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Performance-based
Assessment
Performance-based Assessment
 Performance-based assessment is a direct and systematic
observation of the actual performance of students based on
predetermined performance criteria (Zimmaro, 2003 as cited
by Gabuyo, 2012).
 It is an alternative form of assessing the performance of
students that represents a set of strategies for the application
of knowledge, skills and work habits through the performance
of tasks that are meaningful and engaging to them (Hibbard,
1996).
Hogan (2007) pointed out the different terms in contrast to
selected response items as performance-based assessment,
sometimes referred to as authentic assessment or alternative
assessment.
 According to Brualdi (1998), in her article
Implementing Performance Assessment in the
Classroom, performance-based assessment provides
the teacher the information on how the students
understand and apply knowledge and it allows the
teacher to integrate performance assessment in the
instructional process to provide additional learning
activities for the students in the classroom.
 A performance-based assessment is open-ended and
without a single, correct answer. The performance-
based assessment should be something that shows
authentic learning.
KINDS OF PERFORMANCE-BASED
ASSESSMENT
1. Performance assessment implies that the students need to
demonstrate skills by actual performance of a certain task rather
than just marking on an answer sheet. It usually includes essays to
demonstrate writing skills or content knowledge.
2. Authentic assessment means the teacher must use realistic
situations in the testing materials.
3. Alternative assessment implies that it is alternative to selected
response testing. Based on the history of testing, multiple-choice
items were used before as alternative assessment.
Features of Performance-based
Assessment (Gronlund, 1998)
1. Greater realism of the tasks
 This means that the students must apply the knowledge
and skills by demonstrating a task that shows application
in a real world situation.
2. Greater complexity of the tasks
 The tasks are difficult to understand and analyze because
they are less structured problems that encourage the
students to perform with originality and thinking skills
and they may have multiple solutions.
3. Greater time needed for assessment
 Performance-based assessment needs longer time to
assess the performance of the students because of the
difficulty of designing the tasks, the comprehensive
nature of the tasks, and the increased time needed to
evaluate the results.
4. Greater use of judgement in scoring
 The evaluator should consider the set of judging criteria
associated with the performance assessment. Also, the
scoring approach must be congruent to the assessment
purpose.
Types of Performance-based Assessment
1. Restricted-response Performance Task
 A performance task that is highly structured with a
limited scope. The instructions are more focused and the
limitations are always indicated.
 Example: writing a one-page summary of the class
outreach program
 Advantages:
a. It is very easy to relate to a particular learning
outcome or learning objective.
b. The administration is easy and the output is easier to
judge or evaluate.
 Disadvantage:
 It prevents the students from demonstrating
their abilities and skills with comprehensive,
poorly structured problems in the real world.
2. Extended-response Performance Task
 A performance task that is less structured and broader
in scope.
 Example: writing and rewriting a poem after being
criticized by a teacher
 Advantage: The teacher can obtain better information
about the students’ ability to understand and analyse
problems and how to solve it. (Gronlund, 1998).
Solving a Problem
 This is a kind of performance-based assessment, the
approach is authentic. It attempts to solve problems that
occur routinely in their courses and on tasks that
simulate tasks that are expected to be encountered in the
workplace.
 This approach is evidenced based, since participants are
required to present evidences to show that they have
employed identified problem solving processes.
 The assessment is criterion based, since performance
criteria are specified in advance.
4 Distinct Phases of Problem-solving
1. Theoretical conceptions of problem-solving were
explored.
2. Five major components processes of problem-solving
were identified.
3. A set of indicators was proposed.
4. A set of performance levels was described.
Completing an Inquiry
 It is a learning and teaching method that prioritizes
student’s questions, ideas and analyses, rather than
simply presenting established facts or portraying a
smooth path of knowledge.
4Types of Inquiry-based
1. Confirmation inquiry – build investigation and critical-
thinking skills.
2. Structured inquiry – use of the methods to craft an
evidence-backed conclusion.
3. Guided inquiry – design investigation methods to reach
a conclusion.
4. Open inquiry – investigate through their own methods,
and eventually present their own results and expand.
5Benefits of Inquiry-based
1. Reinforces curriculum content – improve understanding of
core concepts.
2. “Warms-up” the brain for learning – help students absorb
information throughout the day.
3. Promotes understanding of content – empowers student to
take ownership of their learning.
4. Helps make learning rewarding – help students see the
intrinsic rewards of learning.
5. Builds initiative and self-direction – helps improve certain
transferable skill.
Demonstration
 Involves showing by reasons or proof, explaining or making
clear by use of example or experiments, it also means, to
clearly show.
Examples:
1) oral presentations, speeches, or spoken words poems
2) video documentaries, multimedia presentations, audio recording or
podcasts
3) music, drama, dance, performances, works of art, illustration
4) print or online publications
5) essay, poems, short stories
6) digital photography
7) scientific experiments
8) sculpture
9) portfolios
10) presentations or slide shows
Developing Exhibits and Fairs
 Teachers can expand the idea of performance-based activities by
creating exhibits or fairs for students to display their work.
Examples include things like history fairs to art exhibitions.
Students work on a product or item that will be publicly exhibited.
 Exhibitions show in-depth learning and may
include feedback from viewers.
 In some cases, students might be required to explain or defend
their work to those attending the exhibition.
 Some fairs like science fairs could include the possibility of prizes
and awards.
Presentation Tasks
 One easy way to have students complete a performance-
based activity is to have them do a presentation or report of
some. This activity could be done by students, which takes
time, or in collaborative groups.
 The basis for the presentation may be one of the following:
 Providing information
 Teaching a skill
 Reporting progress
 Persuading others
Capstone Performances
 Capstone performances/experiences integrates knowledge,
coursework, skills, and experiential learning to enable the
students to demonstrate a broad mastery of learning across the
curriculum for further career advancement. It also enables
students to:
1. Have an overview of what they have accomplished.
2. Relate discipline-specific learning outcomes to the real world.
3. Link their knowledge and abilities to future employment or
higher education
4. Showcase their competency in certain areas.
Examples:
 culminating senior experiences
 thesis
 practicum
 achievement portfolio
 comprehensive examination
 study abroad
Strengths and Limitations of Performance-
based Assessment
 Advantages
1. It assesses complex learning outcomes not measured by
paper-and-pencil test.
2. It assesses the process as well as the product.
3. It communicates instructional goals that relate to real
world context.
4. It assesses the progress as well as the performance.
5. It involves the students in the process of assessing their
own growth.
1.It recognizes that students can express what they know and
can do in different ways.
2.Specific, direct, and understandable information about the
students are available to parents.
3.It evaluates the “whole student”.
4.It enhances the professional skills of teachers through
collaboration with other teachers.
5.It can establish a framework for observing students that is
consistent with the principles of child development.
6.It can contribute to a meaningful curriculum planning and
the design of developmentally appropriate educational
inventions.
 Limitations:
1. Constructing performance assessment is time consuming.
2. Scoring is often questionable because it is not reliable, most especially
if the scoring guide or rubrics are not properly prepared.
3. It measures only a limited scope of learning objectives.
References:
https://ncver.edu.au/research-and-statistics/publications/all-publications/the-authentic-
performance-based-assessment-of-problem-solving
https://www.prodigygame.com/blog/inquiry-based-learning-definition-benifits-
strategies/
https://www.hpu.edu/about-us/student-success/capstone-symposium/capstone-
experience.html
https://www.unco.edu/cebs/teacher-education/undergraduate-
programs/classroom_management.aspx
https://www.edglossary.org/demonstration-of-learning/
Kelly, 2018 from https://www.thoughtco.com/for-educators/
Performance based assessment

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Performance based assessment

  • 2. Performance-based Assessment  Performance-based assessment is a direct and systematic observation of the actual performance of students based on predetermined performance criteria (Zimmaro, 2003 as cited by Gabuyo, 2012).  It is an alternative form of assessing the performance of students that represents a set of strategies for the application of knowledge, skills and work habits through the performance of tasks that are meaningful and engaging to them (Hibbard, 1996). Hogan (2007) pointed out the different terms in contrast to selected response items as performance-based assessment, sometimes referred to as authentic assessment or alternative assessment.
  • 3.  According to Brualdi (1998), in her article Implementing Performance Assessment in the Classroom, performance-based assessment provides the teacher the information on how the students understand and apply knowledge and it allows the teacher to integrate performance assessment in the instructional process to provide additional learning activities for the students in the classroom.  A performance-based assessment is open-ended and without a single, correct answer. The performance- based assessment should be something that shows authentic learning.
  • 4. KINDS OF PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT 1. Performance assessment implies that the students need to demonstrate skills by actual performance of a certain task rather than just marking on an answer sheet. It usually includes essays to demonstrate writing skills or content knowledge. 2. Authentic assessment means the teacher must use realistic situations in the testing materials. 3. Alternative assessment implies that it is alternative to selected response testing. Based on the history of testing, multiple-choice items were used before as alternative assessment.
  • 5. Features of Performance-based Assessment (Gronlund, 1998) 1. Greater realism of the tasks  This means that the students must apply the knowledge and skills by demonstrating a task that shows application in a real world situation. 2. Greater complexity of the tasks  The tasks are difficult to understand and analyze because they are less structured problems that encourage the students to perform with originality and thinking skills and they may have multiple solutions.
  • 6. 3. Greater time needed for assessment  Performance-based assessment needs longer time to assess the performance of the students because of the difficulty of designing the tasks, the comprehensive nature of the tasks, and the increased time needed to evaluate the results. 4. Greater use of judgement in scoring  The evaluator should consider the set of judging criteria associated with the performance assessment. Also, the scoring approach must be congruent to the assessment purpose.
  • 7. Types of Performance-based Assessment 1. Restricted-response Performance Task  A performance task that is highly structured with a limited scope. The instructions are more focused and the limitations are always indicated.  Example: writing a one-page summary of the class outreach program  Advantages: a. It is very easy to relate to a particular learning outcome or learning objective. b. The administration is easy and the output is easier to judge or evaluate.
  • 8.  Disadvantage:  It prevents the students from demonstrating their abilities and skills with comprehensive, poorly structured problems in the real world. 2. Extended-response Performance Task  A performance task that is less structured and broader in scope.  Example: writing and rewriting a poem after being criticized by a teacher  Advantage: The teacher can obtain better information about the students’ ability to understand and analyse problems and how to solve it. (Gronlund, 1998).
  • 9. Solving a Problem  This is a kind of performance-based assessment, the approach is authentic. It attempts to solve problems that occur routinely in their courses and on tasks that simulate tasks that are expected to be encountered in the workplace.  This approach is evidenced based, since participants are required to present evidences to show that they have employed identified problem solving processes.  The assessment is criterion based, since performance criteria are specified in advance.
  • 10. 4 Distinct Phases of Problem-solving 1. Theoretical conceptions of problem-solving were explored. 2. Five major components processes of problem-solving were identified. 3. A set of indicators was proposed. 4. A set of performance levels was described.
  • 11. Completing an Inquiry  It is a learning and teaching method that prioritizes student’s questions, ideas and analyses, rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path of knowledge.
  • 12. 4Types of Inquiry-based 1. Confirmation inquiry – build investigation and critical- thinking skills. 2. Structured inquiry – use of the methods to craft an evidence-backed conclusion. 3. Guided inquiry – design investigation methods to reach a conclusion. 4. Open inquiry – investigate through their own methods, and eventually present their own results and expand.
  • 13. 5Benefits of Inquiry-based 1. Reinforces curriculum content – improve understanding of core concepts. 2. “Warms-up” the brain for learning – help students absorb information throughout the day. 3. Promotes understanding of content – empowers student to take ownership of their learning. 4. Helps make learning rewarding – help students see the intrinsic rewards of learning. 5. Builds initiative and self-direction – helps improve certain transferable skill.
  • 14. Demonstration  Involves showing by reasons or proof, explaining or making clear by use of example or experiments, it also means, to clearly show. Examples: 1) oral presentations, speeches, or spoken words poems 2) video documentaries, multimedia presentations, audio recording or podcasts 3) music, drama, dance, performances, works of art, illustration 4) print or online publications 5) essay, poems, short stories 6) digital photography 7) scientific experiments 8) sculpture 9) portfolios 10) presentations or slide shows
  • 15. Developing Exhibits and Fairs  Teachers can expand the idea of performance-based activities by creating exhibits or fairs for students to display their work. Examples include things like history fairs to art exhibitions. Students work on a product or item that will be publicly exhibited.  Exhibitions show in-depth learning and may include feedback from viewers.  In some cases, students might be required to explain or defend their work to those attending the exhibition.  Some fairs like science fairs could include the possibility of prizes and awards.
  • 16. Presentation Tasks  One easy way to have students complete a performance- based activity is to have them do a presentation or report of some. This activity could be done by students, which takes time, or in collaborative groups.  The basis for the presentation may be one of the following:  Providing information  Teaching a skill  Reporting progress  Persuading others
  • 17. Capstone Performances  Capstone performances/experiences integrates knowledge, coursework, skills, and experiential learning to enable the students to demonstrate a broad mastery of learning across the curriculum for further career advancement. It also enables students to: 1. Have an overview of what they have accomplished. 2. Relate discipline-specific learning outcomes to the real world. 3. Link their knowledge and abilities to future employment or higher education 4. Showcase their competency in certain areas.
  • 18. Examples:  culminating senior experiences  thesis  practicum  achievement portfolio  comprehensive examination  study abroad
  • 19. Strengths and Limitations of Performance- based Assessment  Advantages 1. It assesses complex learning outcomes not measured by paper-and-pencil test. 2. It assesses the process as well as the product. 3. It communicates instructional goals that relate to real world context. 4. It assesses the progress as well as the performance. 5. It involves the students in the process of assessing their own growth.
  • 20. 1.It recognizes that students can express what they know and can do in different ways. 2.Specific, direct, and understandable information about the students are available to parents. 3.It evaluates the “whole student”. 4.It enhances the professional skills of teachers through collaboration with other teachers. 5.It can establish a framework for observing students that is consistent with the principles of child development. 6.It can contribute to a meaningful curriculum planning and the design of developmentally appropriate educational inventions.
  • 21.  Limitations: 1. Constructing performance assessment is time consuming. 2. Scoring is often questionable because it is not reliable, most especially if the scoring guide or rubrics are not properly prepared. 3. It measures only a limited scope of learning objectives. References: https://ncver.edu.au/research-and-statistics/publications/all-publications/the-authentic- performance-based-assessment-of-problem-solving https://www.prodigygame.com/blog/inquiry-based-learning-definition-benifits- strategies/ https://www.hpu.edu/about-us/student-success/capstone-symposium/capstone- experience.html https://www.unco.edu/cebs/teacher-education/undergraduate- programs/classroom_management.aspx https://www.edglossary.org/demonstration-of-learning/ Kelly, 2018 from https://www.thoughtco.com/for-educators/