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Persuasion, Emotion & Trust
The Strategy of Persuasive Design




UK Brighton, 11th August 2009

Robert Gillham
Project Director EMEA, Human Factors International
Human Factors International



• 200+ user-centered design professionals
• 27 years of operating history
• Project teams composed of both “local” and “global” experts                      Courses in London,
• ISO certified offices (ISO 9001:2000)                                           Utrecht and Hamburg



                                                               London   Hamburg
                                  Minneapolis
                                                      Boston
                                  Fairfield
                  San Francisco                    New York
                                                 Baltimore
                                                                                                            Shanghai
                                              Chicago                             Mumbai
                                                                                              Pondicherry
                                                                                  Bangalore
                                                                                                     Singapore




                                                                                                                       2
Why Consumer Experience is Important




  79% of consumers will commit to a deeper brand relationship – through
    product or service adoption – after a satisfying online experience

  59% of customers will stop doing business with the brand after just one
    bad experience in any channel

  IBM customer study




      3
Initial relationship building has passed to the hands of the users




                                                                     Internet &
    Salesman                              Store
                                                                     Self-serve




       4
5
Persuasion, Emotion & Trust?




     Persuasion                 Emotion                    Trust
     • Communication            • Defined loosely as a     • To have faith or
       intended to induce         physiological state of     confidence in
       belief or action           arousal                    something or
     • Process of guiding       • Triggered by beliefs       someone
       someone toward the         about something
       adoption of an idea,     • Has cognitive,
       attitude, or action by     physiological, social,
       rational and symbolic      and behavioural
       means                      aspects
     • Not coercive



                                                                                6
“Six Weapons of Influence”

      • Reciprocity
      • Commitment
        Consistency
      • Social Proof
      • Authority
      • Liking
      • Scarcity


                             HFI Proposal: Project Title for Client   7
“Six Weapons of Influence”

      • Reciprocity
      • Commitment
        Consistency          • People tend to return a
      • Social Proof           favour
      • Authority
      • Liking
      • Scarcity




                                                         8
“Six Weapons of Influence”

      • Reciprocity
      • Commitment
        Consistency          • People behave more
      • Social Proof           consistently when they have
      • Authority              committed to something
      • Liking
      • Scarcity




                                                             9
“Six Weapons of Influence”

      • Reciprocity
      • Commitment
        Consistency          • People are more likely to do
      • Social Proof           what everyone else is doing
      • Authority
      • Liking
      • Scarcity




                                                              10
“Six Weapons of Influence”

      • Reciprocity
      • Commitment
        Consistency          • People will obey perceived
      • Social Proof           figures of authority
      • Authority
      • Liking
      • Scarcity




                                                            11
“Six Weapons of Influence”

      • Reciprocity
      • Commitment
        Consistency          • People are more likely to buy
      • Social Proof           from people they like
      • Authority
      • Liking
      • Scarcity




                                                               12
“Six Weapons of Influence”

      • Reciprocity
      • Commitment
        Consistency          • Goods become more valuable
      • Social Proof           as they become scare and we
      • Authority              compete for them
      • Liking
      • Scarcity




                                                         13
Tools for PET Design




14
PET – BEYOND the site
• Do consumers connect with the site?
• Does the experience educate?
• Do behaviors and attitudes change?




                         Will           Can
                         do?            do.
                                        USABILITY– WITHIN the site
                                        • Can users find information?
                                        • Do they understand what they find?
                                        • Can they interact with it?
    15
BUT, …. Emotion influences perceived usability


       Once a consumer feels positively (or negatively) about a product
       or service, their emotional reaction influences the perceived
       importance of small usability issues




                                                                      16
Challenges to PET design

     “You Can’t Just Ask”

     • Pantyhose Study by Nisbett and Wilson


           12%     17%     31%   40%




      “This pair is sheerer”
                                   “I think this pair is better
                                             made.”

                                                                  17
Tools for PET Research

      1. Desk-research
           •   Demographics
           •   Existing research (psychological and domain-specific)
      2. Priming Questions (Telling Stories)
           •   Lets talk about the last time you…
           •   Tell me what inspires you about…
      3. Open Exploration
      3. Conversion-related Tasks
           •   Physiological (eye tracking)
           •   Expressive (facial expressions, tone of voice, body language)
           •   Verbal
      4. Retrospective Analysis
           •   Emotion: Circle the emoticon
           •   Describe the site/Draw a picture/Read the text
      5. Trust Questions
                                                                               18
PET techniques illuminate/confirm drives, barriers & beliefs


                                                                                    Target Attitudes

                                                           Barrier                  Target Behavior
                                             Barrier
                          Barrier                          Barrier
            Belief                           Barrier                      Feeling
                          Barrier                          Barrier
           Feeling                                                        Belief




                                        Motivation
                                         or Drive

                        Feeling                                  Belief

                                    Belief             Feeling
                                                                                                  19
PET Design creates a conversation that addresses those issues to create a conversion path


                                                                              Target Attitudes

                                                          Barrier             Target Behavior
                                              Barrier
                           Barrier                                  Barrier
            Belief                            Barrier                             Feeling
                           Barrier                                  Barrier
           Feeling                             Web Site Exposure                   Belief




                                         Motivation
                                          or Drive
                                                     Consumer
                      Feeling                        Path           Belief

                                     Belief              Feeling
                                                                                            20
Finding the flow
HFI Case Study


 Persuasion, Emotion & Trust| New Product Messaging




22
Lovaza is in a new space: PharmaAlternative




                                       New pharma
                                         product


  Alternative                                                 Traditional
   Medicine                                                     Pharma

                                    Prescription supplement
PET techniques illuminate/confirm drives, barriers & beliefs




                                            Fear of
                                          prescription
                          Talking to      medications
                                                               Filling the script
                          the doctor
                                                                  takes effort
                       Is intimidating     Big Pharma
                                              is not
                                           trustworthy




                                                            I want to
                            I want to
                                                           learn more
                              protect
                                                           about how
                            my health
                                                         to be healthier
Drives | Protecting my health is critical




                                            “I want to
         Beliefs                              protect                      Feelings
                                            my health”
                                                                        Feel I can control
           Diet and exercise
                 Is hard
                                                                            Need to be there
                                                                             for my family
          Should be able
        to control through
        diet and exercise
                                                       Fear of early
                                                          death           Doubt whether
                                 I’m lazy                                  this will work

             Putting chemicals
              In your body Is               Uncertainty about
                bad for you                   level of risk            Hope this
                                                                       will work
Building Trust | People like me & people I like

       Do you know who I am?

       Challenge: I don’t see myself here
         – Only 3 photos: 2 people and a doctor
         – Physique is not representative

       Strategy
          – Show people throughout the site
          – Use a wider range of body type,
            especially heavier

       Addresses: Mistrust of Pharma (Block)
Current Strategy: Create urgency to drive action




                                    Get concerned about   Ask doctor about
          Visit the site
                                        triglycerides       prescription




             Get and fill           Numbers are down –    May stop taking
             prescription              fear reduced           meds
Augmented approach

   Goal: Create proactive health seekers
      • Create urgency to drive action
      • Educate to adherence



              Drive small,                                  Change behavior
                                             Modify
              incremental                                    to reflect new
                                           self-image
             commitments                                       self-image




                                        “I am a person      “I take my meds
               Fill out a                  who takes         consistently to
             questionnaire             responsibility for     maintain my
                                         their health”           health”
Measuring Persuasion | Analytics




29
Define where in the user journey we intend to attract, engage & persuade




                                                                           30
Enter Site      Browse &      Choose a            Start     Commit to          Converted
                 Explore   conversion path     “Checkout”    Convert           Visitor




    Unengaged                    Unpersuaded                     Unconverted
Common Analytics




 Common Conversion




           Enter Site          Browse &      Choose a          Start     Commit to   Converted
                                Explore   conversion path   “Checkout”    Convert    Visitor




 Common Conversion =Convα/Vα
Persuasion Analytics




 Common Conversion
                       Engaged Conversion



         Enter Site        Browse &                   Choose a          Start     Commit to   Converted
                            Explore                conversion path   “Checkout”    Convert    Visitor




                       Engaged Conversion =Convα/Vα-VU
Persuasion Analytics




 Common Conversion
                       Engaged Conversion
                                                                     Committed Conversion


         Enter Site        Browse &                   Choose a            Start                        Commit to     Converted
                            Explore                conversion path     “Checkout”                       Convert      Visitor




                       Engaged Conversion =Convα/Vα-VU               Committed Conversion =Convw/inpath /Vw/inpath
HFI Case Study | Persuasive Design


 AAA-MidAtlantic




35
Measuring discovery…




         36
What does AAA do?


   What people know….       What AAA does

   1. Roadside Assistance   1.   Membership benefits
   2. Trip-tiks             2.   Travel
                            3.   Automotive
                            4.   Entertainment Discounts
                            5.   Loans
                            6.   Insurance
                            7.   Banking


                                 The original design applied a sell everything everywhere
                                 strategy. This resulted in a cluttered and overwhelming sites.
                                 Benchmark eyetracking studies showed that visitors left the
                                 homepage before they even noticed the critical value of an AAA
                                 membership – saving money on every day purchases.

                                 Persuasion Emotion and Trust (PET) explored how target
                                 customers think about the products and services that AAA
                                 provides. One key finding was the seducible sequence for
                                 cross sell and upsell of related products and services.
Before
Is the website doing its job?




                                39
Members
       hip
     benefits



            Auto             Car
         Insurance      maintenance
                Extended tools & tips
                            Research
                warranty       car
                     Auto
                     Loan
40
Create different groupings than card sort…


   Original design                           HFI redesign




           41
Create different groupings than card sort…


   Original design                           HFI redesign




           42
Creating the Seductive Sequence




                                  43
Measurable Changes




                     44
From persuasion to profit …


  ROI – Membership

  • 2 x more visitors / day enter the join
    funnel

  • 17% convert in the funnel

  • Basic membership costs $60


  Conservatively:

  • 700 new members * 17% * $60 * 30
    days =

  • $214K increased conversion in 1st
    month

  • [Project cost recovery < 1 month]
Summary




46
• Human beings make decisions based on emotional
  responses as well as rational thought processes

• Usability governs ‘Can They Do It’, but Persuasion,
  Emotion & Trust governs ‘Will They Do It?’

• The tools for uncovering PET issues are similar but differ
  from usability (e.g. ‘Think Aloud’ isn’t much help)

• Psychological principles give us a framework for thinking
  about PET solutions

• PET can be engineered, measured and ROI justified

                                                           47

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Persuasion, Emotion & Trust: The Strategy of Persuasive Design

  • 1. Persuasion, Emotion & Trust The Strategy of Persuasive Design UK Brighton, 11th August 2009 Robert Gillham Project Director EMEA, Human Factors International
  • 2. Human Factors International • 200+ user-centered design professionals • 27 years of operating history • Project teams composed of both “local” and “global” experts Courses in London, • ISO certified offices (ISO 9001:2000) Utrecht and Hamburg London Hamburg Minneapolis Boston Fairfield San Francisco New York Baltimore Shanghai Chicago Mumbai Pondicherry Bangalore Singapore 2
  • 3. Why Consumer Experience is Important 79% of consumers will commit to a deeper brand relationship – through product or service adoption – after a satisfying online experience 59% of customers will stop doing business with the brand after just one bad experience in any channel IBM customer study 3
  • 4. Initial relationship building has passed to the hands of the users Internet & Salesman Store Self-serve 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. Persuasion, Emotion & Trust? Persuasion Emotion Trust • Communication • Defined loosely as a • To have faith or intended to induce physiological state of confidence in belief or action arousal something or • Process of guiding • Triggered by beliefs someone someone toward the about something adoption of an idea, • Has cognitive, attitude, or action by physiological, social, rational and symbolic and behavioural means aspects • Not coercive 6
  • 7. “Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • Social Proof • Authority • Liking • Scarcity HFI Proposal: Project Title for Client 7
  • 8. “Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • People tend to return a • Social Proof favour • Authority • Liking • Scarcity 8
  • 9. “Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • People behave more • Social Proof consistently when they have • Authority committed to something • Liking • Scarcity 9
  • 10. “Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • People are more likely to do • Social Proof what everyone else is doing • Authority • Liking • Scarcity 10
  • 11. “Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • People will obey perceived • Social Proof figures of authority • Authority • Liking • Scarcity 11
  • 12. “Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • People are more likely to buy • Social Proof from people they like • Authority • Liking • Scarcity 12
  • 13. “Six Weapons of Influence” • Reciprocity • Commitment Consistency • Goods become more valuable • Social Proof as they become scare and we • Authority compete for them • Liking • Scarcity 13
  • 14. Tools for PET Design 14
  • 15. PET – BEYOND the site • Do consumers connect with the site? • Does the experience educate? • Do behaviors and attitudes change? Will Can do? do. USABILITY– WITHIN the site • Can users find information? • Do they understand what they find? • Can they interact with it? 15
  • 16. BUT, …. Emotion influences perceived usability Once a consumer feels positively (or negatively) about a product or service, their emotional reaction influences the perceived importance of small usability issues 16
  • 17. Challenges to PET design “You Can’t Just Ask” • Pantyhose Study by Nisbett and Wilson 12% 17% 31% 40% “This pair is sheerer” “I think this pair is better made.” 17
  • 18. Tools for PET Research 1. Desk-research • Demographics • Existing research (psychological and domain-specific) 2. Priming Questions (Telling Stories) • Lets talk about the last time you… • Tell me what inspires you about… 3. Open Exploration 3. Conversion-related Tasks • Physiological (eye tracking) • Expressive (facial expressions, tone of voice, body language) • Verbal 4. Retrospective Analysis • Emotion: Circle the emoticon • Describe the site/Draw a picture/Read the text 5. Trust Questions 18
  • 19. PET techniques illuminate/confirm drives, barriers & beliefs Target Attitudes Barrier Target Behavior Barrier Barrier Barrier Belief Barrier Feeling Barrier Barrier Feeling Belief Motivation or Drive Feeling Belief Belief Feeling 19
  • 20. PET Design creates a conversation that addresses those issues to create a conversion path Target Attitudes Barrier Target Behavior Barrier Barrier Barrier Belief Barrier Feeling Barrier Barrier Feeling Web Site Exposure Belief Motivation or Drive Consumer Feeling Path Belief Belief Feeling 20
  • 22. HFI Case Study Persuasion, Emotion & Trust| New Product Messaging 22
  • 23. Lovaza is in a new space: PharmaAlternative New pharma product Alternative Traditional Medicine Pharma Prescription supplement
  • 24. PET techniques illuminate/confirm drives, barriers & beliefs Fear of prescription Talking to medications Filling the script the doctor takes effort Is intimidating Big Pharma is not trustworthy I want to I want to learn more protect about how my health to be healthier
  • 25. Drives | Protecting my health is critical “I want to Beliefs protect Feelings my health” Feel I can control Diet and exercise Is hard Need to be there for my family Should be able to control through diet and exercise Fear of early death Doubt whether I’m lazy this will work Putting chemicals In your body Is Uncertainty about bad for you level of risk Hope this will work
  • 26. Building Trust | People like me & people I like Do you know who I am? Challenge: I don’t see myself here – Only 3 photos: 2 people and a doctor – Physique is not representative Strategy – Show people throughout the site – Use a wider range of body type, especially heavier Addresses: Mistrust of Pharma (Block)
  • 27. Current Strategy: Create urgency to drive action Get concerned about Ask doctor about Visit the site triglycerides prescription Get and fill Numbers are down – May stop taking prescription fear reduced meds
  • 28. Augmented approach Goal: Create proactive health seekers • Create urgency to drive action • Educate to adherence Drive small, Change behavior Modify incremental to reflect new self-image commitments self-image “I am a person “I take my meds Fill out a who takes consistently to questionnaire responsibility for maintain my their health” health”
  • 29. Measuring Persuasion | Analytics 29
  • 30. Define where in the user journey we intend to attract, engage & persuade 30
  • 31. Enter Site Browse & Choose a Start Commit to Converted Explore conversion path “Checkout” Convert Visitor Unengaged Unpersuaded Unconverted
  • 32. Common Analytics Common Conversion Enter Site Browse & Choose a Start Commit to Converted Explore conversion path “Checkout” Convert Visitor Common Conversion =Convα/Vα
  • 33. Persuasion Analytics Common Conversion Engaged Conversion Enter Site Browse & Choose a Start Commit to Converted Explore conversion path “Checkout” Convert Visitor Engaged Conversion =Convα/Vα-VU
  • 34. Persuasion Analytics Common Conversion Engaged Conversion Committed Conversion Enter Site Browse & Choose a Start Commit to Converted Explore conversion path “Checkout” Convert Visitor Engaged Conversion =Convα/Vα-VU Committed Conversion =Convw/inpath /Vw/inpath
  • 35. HFI Case Study | Persuasive Design AAA-MidAtlantic 35
  • 37. What does AAA do? What people know…. What AAA does 1. Roadside Assistance 1. Membership benefits 2. Trip-tiks 2. Travel 3. Automotive 4. Entertainment Discounts 5. Loans 6. Insurance 7. Banking The original design applied a sell everything everywhere strategy. This resulted in a cluttered and overwhelming sites. Benchmark eyetracking studies showed that visitors left the homepage before they even noticed the critical value of an AAA membership – saving money on every day purchases. Persuasion Emotion and Trust (PET) explored how target customers think about the products and services that AAA provides. One key finding was the seducible sequence for cross sell and upsell of related products and services.
  • 39. Is the website doing its job? 39
  • 40. Members hip benefits Auto Car Insurance maintenance Extended tools & tips Research warranty car Auto Loan 40
  • 41. Create different groupings than card sort… Original design HFI redesign 41
  • 42. Create different groupings than card sort… Original design HFI redesign 42
  • 43. Creating the Seductive Sequence 43
  • 45. From persuasion to profit … ROI – Membership • 2 x more visitors / day enter the join funnel • 17% convert in the funnel • Basic membership costs $60 Conservatively: • 700 new members * 17% * $60 * 30 days = • $214K increased conversion in 1st month • [Project cost recovery < 1 month]
  • 47. • Human beings make decisions based on emotional responses as well as rational thought processes • Usability governs ‘Can They Do It’, but Persuasion, Emotion & Trust governs ‘Will They Do It?’ • The tools for uncovering PET issues are similar but differ from usability (e.g. ‘Think Aloud’ isn’t much help) • Psychological principles give us a framework for thinking about PET solutions • PET can be engineered, measured and ROI justified 47