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Personalized Health Care:  The Foundation of Rational Health Reform ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN
Science and Medicine ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN 1900s Germ Theory Chemistry Physiology Pathology Physics Find It Fix It Understanding Disease
Concepts of Disease ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Reductionism: Single factor Causative  Factor Disease
Contemporary Practice of Medicine ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN
Science and Medicine ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN 1900s Germ Theory Chemistry Physiology Pathology Physics 2000s Genomics Proteomics Metabolomics Systems Biology Informatics Micro/Nano Processing Find It Fix It Predict It Personalize It Understanding Disease Understanding Health,  Disease and Complexity
Concepts of Disease ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Emergence: Multiple factors Reductionism: Single factor Baseline  Risk Environmental Factors Preclinical Progression Disease Initiation Disease Progression Irreversible Damage Causative Factor Enhance Health and Well-Being Disease
©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Time Cost 1/reversibility Disease Burden Typical Current Intervention Earliest Clinical Detection Earliest Molecular Detection Baseline  Risk Initiating Events Stable Genomics   Dynamic Tracking Therapeutic Decision Support  Personalized, Predictive, Prevention Prevention Early Intervention End of Life Care Disease Management Personal Health Plan
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN New Clinical Tools
Predictive Model Development ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN CLINICAL DATA  COHORT OTHER PROTEOMIC GENETIC CLINICAL PREDICTIVE MODELER ADDITIONAL DATA;  NEW BIOMARKERS STATISTICAL VALIDATION y = f (x 1 , x 2 ,…x n  ) OUT OF SAMPLE  POPULATIONS DATA PREDICTION MODELS BASELINE RISK DISEASE PROGRESSION EVENT PREDICTION DECISION SUPPORT PATIENT  PHYSICIAN PATIENT’S DATA PREDICTIVE MODEL CLINICAL EVENT
Paradigm Shift to Personalization ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Traditional Medical  Evaluation and Record Chief Complaint History of Illness Past Medical History Family History Social History  Physical Exam Diagnostic Tests Assessment and Plan Personalized Health  Plan Health Risk Assessment Current Health Status Tracking Wellness and Pathogenesis Clinical Event Prediction Wellness Plans Therapeutic Plans
©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Personalized Health Plan PATIENT’S EVALUATION Medical “work up” -- including relevant predictive factors and biomarkers PATIENT’S OUTCOME Tracking Data Clinical Event Data Patient’s Digital Data Base Risk Models Library PERSONALIZED HEALTH PLAN Current Health Status Health Risk Assessment Health Risk Tracking Disease Event Prediction Health and Wellness Plans Therapeutic Plans
Fragmented Health Care ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN PRIMARY  CARE SPECIALTY CARE HOSPITAL CARE ER CARE URGENT CARE SELF CARE
©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Model for Personalized Health Approach PATIENT PHYSICIAN PERSONAL HEALTH PLAN Health Risk Assessment Current Status Health Tracking Health and Wellness Plan Health Enhancement Resources Navigator Health Care Provider Team And Resources Integrated Delivery System
Personal Health Plan Coordinates Care   ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN PRIMARY  CARE SPECIALTY CARE HOSPITAL CARE ER CARE URGENT CARE SELF CARE Health Navigator Personal Health Plan
Clinical Decision Support at the Point of Care ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN EHR Clinical Risk Predictors Clinical Decision Support Diagnostics Selectors Therapeutic Predictors Payer Adjudication PDx Server Clinical Research New Model  Validation Biocausality Engine
Example:  A point-of-care predictive test for  prevention of febrile neutropenia (FN) ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Key Factors in Health Care Reform
©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN “ There is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to manage than the creation of a new system.  The initiator has the enmity of all who profit from the old institution and merely lukewarm defenders in those who would gain the new ones.” Niccolo Machiavelli
©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN “ Is is not the strongest of the species that survives, but rather the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darvin

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Personalized Health Care: The Foundation of Rational Health Reform

  • 1.
  • 2. Science and Medicine ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN 1900s Germ Theory Chemistry Physiology Pathology Physics Find It Fix It Understanding Disease
  • 3. Concepts of Disease ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Reductionism: Single factor Causative Factor Disease
  • 4.
  • 5. Science and Medicine ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN 1900s Germ Theory Chemistry Physiology Pathology Physics 2000s Genomics Proteomics Metabolomics Systems Biology Informatics Micro/Nano Processing Find It Fix It Predict It Personalize It Understanding Disease Understanding Health, Disease and Complexity
  • 6. Concepts of Disease ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Emergence: Multiple factors Reductionism: Single factor Baseline Risk Environmental Factors Preclinical Progression Disease Initiation Disease Progression Irreversible Damage Causative Factor Enhance Health and Well-Being Disease
  • 7. ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Time Cost 1/reversibility Disease Burden Typical Current Intervention Earliest Clinical Detection Earliest Molecular Detection Baseline Risk Initiating Events Stable Genomics Dynamic Tracking Therapeutic Decision Support Personalized, Predictive, Prevention Prevention Early Intervention End of Life Care Disease Management Personal Health Plan
  • 8.
  • 9. Predictive Model Development ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN CLINICAL DATA COHORT OTHER PROTEOMIC GENETIC CLINICAL PREDICTIVE MODELER ADDITIONAL DATA; NEW BIOMARKERS STATISTICAL VALIDATION y = f (x 1 , x 2 ,…x n ) OUT OF SAMPLE POPULATIONS DATA PREDICTION MODELS BASELINE RISK DISEASE PROGRESSION EVENT PREDICTION DECISION SUPPORT PATIENT PHYSICIAN PATIENT’S DATA PREDICTIVE MODEL CLINICAL EVENT
  • 10. Paradigm Shift to Personalization ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Traditional Medical Evaluation and Record Chief Complaint History of Illness Past Medical History Family History Social History Physical Exam Diagnostic Tests Assessment and Plan Personalized Health Plan Health Risk Assessment Current Health Status Tracking Wellness and Pathogenesis Clinical Event Prediction Wellness Plans Therapeutic Plans
  • 11. ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Personalized Health Plan PATIENT’S EVALUATION Medical “work up” -- including relevant predictive factors and biomarkers PATIENT’S OUTCOME Tracking Data Clinical Event Data Patient’s Digital Data Base Risk Models Library PERSONALIZED HEALTH PLAN Current Health Status Health Risk Assessment Health Risk Tracking Disease Event Prediction Health and Wellness Plans Therapeutic Plans
  • 12. Fragmented Health Care ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN PRIMARY CARE SPECIALTY CARE HOSPITAL CARE ER CARE URGENT CARE SELF CARE
  • 13. ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN Model for Personalized Health Approach PATIENT PHYSICIAN PERSONAL HEALTH PLAN Health Risk Assessment Current Status Health Tracking Health and Wellness Plan Health Enhancement Resources Navigator Health Care Provider Team And Resources Integrated Delivery System
  • 14. Personal Health Plan Coordinates Care ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN PRIMARY CARE SPECIALTY CARE HOSPITAL CARE ER CARE URGENT CARE SELF CARE Health Navigator Personal Health Plan
  • 15. Clinical Decision Support at the Point of Care ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN EHR Clinical Risk Predictors Clinical Decision Support Diagnostics Selectors Therapeutic Predictors Payer Adjudication PDx Server Clinical Research New Model Validation Biocausality Engine
  • 16. Example: A point-of-care predictive test for prevention of febrile neutropenia (FN) ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN
  • 17.
  • 18. ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN “ There is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to manage than the creation of a new system. The initiator has the enmity of all who profit from the old institution and merely lukewarm defenders in those who would gain the new ones.” Niccolo Machiavelli
  • 19. ©2009 RALPH SNYDERMAN “ Is is not the strongest of the species that survives, but rather the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darvin

Editor's Notes

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  16. 10/01/09 Studies by Caggiano et al. (Cancer 2005) and Weiss et al. (Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2003) have estimated the national incidence of hospitalizations for FN at ~60,000 which gives an incidence of disease of ~0.78%. In the sentinel work by Boggs et al. (Cancer 1960), 44% of cancer patients with fever were found to have an infection. In a review of 7 hospital discharge databases with ~12M patients (all types of tumors), Caggiano et al. (Cancer 2005) found that the overall mortality rate in hospitalized neutropenic patients was 6.8%. Also found that the LOS was 10.1 +/- 11.2 days Mean cost for hospitalization from FN was $14,900 +/- $23,600
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