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KONSTRUKSI ALAT UKUR           Personality
                                  and
           PSIKOLOGI           Measurement




  www.humanikaconsulting.com
WHAT IS PERSONALITY?

Personality
 patterns of
  behaving and
  thinking that are
  consistent across
  a variety of
  situations
FOUR THEORIES OF PERSONALIT Y




                   1.   Psychoanalytic
                   2.   Trait
                   3.   Humanistic
                   4.   Socio-Cognitive
THE PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY




Freud’s theory:
 unconscious motivations
 influence personality
THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE


            Psychoanalysis (Freud)
             Theory: our actions are
              due to unconscious
              conflicts
             Therapy: treating
              psychological disorders
              by uncovering and
              interpreting unconscious
              conflicts
THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE


Free Association
 method of
  exploring the
  unconscious
 person relaxes and
  says whatever
  comes to mind, no
  matter how trivial
  or embarrassing
THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE

           Unconscious (Freud)
             A reservoir of mostly unacceptable
              thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories

            Two main unconscious
             instincts:
              sex and aggression
           Preconscious
             information that is not conscious but is
              retrievable into conscious awareness
THREE PERSONALITY STRUCTURES


1. Id
2. Ego
3. Superego
PERSONALITY STRUCTURE


 Ego      Conscious mind   Freud’s idea
             Unconscious
                mind
                            of the
       Superego             mind’s
  Id
                            structure
PERSONALITY STRUCTURE

Id
 unconscious
  psychic energy
 strives to satisfy
  basic sexual and
  aggressive instincts
 operates on the
  pleasure principle,
  seeking immediate
  gratification
PERSONALITY STRUCTURE


Superego
 our conscience
 given to us by
  family/society
 operates on
  morality principle,
  sets standards right
  vs. wrong
PERSONALITY STRUCTURE

Ego
 conscious part of
  personality
 mediates conflict
  between id and
  superego
 operates on the
  reality principle,
  delays gratification
  of id impulses
DEFENSE MECHANISMS


           Defense Mechanisms
             conflicts of id and superego
              produce anxiety
             defense mechanisms
              reduce anxiety by distorting
              reality
DEFENSE MECHANISMS: EXAMPLES


 Regression
   retreating to behavior
    appropriate for an earlier
    stage of development (e.g.,
    temper tantrum)
 Repression
   pushing anxiety arousing
    thoughts into the unconscious
    (e.g., serious traumas like
    rape)
DEFENSE MECHANISMS


      Reaction Formation
        expressing feelings that are the opposite of
         their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
        (e.g., Ban the filth! I hate homosexuals!)
DEFENSE MECHANISMS
 Projection
   disguising our own
    impulses by
    attributing them to
    others (e.g., You
    always start
    arguments!)
 Rationalization
   making up an
    untrue
    justification to
    ourselves for
    doing something
    (e.g., sour grapes)
DEFENSE MECHANISMS

         Displacement
           shifting sexual or aggressive
            impulses toward a less threatening
            object or person
           (e.g., kicking the dog!)


         Sublimation
           rechanneling of unacceptable
            impulses into socially approved
            activities (e.g., a great artist who
            paints nudes!)
ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS



 Projective Tests
   used to assess personality (e.g.,
    Rorschach or TAT tests)
   How? provides ambiguous stimuli and
    subject projects his or her motives
    into the ambiguous stimuli
ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS--TAT

                   Thematic
                   Apperception
                   Test (TAT)
                   people express
                   their inner
                   motives through
                   the stories they
                   make up about
                   ambiguous
                   scenes
ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS --
             RORSCHACH


 Rorschach
  Inkblot Test
   the most widely
    used projective
    test
   a set of 10
    inkblots
    designed by
    Hermann
    Rorschach
ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS--
        RORSCHACH




                   used to identify
                   people’s inner
                   feelings by
                   analyzing their
                   interpretations
                   of the blots
PERSONALIT Y TESTS

 Good tests are reliable and valid
   reliable: consistent, getting the same results each time the test is
    administered
   valid: measure what it is suppose to measure
CRITIQUE OF PSYCHOANALY TIC THEORY


                  (+) Can help us understand
                   ego defenses used by
                         everyone (and OK to
                   use if not overused)
                  (+) Alerts us to the
                   unconscious causes of
                   behavior
                  (-) Assessment is
                   subjective (TAT, Rorschach)
                  (-) Reliability and validity
                   of measurement are
                        problems
THE TRAIT THEORY
 Trait
   a characteristic pattern of behavior
   usually assessed by self-report inventories
ASSESSING (MEASURING) TRAITS

 Personality Inventory
   a questionnaire (often with true-false
    or agree-disagree items) designed to
    assess traits
   objective scoring -- a real plus!
ASSESSING TRAITS: AN EXAMPLE


                Minnesota Multiphasic
                 Personality Inventory
                 (MMPI)
                  the most widely researched
                   and clinically used of all
                   personality tests
                  developed to identify
                   emotional disorders
MMPI: EXAMPLE OF ITEMS!

“Nothing in the
 newspaper
 interests me
 except the
 comics.”

“I get angry
 sometimes.”
MMPI -- VALIDITY

Empirically Derived Test
 1 . Select two groups of subjects
     (e.g., clinically depressed vs normals)
 2. give a large pool of questions to them
 3. keep only those questions that
     discriminate between groups
MMPI
                                                                                Clinically
                  Hypochondriasis 1                                            significant
    (concern with body symptoms)                                                 range
                      Depression 2
        (pessimism, hopelessness)
                                                                                              Minnesota
                          Hysteria 3
(uses symptoms to solve problems)
                                                       After
                                                     treatment                                 Multiphasic
                                                    (no scores
            Psychopathic deviancy 4
                                                 in the clinically
                                                significant range
                                                                                    Before
                                                                                  treatment
                                                                                               Personality
    (disregard for social standards)
               Masculinity/femininity 5
  (interests like those of other sex)
                                                                                  (anxious,
                                                                                 depressed,
                                                                                     and
                                                                                               Inventory
                          Paranoia
       (delusions, suspiciousness)
                                       6                                         displaying
                                                                                    deviant    (MMPI) test
                                                                                               profile
                                                                                 behaviors)
                   Psychasthenia 7
           (anxious, guilt feelings)
                                       8
                     Schizophrenia
      (withdrawn, bizarre thoughts)
                                       9
                        Hypomania
    (overactive, excited, impulsive)
                                       10
                Social introversion
                   (shy, inhibited)
                                            0      30      40        50   60   70    80

                                                                     T-score
THE FIRST TRAIT THEORY
                     UNSTABLE
             Moody
                                                     Two Factor Trait
                            Touchy
         Anxious              Restless
       Rigid
     Sober
                              Aggressive
                                  Excitable           Theory of
  Pessimistic
 Reserved
                                 Changeable
                                     Impulsive
                                                      Personality
Unsociable                            Optimistic
Quiet                                     Active
           melancholic choleric
INTROVERTED                     EXTRAVERTED
Passive       phlegmatic sanguine
                                          Sociable
Careful                                 Outgoing
 Thoughtful                            Talkative
   Peaceful                        Responsive
    Controlled                     Easygoing
       Reliable                      Lively
        Even-tempered           Carefree
            Calm           Leadership
                      STABLE
THE “BIG FIVE” PERSONALITY
          FACTORS
 Trait                  Description
 Emotional Stability   Calm versus anxious
                       Secure versus insecure
                       Self-satisfied versus self-pitying
 Extraversion          Sociable versus retiring
                       Fun-loving versus sober
                       Affectionate versus reserved
 Openness              Imaginative versus practical
                       Preference for variety versus
                       preference for routine
                       Independent versus conforming
 Agreeableness          Soft-hearted versus ruthless
                        Trusting versus suspicious
                        Helpful versus uncooperative
 Conscientiousness     Organized versus disorganized
                       Careful versus careless
                       Disciplined versus impulsive
CRITIQUE OF TRAIT THEORY
 (+) Can help us categorize and predict others’ behavior
 (+) Can aid in self understanding
 (+) Measurement of traits can be done objectively (reliably and
  validly)
 (-) Traits describe behavior, but don’t explain behavior
 (-) Trait theory underestimates the power of the situation in
  determining behavior
HUMANISTIC THEORY:
               EMPHASIS ON THE SELF


 Self-Concept
   one’s perception of
    oneself: “Who am I?”
 Ideal Self
   the self I would like to be
 Real Self
   the way I really am
HUMANISTIC THEORY:
               THE SELVES

            Self Concept




             (defense      (low self-
             mechanisms)   esteem)




Real Self                               Ideal Self
HUMANISTIC THEORY:
             EMPHASIS ON THE SELF




 Self-Esteem
   one’s feelings of high or low self-worth
     Physical
     Intellectual
     Social
HIGH SELF-ESTEEM: A GOOD THING?



                       Low Self-Esteem:
                        Experiments tell
                        us
                         heightened
                          prejudice
                         heightened
                          judgmentalism
                       High Self-
                        Esteem:
                         lower levels of
                          depression
HUMANISTIC THEORY:
                   ONE MORE SELF!



 Self-Serving Bias
   a readiness to perceive
    oneself favorably
   “somewhat likely” to go to
    heaven?
     OJ Simpson, Bill Clinton,
      Michael Jordon, Mother
      Theresa, or ________ !!
HUMANISTIC THEORY: A
WESTERN PERSPECTIVE


              Individualism (West)
                defining one’s identity in
                 terms of personal
                 attributes (introverted, etc.)
                giving priority to one’s own
                 goals over group goals
              Collectivism (East)
                defining one’s identity with
                 group identifications (bin,
                 means “son of”)
                giving priority to the goals
                 of one’s group over one’s
                 own goals
HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE

Value Contrasts Between Individualism and Collectivism
Concept          Individualism                        Collectivism
Self            Independent                           Interdependent
                (identity from individual traits)     (identity from belonging)
Life task       Discover and express one’s            Maintain connections, fit in
                uniqueness
What matters    Me--personal achievement and          We--group goals and solidarity;
                fulfillment; rights and liberties     social responsibilities and
                                                      relationships
Coping method   Change reality                        Accommodate to reality
Morality         Defined by individuals               Defined by social networks
                (self-based)                          (duty-based)
Relationships   Many, often temporary or casual;      Few, close and enduring;
                confrontation acceptable              harmony valued
Attributing     Behavior reflects one’s personality   Behavior reflects social
behaviors       and attitudes                         and roles
CRITIQUE OF HUMANISTIC THEORY

                 (+) Makes the SELF
                  central to our
                  understanding of
                  behavior
                 (-) Culture-bound
                  theory (applies to the
                  West)
                 (-) Is too subjective,
                  not objective
                 (-) Maybe overly
                  optimistic view of
                  human nature (all of
                  us are moving toward
                  self-actualization?)
SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY




 Behavior is due to
   Social influences (other people)
   Cognitive influences (how we
    perceive ourselves and our social
    environment)
SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY (MODEL)


                  Social Influences:
                   “My friends do
                   well in school.”




  Behavior                               Cognitive Influences:
(I perform well                         “I know if I work hard,
   in school)                          I can do well in school)
SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE-
       LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
 Learned Helplessness




    Bad Events



                             Cognition:
                         “I perceive I don’t
                            have control”



                                               I feel helpless
SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY


 Personal Control
   a cognitive factor (in the model)
   our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling
    helpless
LOCUS OF CONTROL

 Internal Locus of Control
   the perception that one controls one’s own fate
 External Locus of Control
   the perception that outside forces determine one’s fate
SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
Positive Psychology
 scientific study of ways to foster a
  healthy personality and community
Key Concept: Learned Optimism
 expecting positive events to occur an
  seeing oneself as competent.
 research: optimistic people live
  longer/healthier lives
CRITIQUE OF SOCIAL-COGNITIVE
             THEORY

 (+) Based on solid
  research
 (+) Takes into account
  both personality
  (especially cognition) and
  social situation
 (-) Underemphasizes
  importance of traits
FOR BETTER 1NDONESIA

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Personality and Measurement

  • 1. KONSTRUKSI ALAT UKUR Personality and PSIKOLOGI Measurement www.humanikaconsulting.com
  • 2. WHAT IS PERSONALITY? Personality patterns of behaving and thinking that are consistent across a variety of situations
  • 3. FOUR THEORIES OF PERSONALIT Y 1. Psychoanalytic 2. Trait 3. Humanistic 4. Socio-Cognitive
  • 4. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Freud’s theory: unconscious motivations influence personality
  • 5. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE Psychoanalysis (Freud) Theory: our actions are due to unconscious conflicts Therapy: treating psychological disorders by uncovering and interpreting unconscious conflicts
  • 6. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE Free Association method of exploring the unconscious person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
  • 7. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE  Unconscious (Freud)  A reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories Two main unconscious instincts: sex and aggression  Preconscious  information that is not conscious but is retrievable into conscious awareness
  • 8. THREE PERSONALITY STRUCTURES 1. Id 2. Ego 3. Superego
  • 9. PERSONALITY STRUCTURE Ego Conscious mind Freud’s idea Unconscious mind of the Superego mind’s Id structure
  • 10. PERSONALITY STRUCTURE Id unconscious psychic energy strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive instincts operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification
  • 11. PERSONALITY STRUCTURE Superego our conscience given to us by family/society operates on morality principle, sets standards right vs. wrong
  • 12. PERSONALITY STRUCTURE Ego conscious part of personality mediates conflict between id and superego operates on the reality principle, delays gratification of id impulses
  • 13. DEFENSE MECHANISMS  Defense Mechanisms  conflicts of id and superego produce anxiety  defense mechanisms reduce anxiety by distorting reality
  • 14. DEFENSE MECHANISMS: EXAMPLES  Regression  retreating to behavior appropriate for an earlier stage of development (e.g., temper tantrum)  Repression  pushing anxiety arousing thoughts into the unconscious (e.g., serious traumas like rape)
  • 15. DEFENSE MECHANISMS  Reaction Formation  expressing feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings (e.g., Ban the filth! I hate homosexuals!)
  • 16. DEFENSE MECHANISMS  Projection  disguising our own impulses by attributing them to others (e.g., You always start arguments!)  Rationalization  making up an untrue justification to ourselves for doing something (e.g., sour grapes)
  • 17. DEFENSE MECHANISMS  Displacement  shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a less threatening object or person (e.g., kicking the dog!)  Sublimation  rechanneling of unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities (e.g., a great artist who paints nudes!)
  • 18. ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS  Projective Tests  used to assess personality (e.g., Rorschach or TAT tests)  How? provides ambiguous stimuli and subject projects his or her motives into the ambiguous stimuli
  • 19. ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS--TAT Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) people express their inner motives through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
  • 20. ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS -- RORSCHACH  Rorschach Inkblot Test  the most widely used projective test  a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach
  • 21. ASSESSING THE UNCONSCIOUS-- RORSCHACH used to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
  • 22. PERSONALIT Y TESTS  Good tests are reliable and valid  reliable: consistent, getting the same results each time the test is administered  valid: measure what it is suppose to measure
  • 23. CRITIQUE OF PSYCHOANALY TIC THEORY  (+) Can help us understand ego defenses used by everyone (and OK to use if not overused)  (+) Alerts us to the unconscious causes of behavior  (-) Assessment is subjective (TAT, Rorschach)  (-) Reliability and validity of measurement are problems
  • 24. THE TRAIT THEORY  Trait  a characteristic pattern of behavior  usually assessed by self-report inventories
  • 25. ASSESSING (MEASURING) TRAITS  Personality Inventory  a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to assess traits  objective scoring -- a real plus!
  • 26. ASSESSING TRAITS: AN EXAMPLE  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)  the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests  developed to identify emotional disorders
  • 27. MMPI: EXAMPLE OF ITEMS! “Nothing in the newspaper interests me except the comics.” “I get angry sometimes.”
  • 28. MMPI -- VALIDITY Empirically Derived Test 1 . Select two groups of subjects (e.g., clinically depressed vs normals) 2. give a large pool of questions to them 3. keep only those questions that discriminate between groups
  • 29. MMPI Clinically Hypochondriasis 1 significant (concern with body symptoms) range Depression 2 (pessimism, hopelessness) Minnesota Hysteria 3 (uses symptoms to solve problems) After treatment Multiphasic (no scores Psychopathic deviancy 4 in the clinically significant range Before treatment Personality (disregard for social standards) Masculinity/femininity 5 (interests like those of other sex) (anxious, depressed, and Inventory Paranoia (delusions, suspiciousness) 6 displaying deviant (MMPI) test profile behaviors) Psychasthenia 7 (anxious, guilt feelings) 8 Schizophrenia (withdrawn, bizarre thoughts) 9 Hypomania (overactive, excited, impulsive) 10 Social introversion (shy, inhibited) 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 T-score
  • 30. THE FIRST TRAIT THEORY UNSTABLE Moody Two Factor Trait Touchy Anxious Restless Rigid Sober Aggressive Excitable Theory of Pessimistic Reserved Changeable Impulsive Personality Unsociable Optimistic Quiet Active melancholic choleric INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED Passive phlegmatic sanguine Sociable Careful Outgoing Thoughtful Talkative Peaceful Responsive Controlled Easygoing Reliable Lively Even-tempered Carefree Calm Leadership STABLE
  • 31. THE “BIG FIVE” PERSONALITY FACTORS Trait Description Emotional Stability Calm versus anxious Secure versus insecure Self-satisfied versus self-pitying Extraversion Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming Agreeableness Soft-hearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized Careful versus careless Disciplined versus impulsive
  • 32. CRITIQUE OF TRAIT THEORY  (+) Can help us categorize and predict others’ behavior  (+) Can aid in self understanding  (+) Measurement of traits can be done objectively (reliably and validly)  (-) Traits describe behavior, but don’t explain behavior  (-) Trait theory underestimates the power of the situation in determining behavior
  • 33. HUMANISTIC THEORY: EMPHASIS ON THE SELF  Self-Concept  one’s perception of oneself: “Who am I?”  Ideal Self  the self I would like to be  Real Self  the way I really am
  • 34. HUMANISTIC THEORY: THE SELVES Self Concept (defense (low self- mechanisms) esteem) Real Self Ideal Self
  • 35. HUMANISTIC THEORY: EMPHASIS ON THE SELF  Self-Esteem  one’s feelings of high or low self-worth  Physical  Intellectual  Social
  • 36. HIGH SELF-ESTEEM: A GOOD THING?  Low Self-Esteem: Experiments tell us  heightened prejudice  heightened judgmentalism  High Self- Esteem:  lower levels of depression
  • 37. HUMANISTIC THEORY: ONE MORE SELF!  Self-Serving Bias  a readiness to perceive oneself favorably  “somewhat likely” to go to heaven?  OJ Simpson, Bill Clinton, Michael Jordon, Mother Theresa, or ________ !!
  • 38. HUMANISTIC THEORY: A WESTERN PERSPECTIVE  Individualism (West)  defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes (introverted, etc.)  giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals  Collectivism (East)  defining one’s identity with group identifications (bin, means “son of”)  giving priority to the goals of one’s group over one’s own goals
  • 39. HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE Value Contrasts Between Individualism and Collectivism Concept Individualism Collectivism Self Independent Interdependent (identity from individual traits) (identity from belonging) Life task Discover and express one’s Maintain connections, fit in uniqueness What matters Me--personal achievement and We--group goals and solidarity; fulfillment; rights and liberties social responsibilities and relationships Coping method Change reality Accommodate to reality Morality Defined by individuals Defined by social networks (self-based) (duty-based) Relationships Many, often temporary or casual; Few, close and enduring; confrontation acceptable harmony valued Attributing Behavior reflects one’s personality Behavior reflects social behaviors and attitudes and roles
  • 40. CRITIQUE OF HUMANISTIC THEORY  (+) Makes the SELF central to our understanding of behavior  (-) Culture-bound theory (applies to the West)  (-) Is too subjective, not objective  (-) Maybe overly optimistic view of human nature (all of us are moving toward self-actualization?)
  • 41. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY  Behavior is due to  Social influences (other people)  Cognitive influences (how we perceive ourselves and our social environment)
  • 42. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY (MODEL) Social Influences: “My friends do well in school.” Behavior Cognitive Influences: (I perform well “I know if I work hard, in school) I can do well in school)
  • 43. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE- LEARNED HELPLESSNESS  Learned Helplessness Bad Events Cognition: “I perceive I don’t have control” I feel helpless
  • 44. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY  Personal Control  a cognitive factor (in the model)  our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless
  • 45. LOCUS OF CONTROL  Internal Locus of Control  the perception that one controls one’s own fate  External Locus of Control  the perception that outside forces determine one’s fate
  • 46. SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE Positive Psychology scientific study of ways to foster a healthy personality and community Key Concept: Learned Optimism expecting positive events to occur an seeing oneself as competent. research: optimistic people live longer/healthier lives
  • 47. CRITIQUE OF SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY  (+) Based on solid research  (+) Takes into account both personality (especially cognition) and social situation  (-) Underemphasizes importance of traits