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Performance Tips and Tricks: Java
  EE, Java Persistence API, and
        JavaServer Faces
Alberto Lemos (Dr. Spock)    Danival Taffarel Calegari
 Senior Software Architect   MATERA Systems Architect
   Globalcode Instructor       Globalcode Instructor




                                       Globalcode – Open4education
Agenda
 Motivation
 Data recovery strategies
   Lazy vs Eager
   Cache
 Web UI Design Strategies
   Conversation Scope
   View Helper + Persistence Service
   Lazy UI Components



                                       Globalcode – Open4education
Objective




  “Present some tips and tricks on web
application development with JSF, Ajax,
               and JPA”



                             Globalcode – Open4education
Motivation
 JavaServer Faces (JSF) is a paradigm change in
 Web development with Java EE;
 It establishes a model for web UI components.
 JSF evolved!
   JSF 1.x (without AJAX) => Ineffective event oriented
   JSF 1.x + AJAX lib => Event oriented
   JSF 2.x => Event oriented
 It's necessary to evolve the development
 techniques on presentation and persistence layers!

                                            Globalcode – Open4education
Agenda
 Motivation
 Data recovery strategies
   Lazy vs Eager
   Cache
 Web UI Design Strategies
   Conversation Scope
   View Helper + Persistence Service
   Lazy UI Components



                                       Globalcode – Open4education
Lazy vs Eager
 Strategies to handle the entity relationships;
 Lazy: it fetches data on demand;
 Eager: it always fetches data.




                                        Globalcode – Open4education
Lazy vs Eager
 Tip: JPA allows for a change from lazy to eager
 using the JP-QL;
   select distinct c from Categoria c join fetch c.produtos
 It runs only one SELECT in the database;
 Join fetch solves the N+1 problem;
 Distinct should be used to avoid duplicated
 results;
 Note: this may cause problems with database
 pagination.

                                            Globalcode – Open4education
Lazy vs Eager
 Tip: Try to paginate in database using lazy
 strategy;
   Use the setFirstResult and setMaxResults methods by
   Query.
 The JPA provider will use native database
 commands to limit the query results;
 Beware: join fetch for 1:N relationships causes
 performance and memory problems.
   WARN: firstResult/maxResults specified with collection
   fetch; applying in memory!

                                           Globalcode – Open4education
Lazy vs Eager
 Tip: Try to use eager whenever bulk processing
 data;
   One common situation is report generation.
 Be careful with memory use;
   Do a previous query to get the ids and limit the results
   with an in clause;
   Use the clear method from EntityManager to remove
   processed objects from memory.




                                             Globalcode – Open4education
Cache
 First level cache
   While the EntityManager is open, it maitains the
   references for all objects loaded by it;
   This cache is erased when the clear method is called.
 Second level cache
   Maintains object references per EntityManagerFactory;
   It is a per-application cache.




                                           Globalcode – Open4education
Cache




        Globalcode – Open4education
Cache
 Trick: By loading related entities into first level
 cache before the main query, performance will
 be greatly improved.
   It can only work with N:1 relationships for entities with a
   small number of instances.
 Example: Fetching products with any filter.
   If there are 200 categories, the lazy strategy should run
   200 queries on the category table;
   Execute a “select c from Category c” before querying for
   products.


                                               Globalcode – Open4education
Cache
 Tip: Use second level cache to save memory
 and to improve performance;
 Choose non-frequent altered entities;
 If an external application changes the database,
 data in the second level cache will become
 outdated.
   Apply a time limit for data expiration.




                                             Globalcode – Open4education
Agenda
 Motivation
 Data recovery strategies
   Lazy vs Eager
   Cache
 Web UI Design Strategies
   Conversation Scope
   View Helper + Persistence Service
   Lazy UI Components



                                       Globalcode – Open4education
The Problem
 DAO + JDBC => open/close connection;
 DAO + Persistence Context => open/close session;




 LazyInitializationException!
                                   Globalcode – Open4education
Old Solution
  OpenSessionInViewFilter Design Pattern;




  New problems!

                                   Globalcode – Open4education
New Problems
 OpenSessionInViewFilter Design Pattern;




 1st REQUEST        2nd REQUEST        Nth REQUEST


 Each request uses a different persistence context;
 Session scoped entities can throw
 LazyInitializationException!

                                      Globalcode – Open4education
Web 1.0
 Request-oriented web applications;




                                      Globalcode – Open4education
Web 2.0
 AJAX-oriented web applications;




                                   Globalcode – Open4education
Web UI Strategies
 Tip: Use the view and conversation scopes;
   Avoid to use the session scope for objects with short
   lifetime;
   Usually the lifetime is managed by the container through
   settings (Annotations or XML);




                                            Globalcode – Open4education
Web UI Strategies
 Tip: Store the persistence context into the view
 scope or conversation scope;
   The EntityManager remains open for a specified time;




                                          Globalcode – Open4education
Web UI Strategies
 Tip: Store the persistence context into the view
 scope or conversation scope;
   The EntityManager remains open for a specified time;
   Enables the 1st level cache;
   Prevents the LazyInitializationException errors;
   Enables paging in the presentation tier Integrated with
   the persistence tier;
   Attention: The 1st level cache can increase for a long
   term conversation scope.



                                             Globalcode – Open4education
Web UI Strategies
 Tip: Integrate the View Helper (pattern) with the
 persistence service (JPA);
   Implement a List (from Collections API) that receives a
   Query object (from JPA);
   Implement a DataModel (from JSF API) that receives a
   Query object;
   Implement an ExtendedTableDataModel (from
   Richfaces API) that receives an EntityManager object;
   Pagination: Use setFirtResult() and setMaxResults().
   Be careful with eager fetching!
   Filter and order by: Use CriteriaBuilder object (from
   JPA).

                                           Globalcode – Open4education
Web UI Strategies
 Tip: Use UI Components that supports “lazy
 loading” via Ajax;




                                   Globalcode – Open4education
Web UI Strategies
 Tip: Use UI Components that supports “lazy
 loading” via Ajax;




                                   Globalcode – Open4education
Web UI Strategies
 Tip: Use UI Components that supports “lazy
 loading” via Ajax;




                                   Globalcode – Open4education
Sample Application
 The tips and tricks are demonstrated by a sample
 application;
 It is avaliable to donwload at:
 http://sourceforge.net/projects/j1catalogproto2/




                                    Globalcode – Open4education
Thank you!

Alberto Lemos (Dr. Spock)       Danival Taffarel Calegari
http://www.globalcode.com.br/   http://www.matera.com/
spock@globalcode.com.br         danival@globalcode.com.br
http://twitter.com/drspockbr    http://twitter.com/danivaltc




                                             Globalcode – Open4education

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Performance Tips and Tricks: Java EE, Java Persistence API and JavaServer Faces

  • 1. Performance Tips and Tricks: Java EE, Java Persistence API, and JavaServer Faces Alberto Lemos (Dr. Spock) Danival Taffarel Calegari Senior Software Architect MATERA Systems Architect Globalcode Instructor Globalcode Instructor Globalcode – Open4education
  • 2. Agenda Motivation Data recovery strategies Lazy vs Eager Cache Web UI Design Strategies Conversation Scope View Helper + Persistence Service Lazy UI Components Globalcode – Open4education
  • 3. Objective “Present some tips and tricks on web application development with JSF, Ajax, and JPA” Globalcode – Open4education
  • 4. Motivation JavaServer Faces (JSF) is a paradigm change in Web development with Java EE; It establishes a model for web UI components. JSF evolved! JSF 1.x (without AJAX) => Ineffective event oriented JSF 1.x + AJAX lib => Event oriented JSF 2.x => Event oriented It's necessary to evolve the development techniques on presentation and persistence layers! Globalcode – Open4education
  • 5. Agenda Motivation Data recovery strategies Lazy vs Eager Cache Web UI Design Strategies Conversation Scope View Helper + Persistence Service Lazy UI Components Globalcode – Open4education
  • 6. Lazy vs Eager Strategies to handle the entity relationships; Lazy: it fetches data on demand; Eager: it always fetches data. Globalcode – Open4education
  • 7. Lazy vs Eager Tip: JPA allows for a change from lazy to eager using the JP-QL; select distinct c from Categoria c join fetch c.produtos It runs only one SELECT in the database; Join fetch solves the N+1 problem; Distinct should be used to avoid duplicated results; Note: this may cause problems with database pagination. Globalcode – Open4education
  • 8. Lazy vs Eager Tip: Try to paginate in database using lazy strategy; Use the setFirstResult and setMaxResults methods by Query. The JPA provider will use native database commands to limit the query results; Beware: join fetch for 1:N relationships causes performance and memory problems. WARN: firstResult/maxResults specified with collection fetch; applying in memory! Globalcode – Open4education
  • 9. Lazy vs Eager Tip: Try to use eager whenever bulk processing data; One common situation is report generation. Be careful with memory use; Do a previous query to get the ids and limit the results with an in clause; Use the clear method from EntityManager to remove processed objects from memory. Globalcode – Open4education
  • 10. Cache First level cache While the EntityManager is open, it maitains the references for all objects loaded by it; This cache is erased when the clear method is called. Second level cache Maintains object references per EntityManagerFactory; It is a per-application cache. Globalcode – Open4education
  • 11. Cache Globalcode – Open4education
  • 12. Cache Trick: By loading related entities into first level cache before the main query, performance will be greatly improved. It can only work with N:1 relationships for entities with a small number of instances. Example: Fetching products with any filter. If there are 200 categories, the lazy strategy should run 200 queries on the category table; Execute a “select c from Category c” before querying for products. Globalcode – Open4education
  • 13. Cache Tip: Use second level cache to save memory and to improve performance; Choose non-frequent altered entities; If an external application changes the database, data in the second level cache will become outdated. Apply a time limit for data expiration. Globalcode – Open4education
  • 14. Agenda Motivation Data recovery strategies Lazy vs Eager Cache Web UI Design Strategies Conversation Scope View Helper + Persistence Service Lazy UI Components Globalcode – Open4education
  • 15. The Problem DAO + JDBC => open/close connection; DAO + Persistence Context => open/close session; LazyInitializationException! Globalcode – Open4education
  • 16. Old Solution OpenSessionInViewFilter Design Pattern; New problems! Globalcode – Open4education
  • 17. New Problems OpenSessionInViewFilter Design Pattern; 1st REQUEST 2nd REQUEST Nth REQUEST Each request uses a different persistence context; Session scoped entities can throw LazyInitializationException! Globalcode – Open4education
  • 18. Web 1.0 Request-oriented web applications; Globalcode – Open4education
  • 19. Web 2.0 AJAX-oriented web applications; Globalcode – Open4education
  • 20. Web UI Strategies Tip: Use the view and conversation scopes; Avoid to use the session scope for objects with short lifetime; Usually the lifetime is managed by the container through settings (Annotations or XML); Globalcode – Open4education
  • 21. Web UI Strategies Tip: Store the persistence context into the view scope or conversation scope; The EntityManager remains open for a specified time; Globalcode – Open4education
  • 22. Web UI Strategies Tip: Store the persistence context into the view scope or conversation scope; The EntityManager remains open for a specified time; Enables the 1st level cache; Prevents the LazyInitializationException errors; Enables paging in the presentation tier Integrated with the persistence tier; Attention: The 1st level cache can increase for a long term conversation scope. Globalcode – Open4education
  • 23. Web UI Strategies Tip: Integrate the View Helper (pattern) with the persistence service (JPA); Implement a List (from Collections API) that receives a Query object (from JPA); Implement a DataModel (from JSF API) that receives a Query object; Implement an ExtendedTableDataModel (from Richfaces API) that receives an EntityManager object; Pagination: Use setFirtResult() and setMaxResults(). Be careful with eager fetching! Filter and order by: Use CriteriaBuilder object (from JPA). Globalcode – Open4education
  • 24. Web UI Strategies Tip: Use UI Components that supports “lazy loading” via Ajax; Globalcode – Open4education
  • 25. Web UI Strategies Tip: Use UI Components that supports “lazy loading” via Ajax; Globalcode – Open4education
  • 26. Web UI Strategies Tip: Use UI Components that supports “lazy loading” via Ajax; Globalcode – Open4education
  • 27. Sample Application The tips and tricks are demonstrated by a sample application; It is avaliable to donwload at: http://sourceforge.net/projects/j1catalogproto2/ Globalcode – Open4education
  • 28. Thank you! Alberto Lemos (Dr. Spock) Danival Taffarel Calegari http://www.globalcode.com.br/ http://www.matera.com/ spock@globalcode.com.br danival@globalcode.com.br http://twitter.com/drspockbr http://twitter.com/danivaltc Globalcode – Open4education