basement Complex). Three major cycles of deformation, metamorphism and remobilization including the Liberian, Eburnean and Pan-African orogeny may have affected the rocks as recorded in the literature. This is evident from the nature of structures and their trends (NE-SW, NNE-SSW, NW-SE, E-W) in the studied area. The intrusions which include dolerite and pegmatites are relatively the youngest rock units in the area since they are found to be intruding the basement rocks. The dolerite and pegmatite dykes are structurally controlled and assumed a common NE-SW, NNE-SSW trending direction. Fractures were first formed before the dykes. Therefore, it is worthy of note that mineralization in the area is structurally controlled. REFERENCES Ajibade AC, Rahaman MA, Ogezi AE (1987). The Pre- Cambrian Geology of Nigeria. A geochronological summary. In: Kogbe C.A. (Ed) Geology of Nigeria, 2nd Revised Edition. Rock View, Elizabethan Publisher (Nig.) Ltd., Jos. Pp. 191-207. Black R (1970). Late Paleozoic to recent igneous activities in the Basement structures. In: Clifford T.W,Gaas(eds) African magmatism and tectonics. Oliver and Boyd Ealinburgh, pp 185-210.
  • 7. Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria Int. J. Geol. Min. 109 Burke KC, Dewey JF (1972). Orogeny in Africa. In Dessauvagie TFJ, Whiteman A.J (eds), Africa geology. University of Ibadan Press, Ibadan. pp 583-608. Fitches WR, Ajibade AC, Egbuniwe IG, Holt RW, Wright JB (1985). Late Proterozoic SchistBelts Plutonism in North Western Nigeria. Geol. Sec. London pp 142,319- 337. Grant NK (1970). Geochronology of PreCambrian Basement Rocks from Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria. Earth plant Sci. Lett., 10: pp 29- 38. Holt RW (1982). The Geotectonic Evolution of Anka Belt in the Precambrian Basement Complex North Western Nigeria. The Open University. Kogbe CA (1989). Geology of Nigeria. Elizabethan Publishing Company Lagos, 530pp. Leblanc M (1981). The Late Proterozoic Ophiolitees of Bon Azzer (Morocco): Evidence for Pan African plate tectonics In:Kwoner A (ed). Macledo WN, Turner DC, Wright EO (1971). The Geology of the Jos, Plateau Vol. 1: General Geol. Surv. Nigeria, Bull. No. 32. Pp. 119. McCurry P. (1976). The Geology of the PreCambrian to Lower Paleozoic Rocks of Northern Nigeria. A general review. In: C.A. Kogbe (Ed) Geology of Nigeria. Elizabethan pub. Co. Lagos. Pp 15-39 Obiora SC (2005). Field Description of Hard Rocks with examples from the Nigerian Basement Complex1st (ed.) swap Press (Nig.) Ltd Enugu, 14pp Obiora SC (2008): Geology and Mineral Resources of the Precambrian Basement Complex of Nigeria. Rahaman MA (1976). Review of the basement geology of southwestern Nigeria, In: Kogbe, C.A. (ed.) Geology of Nigeria. Elizabethan Publishing Company. Lagos, 41- 58. Rahaman MA (1988). Recent Advances in study of the Basement Complex of Nigeria Precambrian geology of Nigeria. In: Oluyide et al., (eds) Precambrian Geology of Nigeria. Geological Survey of Nigeria Publication, Kaduna, 11-43. Schluter T, Trauth MH (2006). Geological Atlas of Atlas of Africa.pp.307 Turner DC (1983). Upper Proterozoic Schist Belt in Northern Sector of pan-African Precambrian Res. P. 21, pp. 55-79. Vaniman DT (1976). The Godani granodiorite plutons, Nigeria Petrology and the Regional Settings; Ph.D Thesis, University of California,Santa Cruz.pp123 Accepted 20 May, 2017. Citation: Ekeleme IA, Uzoegbu MU, Olorunyomi AE, Abalaka IE AI (2017). Petrographic evaluation of rocks around Arikya and its evirons, North Central Nigeria. International Journal Geology and Mining 3(1): 103-109. Copyright: © 2017 Ekeleme et al. This is an open- access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.