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PERSONALITY & THEORIES
OF PERSONALITY
Presented by:
Saakshi gulati
CONTENTS
♦ PERSONALITY- DEFINED
♦ NATURE OF PERSONALITY
♦ THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
♦ SHAPING OF PERSONALITY
♦ STAGES OF PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT
♦ THE BIG-FIVE
♦ PERSONALITY TRAITS
Personality – Definition
♦ Refers to a set if unique characteristics
that makes an individual different from
others .
♦ Nature : Internal and external element s,
relatively stable , Inherited and
dependant on the environment.
Nature of personality
♦ Has both internal and external elements
♦ It is relatively stable
♦ Inherited and shaped by the
environment .
♦ Strikingly different from one individual
to another
Theories of personality
TYPE THEORIES
♦ Classification on the basis of body structure
: Kretschemer and Sheldon : Short person
( Endomorphs ) and heavy muscular
( Mesomorphs )
♦ Classification on the basis of psychological
factors : By Carl Jung : Introverts and
extroverts .
TRAIT THEORY
♦ Enduring attribute of a person that appears
consistently in varied situations.
♦ Done through personality Inventory
Questionnaire
PSYCHOANALYTIC
THEORY
♦ Sigmund Freud
♦ Composed of Three elements – Id , Ego , superego
♦ Id- Latin word for “It”.- innate component –mental
agency containing everything that is inherited, present at
birth and is in instincts-raw , animalistic, unorganised ,
obeys no rule, basic to individual life – Justifies the
primary principle of human life ie immediate discharge of
psychic energy( libido) and is based on the pleasure
principle – may be through imagination at times.
♦ Ego: Develops out of Id to satisfy the real world – Tests
the reality
♦ Superego : Systems of values , ethics , norms and attitude
which are reasonably compatible – strive for perfection
SOCIAL LEARNING
THEORY
♦ Two types of learning : Learning through
experience or through reinforcement and learning
through observing others ( Vicarious Learning)
♦ Regard situation as an important determinant of
behaviour .
♦ Individual Determinants of behaviour :
Competencies, Cognitive strategies, Outcome
expectations ,Subjective value outcomes , Self
regulatory systems and plans
HUMANISTIC APPROACH
♦ Rogers Self Theory : Phenomenology is the
study of individual’s subjective
experiences, feelings and private concepts
as well as his view of the self and that of
the world .
♦ Maslow’s Self actualization Theory
Shaping of Personality
Freud’s Stages of Personality
Development
Stage Age MajorCharacteristics
Oral 0-1 year Interest in oral gratification from sucking, eating, mouthing,
and biting.
Anal 1-3years Gratification from expelling and withholding faeces; coming
to termswith society’scontrolsrelating to toilet-training
Phallic 3-4 years lnterest in thegenitals, coming to termswith Oedipal conflict,
leading to identification with same-sex parent
Latency 4-6 yearsto Sexual concernslargeunimportant
adolescence
Genital Adolescence Re-emergenceof sexual interestsand establishment of
to adulthood maturesexual relationships.
THE‘BIG FIVE’ PERSONALITY TRAITS
PERSONALITY TRAITS
SUMMARY
• Personality refers to the internal and external traits of an individual which are relatively stable and
which maketheindividual different from others.
• According to type theories, personalities are categorized into groups based on physical features and
psychological factors.
• Thetraitstheory seeksto catagorisepeoplebased on their traits.
• Freud’spsychoanalytic theory seeksto explain personality ascomprising id, ego, and superego.
• The social learning theory emphasizestheprocessof learning. Situation isconsidered to be an important
determinant of behaviour.
• Roger’sself theory laysemphasison how an individual perceivestheworld around and theself.
• Maslow’sself-actualization theory isbased on existential philosophy.
• Existential philosophy is concerned with man as an individual and each person is responsible for his
own existence.
• Freud wasthefirst person to suggest that personality goesthrough oral, anal, phallic, and genital stages.
• Erik Erikson developed eight stageswhich heclaimed could describethedevelopment of personality.
• Jean Piaget and ChrisArgyrishavealso contributed to theshaping of personality.
• Personality istheproduct of heredity, environment, family, social, and situational factors.
• The ‘Big Five’ personality traits includes extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional
stability, and opennessof experience.
• The Myres-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is highly usefu1 in hiring the right people for the right jobs.
Authoritarianism, locus of control, Machiavellianism, introversion and extroversion, risk-taking, self-
esteem, and achievement orientation areother dimensionsof personality that arehighly relevant to OB.
• Understanding personality is very important as it influences behaviour, as well as perception and
attitudes. Personality profileshelp categorizepeopleand predict their performancetoo.
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Personality & ; theories of personality

  • 1. PERSONALITY & THEORIES OF PERSONALITY Presented by: Saakshi gulati
  • 2. CONTENTS ♦ PERSONALITY- DEFINED ♦ NATURE OF PERSONALITY ♦ THEORIES OF PERSONALITY ♦ SHAPING OF PERSONALITY ♦ STAGES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT ♦ THE BIG-FIVE ♦ PERSONALITY TRAITS
  • 3. Personality – Definition ♦ Refers to a set if unique characteristics that makes an individual different from others . ♦ Nature : Internal and external element s, relatively stable , Inherited and dependant on the environment.
  • 4. Nature of personality ♦ Has both internal and external elements ♦ It is relatively stable ♦ Inherited and shaped by the environment . ♦ Strikingly different from one individual to another
  • 6. TYPE THEORIES ♦ Classification on the basis of body structure : Kretschemer and Sheldon : Short person ( Endomorphs ) and heavy muscular ( Mesomorphs ) ♦ Classification on the basis of psychological factors : By Carl Jung : Introverts and extroverts .
  • 7. TRAIT THEORY ♦ Enduring attribute of a person that appears consistently in varied situations. ♦ Done through personality Inventory Questionnaire
  • 8. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY ♦ Sigmund Freud ♦ Composed of Three elements – Id , Ego , superego ♦ Id- Latin word for “It”.- innate component –mental agency containing everything that is inherited, present at birth and is in instincts-raw , animalistic, unorganised , obeys no rule, basic to individual life – Justifies the primary principle of human life ie immediate discharge of psychic energy( libido) and is based on the pleasure principle – may be through imagination at times. ♦ Ego: Develops out of Id to satisfy the real world – Tests the reality ♦ Superego : Systems of values , ethics , norms and attitude which are reasonably compatible – strive for perfection
  • 9. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY ♦ Two types of learning : Learning through experience or through reinforcement and learning through observing others ( Vicarious Learning) ♦ Regard situation as an important determinant of behaviour . ♦ Individual Determinants of behaviour : Competencies, Cognitive strategies, Outcome expectations ,Subjective value outcomes , Self regulatory systems and plans
  • 10. HUMANISTIC APPROACH ♦ Rogers Self Theory : Phenomenology is the study of individual’s subjective experiences, feelings and private concepts as well as his view of the self and that of the world . ♦ Maslow’s Self actualization Theory
  • 12. Freud’s Stages of Personality Development Stage Age MajorCharacteristics Oral 0-1 year Interest in oral gratification from sucking, eating, mouthing, and biting. Anal 1-3years Gratification from expelling and withholding faeces; coming to termswith society’scontrolsrelating to toilet-training Phallic 3-4 years lnterest in thegenitals, coming to termswith Oedipal conflict, leading to identification with same-sex parent Latency 4-6 yearsto Sexual concernslargeunimportant adolescence Genital Adolescence Re-emergenceof sexual interestsand establishment of to adulthood maturesexual relationships.
  • 15. SUMMARY • Personality refers to the internal and external traits of an individual which are relatively stable and which maketheindividual different from others. • According to type theories, personalities are categorized into groups based on physical features and psychological factors. • Thetraitstheory seeksto catagorisepeoplebased on their traits. • Freud’spsychoanalytic theory seeksto explain personality ascomprising id, ego, and superego. • The social learning theory emphasizestheprocessof learning. Situation isconsidered to be an important determinant of behaviour. • Roger’sself theory laysemphasison how an individual perceivestheworld around and theself. • Maslow’sself-actualization theory isbased on existential philosophy. • Existential philosophy is concerned with man as an individual and each person is responsible for his own existence. • Freud wasthefirst person to suggest that personality goesthrough oral, anal, phallic, and genital stages. • Erik Erikson developed eight stageswhich heclaimed could describethedevelopment of personality. • Jean Piaget and ChrisArgyrishavealso contributed to theshaping of personality. • Personality istheproduct of heredity, environment, family, social, and situational factors. • The ‘Big Five’ personality traits includes extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and opennessof experience. • The Myres-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is highly usefu1 in hiring the right people for the right jobs. Authoritarianism, locus of control, Machiavellianism, introversion and extroversion, risk-taking, self- esteem, and achievement orientation areother dimensionsof personality that arehighly relevant to OB. • Understanding personality is very important as it influences behaviour, as well as perception and attitudes. Personality profileshelp categorizepeopleand predict their performancetoo.