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People in the Machine:
Human-centric Software Engineering for Smart Systems
Arosha K. Bandara – The Open University
arosha.bandara@open.ac.uk / @arosha
Symposium on Software Engineering for Smart Systems - 21 Sep 2017 @ De Montfort University
Smart Systems – The Machine
2
smart systems are co-engineered interacting
networks of physical and computational
components …
Food &
Agriculture
Transport
Policing
Health &
Wellbeing
+ …
Heterogeneous
Smart Systems – The Machine
3
smart systems operate at different scales,
from individuals to cities and nations …
Large-scale
Smart Systems – The Machine
4
Data
Actions
Learn
Adapt
Analyse
Interact
smart systems are driven by data
collected from the world …
Data-driven
Smart Systems – The Machine
5
Data
Actions
Learn
Adapt
Analyse
Interact
smart systems depend on software
to weave together different
technologies …
Software-intensive
Data-driven
People in the Machine
6
smart systems involve many
different types of people …
Smart Systems
Users
Software
Engineers
Policy Makers /
Regulators
Administrators
+ others
Software Engineering
7
“The systematic design and construction of
software artefacts that transform the world
around us to meet a recognised need”
[adapted from G. Rogers. The Nature of Engineering. The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1983.]
Digital / Physical / SocialTools / Techniques / Processes
Architectures / Code / etc. Requirements
“The systematic design and construction of
software artefacts that transform the world
around us to meet a recognised need”
[adapted from G. Rogers. The Nature of Engineering. The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1983.]
Software Engineering
8
Digital / Physical / SocialTools / Techniques / Processes
Architectures / Code / etc. Requirements
People
People in the Machine
9
Engineer - Stakeholder
Smart Systems
Users
Software
Engineers
Policy Makers /
Regulators
Administrators
+ others
Gathering Requirements
Smart System Exemplars
10Bennaceur, Amel; Mccormick, Ciaran; et al (2016). Feed me, Feed me: An Exemplar for Engineering Adaptive Software.
In: 11th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, May 2016.
Requirements
Gathering Requirements
Contravision Technique
11Mancini, Clara; Rogers, Yvonne; et al (2010). Contravision: Exploring users' reactions to futuristic technology.
In: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Human factors in computing systems, April 2010.
Requirements
People in the Machine
12
Engineer – Smart System
Smart Systems
Users
Software
Engineers
Policy Makers /
Regulators
Administrators
+ others
Supporting System Design
IoT Privacy Guidelines
13Perera, C.; Mccormick, C.; et al (2016). Privacy-by-Design Framework for Assessing IoT Applications and Platforms.
In: International Conference on the Internet of Things (IOT 2016), November 2016.
Process/Techniques
Supporting Software Design
IoT Privacy Guidelines
14Perera, C.; Mccormick, C.; et al (2016). Privacy-by-Design Framework for Assessing IoT Applications and Platforms.
In: International Conference on the Internet of Things (IOT 2016), November 2016.
Process/Techniques
People in the Machine
15
User – Smart System
Smart Systems
Users
Software
Engineers
Policy Makers /
Regulators
Administrators
+ others
User - System Interactions
Adaptive Software
16Calikli, Gul; Law, Mark; et al (2016). Privacy Dynamics: Learning Privacy Norms for Social Software.
In: 11th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, May 2016.
Architectures
User - System Interactions
Privacy Itch & Scratch
17Mehta, Vikram; Bandara, Arosha; et al (2016). Privacy Itch and Scratch:
 On Body Privacy Warnings and Controls.
In: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, May 2016.
Cyber/Physical/Social
User - System Interactions
Privacy Band
18Mehta, Vikram; Bandara, Arosha; et al (2016). Privacy Itch and Scratch:
 On Body Privacy Warnings and Controls.
In: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, May 2016.
Arduino(
Nano(
Bluetooth(
LE(
3.7V(LiPo(
Ba7ery(
Power(Booster(
Vero(
Board(
On<Off(Switch(
(a)(
7.5cm&7.5cm&
Vibe&Boards&
Fabric&
Patch&1&
Fabric&
Patch&2&
(b)&
Cyber/Physical/Social
People in the Machine
19
smart systems involve many
different types of people …
Smart Systems
Users
Software
Engineers
Policy Makers
Administrators
+ others
Human-centric Software Engineering
Software Engineering for Smart Systems
Future Challenges
20
Effective
Security
Collaborative
Composition
Forensic
readiness
Transparency
Socio-technical
resilience
People in the Machine
●People are critical part of smart systems.
●Software engineering needs to encompass the
cyber-physical-social dimensions of smart technologies.
●Human-centric software engineering can help address
future challenges for building smart systems.
Software Engineering for Smart Systems
21
People in the Machine
Software Engineering for Smart Systems
22
Questions?

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People in the Machine: Human-centric Software Engineering for Smart Systems

  • 1. People in the Machine: Human-centric Software Engineering for Smart Systems Arosha K. Bandara – The Open University arosha.bandara@open.ac.uk / @arosha Symposium on Software Engineering for Smart Systems - 21 Sep 2017 @ De Montfort University
  • 2. Smart Systems – The Machine 2 smart systems are co-engineered interacting networks of physical and computational components … Food & Agriculture Transport Policing Health & Wellbeing + … Heterogeneous
  • 3. Smart Systems – The Machine 3 smart systems operate at different scales, from individuals to cities and nations … Large-scale
  • 4. Smart Systems – The Machine 4 Data Actions Learn Adapt Analyse Interact smart systems are driven by data collected from the world … Data-driven
  • 5. Smart Systems – The Machine 5 Data Actions Learn Adapt Analyse Interact smart systems depend on software to weave together different technologies … Software-intensive Data-driven
  • 6. People in the Machine 6 smart systems involve many different types of people … Smart Systems Users Software Engineers Policy Makers / Regulators Administrators + others
  • 7. Software Engineering 7 “The systematic design and construction of software artefacts that transform the world around us to meet a recognised need” [adapted from G. Rogers. The Nature of Engineering. The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1983.] Digital / Physical / SocialTools / Techniques / Processes Architectures / Code / etc. Requirements
  • 8. “The systematic design and construction of software artefacts that transform the world around us to meet a recognised need” [adapted from G. Rogers. The Nature of Engineering. The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1983.] Software Engineering 8 Digital / Physical / SocialTools / Techniques / Processes Architectures / Code / etc. Requirements People
  • 9. People in the Machine 9 Engineer - Stakeholder Smart Systems Users Software Engineers Policy Makers / Regulators Administrators + others
  • 10. Gathering Requirements Smart System Exemplars 10Bennaceur, Amel; Mccormick, Ciaran; et al (2016). Feed me, Feed me: An Exemplar for Engineering Adaptive Software. In: 11th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, May 2016. Requirements
  • 11. Gathering Requirements Contravision Technique 11Mancini, Clara; Rogers, Yvonne; et al (2010). Contravision: Exploring users' reactions to futuristic technology. In: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Human factors in computing systems, April 2010. Requirements
  • 12. People in the Machine 12 Engineer – Smart System Smart Systems Users Software Engineers Policy Makers / Regulators Administrators + others
  • 13. Supporting System Design IoT Privacy Guidelines 13Perera, C.; Mccormick, C.; et al (2016). Privacy-by-Design Framework for Assessing IoT Applications and Platforms. In: International Conference on the Internet of Things (IOT 2016), November 2016. Process/Techniques
  • 14. Supporting Software Design IoT Privacy Guidelines 14Perera, C.; Mccormick, C.; et al (2016). Privacy-by-Design Framework for Assessing IoT Applications and Platforms. In: International Conference on the Internet of Things (IOT 2016), November 2016. Process/Techniques
  • 15. People in the Machine 15 User – Smart System Smart Systems Users Software Engineers Policy Makers / Regulators Administrators + others
  • 16. User - System Interactions Adaptive Software 16Calikli, Gul; Law, Mark; et al (2016). Privacy Dynamics: Learning Privacy Norms for Social Software. In: 11th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, May 2016. Architectures
  • 17. User - System Interactions Privacy Itch & Scratch 17Mehta, Vikram; Bandara, Arosha; et al (2016). Privacy Itch and Scratch:
 On Body Privacy Warnings and Controls. In: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, May 2016. Cyber/Physical/Social
  • 18. User - System Interactions Privacy Band 18Mehta, Vikram; Bandara, Arosha; et al (2016). Privacy Itch and Scratch:
 On Body Privacy Warnings and Controls. In: ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, May 2016. Arduino( Nano( Bluetooth( LE( 3.7V(LiPo( Ba7ery( Power(Booster( Vero( Board( On<Off(Switch( (a)( 7.5cm&7.5cm& Vibe&Boards& Fabric& Patch&1& Fabric& Patch&2& (b)& Cyber/Physical/Social
  • 19. People in the Machine 19 smart systems involve many different types of people … Smart Systems Users Software Engineers Policy Makers Administrators + others Human-centric Software Engineering
  • 20. Software Engineering for Smart Systems Future Challenges 20 Effective Security Collaborative Composition Forensic readiness Transparency Socio-technical resilience
  • 21. People in the Machine ●People are critical part of smart systems. ●Software engineering needs to encompass the cyber-physical-social dimensions of smart technologies. ●Human-centric software engineering can help address future challenges for building smart systems. Software Engineering for Smart Systems 21
  • 22. People in the Machine Software Engineering for Smart Systems 22 Questions?