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2008 2010 2012
Year
NSSEC - Manual - Intermediate - Professional
2014
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 1.1.1: Infant mortality rate by social class, UK 2008–2015
Note: 95% confidence limits shown by shaded area around each line.
Source: Taylor-Robinson, D. and Barr, B., ʻDeath rate now rising in UKʼs poorest
infantsʼ, British Medical Journal, May 11th 2017, https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/3007455/
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 2.1.1: Deprivation and the 2016 EU Referendum, England
Source: Drawn by Daniel Watts in December 2017
and reproduced here with permission.
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol:
Figure 2.11.1: Labelling the political causeway -
UK general election 2015
Source: Field, K. and Dorling, D. (2016) UK Election Cartography International Journal of
Cartography, 2(2), pp.202-232.
@FraserNelson 9 Jun 2017
Jeremy Corbyn has just increased Labour's
share of the vote more than any other leader
in any other election since Attlee in 1945
Source: https://twitter.com/FraserNelson/status/873048396054933505
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 2.12.1: Corbyn gives Labour biggest vote share increase since 1945
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
1922 (Bonar Law)
1923 Conservative (Baldwin)
1924 Labour (MacDonald)
1929 Labour (MacDonald)
1931 Conservative/Liberal/
Nat. Labour/etc. (MacDonald)
1935 Conservative/Liberal
(Baldwin)
1945 Labour (Attlee)
1950 Labour (Attlee)
1951 Conservative (Churchill)
1955 Conservative (Eden)
1959 Conservative (Macmillan, followed by Douglas-
Home in 1963)
1964 Labour (Wilson)
1966 Labour (Wilson)
1970 Conservative (Heath)
1974 (February) Labour (Wilson) Minority
government
1974 (October) Labour (Wilson),
followed by LibLab Pact (Callaghan)
1979 Conservative (Thatcher)
1983 Conservative (Thatcher)
1987 Conservative (Thatcher)
1992 Conservative (Major)
1997 New Labour (Blair)
2001 New Labour (Blair)
2005 New Labour (Blair)
2010 Conservative/
Liberal (Cameron/Clegg)
2015 Conservative
(Cameron)
2017 Conservative/DUP (May/
Foster)
1924 Conservative (Baldwin)
‘National
Govern-
ment’
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's
ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 2.12.2: The Segregation Index
of Conservative voters 1920-2017
How geographically segregated Conservative
voters were at each general election: the minimal
proportion who would have to move constituency
for there to be an even distribution (%). The date
of each election is also show alongside the party
that won and the surname of its leader(s).
Source: updated version of Figure 13 of
Dorling, D. (2015) Injustice, why social
inequality still persists, Bristol: Policy Press
May 2015
Jun 2015
Sep 2015
Jan 2016
Feb 2016
Mar 2016
Apr 2016
Aug 2016
Oct 2016
Nov 2016
Dec 2016
Jan 2017
Feb 2017 Mar 2017
Apr 2017
May 2017
Jun 2017
25
30
35
40
-6.0 0.0 6.0
Averagemonthlysupportatthistime(%)
Rate of change: from month before to month after, per month (%)
Share of the Labourvote in UK opinion polls, May 2015 to 1st June
2017
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 2.12.3: Labour vote in UK opinion polls, May 2015 to 1st June 2017
Source: Dorling, D. (2017) The Election Result in Three Graphs, Public Sector Focus, July/August 2017, pp.66-67
The figures along the Y axis: 25,30, 35 and 40 are the support for the Labour Party in the average opinion polls of the month shown.
The figures along the x axis, -6.0, 0.0 and 6.0 are the average change in the polling of Labour within that month (fall or rise in. Its share often vote
in the opinion polls).
For June 2017 only the figure for the 1st of June is shown. Underlying data from:
http://ukpollingreport.co.uk/voting-intention-2 first accessed April 26th 2016, last accessed in early June 2017.
0.1
1
10
100
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
%oftotalincomereceivedbyeachgroup
highest income 10%
highest income 1%
highest income 0.1%
highest income 0.01%
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 2.2.1: Incomes of the best-off in the UK, 1910–2009
Source: World top incomes database, missing data interpolated
From Dorling, D. (2013) Fairness and the changing fortunes of people in Britain,
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A (2013) 176, Part 1, pp. 97–128, The
Beveridge Memorial Lecture, 2012, as presented to The Royal Statistical Society
on Wednesday, June 27th 2012
Using: Atkinson, A. B. (2007) The distribution of top incomes in the United
Kingdom 1908-2000, in: Top Incomes over the Twentieth Century: a Contrast
between Continental European and English-speaking Countries (eds A.B.
Atkinson and T. Piketty), chapter 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 2.3.1: Defendants brought before the courts, riot, England, 2011
Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. D., Mapping the August 2011 riots, New Statesman Blog, 5th August 2014
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 2.3.2: Riot-related crimes and Index of Multiple Deprivation score, London 2010
Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. D., Mapping the August 2011 riots, New Statesman Blog, 5th August 2014
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 2.5.1: Note left on Harold Wilson Memorial, April 17th
2013
Source: Note: The note reads “On the day of the pompous and prodigal funeral of a
greatly overrated Prime Minister this is a simple and respectful tribute to a
greatly underrated Prime Minister who sowed the seeds of equality, fairness and
compassion in our country and whose crucial contributions are not acknowledged
even by his own party.” Photograph taken by Dimitris Papadimitriou, Professor of
Politics, University of Manchester.
EdinburghEdinburghEdinburgh
Bristol
Oxford
Birmingham
Glasgow
CarlisleCarlisle
NewcastleNewcastle
Sheffield MeadowhallSheffield Meadowhall
EastEast
Midlands HubMidlands Hub
LiverpoolLiverpool
Carlisle
Newcastle
Sheffield (Meadowhall)
East
Midlands Hub
Leeds
Manchester
Liverpool
CreweCreweCrewe
WiganWiganWigan
Leicester
Manch’r
Airport
PARLIAMENT
Old Oak Common
LondonHeathrow
Airport
Birmingham
Interchange
B’ham
Airport
Cardiff
Cambridge
St Pancras
0 50 mls
100 km0
N
North/South dividing
line
Agreed route of HS2
Other route
Route of HS1
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb,
Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 2.6.1: Relocating Parliament
to the East of Birmingham, above
the intersection of High Speed 2
Source: Danny Dorling and Ailsa Allen (cartography)
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
Finland
57
54
51
49
48
47
43
41
40
36 (UK)
35
32
France
Denmark
Italy
Norway Germany
Greece
Japan
UK
US
Ireland
Sweden
Source: The 2010, 2012 and 2015 IMF database, projections after 2014
Figure 2.8.1: State spending as a % of GDP, twelve countries 2002-2020
of GDP, twelve countries 2002-2020
Dorling, D.(2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 2.9.1: The south votes out too. Leave majority in South of England
English counties with area proportional to
total loss of equity for buyers
in the most recent 12months
shaded by change in turnover __-~//f Pllt_~nb ear
"·' .t··- ' ~-I>.
The area of Greater London equals fl billion
>.sf~tnbrt qr_~a,,ni....r
-->"- .)_///i~ ··., __~-- -,,_,
JI r-t-IJ.J~or b-Le
ancasb_(r~,,:' : ( ;. ~
, 1,, · " ·: · !Yest !)orksbft:e~
/ qEast~~filngof!)orksbtre
Decline in sales
in most recent 3 months
D below65%
D 65% to below 70%
70% and above
~-) "
T!)ertforbsbtre
1&.ent
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time
bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.1.1: English counties sized by
loss of housing equity
Source: Estimates made in August 2016 using data
released by the website Zoopla on turnover and
prices by county, two months after the Brexit.
Published first in Dorling, D., ‘Is Britain on the verge
of a Brexit-fuelled house price crash?’, The
Guardian, August 16th 2016.
Figure 3.10.1: Housing
Price growth in Prime
Central London,
2015-2016
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality:
Britain's ticking time bomb,
Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.10.2: Housing Price growth in
central London, year to December 2016
Source: Knight Frank Research, Dorling, D. (2018) Peak
Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.11.1: Income Inequality Gini Coefficient, OECD countries, 2012-2014
Source: McGuinness, F. (2016) Income Inequality in the UK, House of Commons Library Briefing paper No. 7484, 24
November, updated using Source: https://data.oecd.org/inequality/income-inequality.htm, accessed March 2017.
Note that as of March 2018 Estonia is no longer above the UK (inequality in Estonia fell after this data was collected).
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.12.1: Reasons for becoming homeless, England, 2010-2016
1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
18 88% 69% 66% 71% 60% 68% 69% 70% 77% 65% 77% 59% 64% 76% 63% 59% 59% 65% 59% 83% 65% 58% 61% 70% 58% 66% 63% 53%
19 75% 52% 55% 66% 69% 54% 79% 61% 37% 60% 38% 35% 40% 65% 57% 67% 59% 50% 54% 40% 72% 54% 55% 52% 57% 31% 53% 64%
20 65% 67% 63% 74% 60% 81% 60% 36% 44% 46% 50% 41% 38% 43% 45% 67% 45% 48% 54% 52% 60% 54% 61% 43% 50% 39% 37% 46%
21 51% 59% 38% 52% 59% 64% 65% 47% 64% 47% 45% 48% 39% 39% 70% 38% 45% 49% 47% 47% 42% 52% 55% 46% 48% 31% 38% 39%
22 57% 54% 55% 48% 59% 70% 58% 57% 41% 54% 43% 48% 33% 45% 48% 45% 53% 56% 36% 41% 49% 31% 47% 31% 29% 42% 39% 29%
23 50% 67% 51% 58% 53% 63% 58% 58% 64% 60% 46% 47% 44% 59% 51% 35% 45% 53% 47% 51% 42% 40% 36% 36% 31% 40% 32% 41%
24 68% 67% 49% 63% 51% 63% 56% 62% 44% 46% 40% 35% 30% 38% 38% 51% 39% 45% 43% 45% 45% 46% 38% 50% 40% 43% 41% 29%
25 61% 64% 58% 55% 60% 69% 66% 61% 69% 53% 48% 55% 53% 58% 46% 25% 44% 50% 47% 56% 38% 42% 44% 53% 28% 41% 23% 36%
26 62% 69% 80% 68% 52% 71% 78% 70% 51% 64% 39% 62% 61% 50% 58% 52% 56% 44% 51% 59% 45% 39% 45% 45% 61% 40% 27% 38%
27 70% 82% 66% 71% 68% 60% 76% 54% 63% 64% 56% 65% 63% 50% 53% 58% 47% 51% 48% 43% 50% 60% 51% 43% 47% 51% 35% 44%
28 75% 71% 75% 82% 61% 80% 67% 53% 61% 61% 53% 61% 66% 55% 57% 68% 58% 61% 54% 54% 58% 66% 52% 68% 53% 37% 58% 53%
29 77% 62% 69% 79% 77% 73% 63% 67% 56% 69% 56% 60% 41% 71% 66% 59% 63% 78% 63% 65% 62% 48% 52% 63% 55% 45% 43% 42%
30 65% 51% 69% 61% 69% 67% 64% 67% 63% 70% 55% 68% 45% 60% 60% 70% 47% 58% 64% 59% 69% 57% 57% 45% 71% 43% 41% 36%
31 63% 68% 66% 65% 62% 75% 75% 64% 66% 72% 65% 61% 55% 67% 82% 67% 63% 68% 55% 71% 72% 62% 60% 64% 63% 52% 53% 55%
32 76% 68% 75% 70% 72% 77% 81% 69% 61% 61% 69% 70% 78% 73% 69% 65% 50% 67% 55% 74% 66% 57% 70% 60% 65% 54% 49% 56%
33 74% 67% 71% 72% 74% 67% 72% 71% 61% 72% 68% 67% 69% 68% 66% 66% 62% 68% 67% 64% 66% 56% 63% 54% 55% 54% 55% 52%
34 71% 76% 76% 76% 73% 80% 82% 74% 55% 73% 78% 63% 72% 76% 75% 65% 76% 73% 66% 74% 73% 74% 73% 71% 72% 62% 64% 53%
35 84% 83% 63% 80% 73% 69% 83% 70% 70% 68% 74% 72% 70% 60% 60% 67% 73% 69% 65% 60% 68% 61% 61% 60% 66% 65% 51% 58%
36 74% 70% 72% 74% 80% 71% 85% 68% 76% 65% 71% 70% 77% 75% 74% 70% 68% 64% 64% 69% 66% 65% 74% 71% 61% 68% 59% 58%
37 65% 87% 65% 77% 73% 80% 85% 72% 74% 70% 55% 70% 71% 73% 73% 67% 68% 79% 70% 80% 69% 70% 75% 66% 56% 57% 58% 58%
38 72% 73% 82% 73% 78% 75% 77% 80% 86% 72% 70% 67% 58% 73% 79% 73% 70% 83% 77% 80% 70% 73% 73% 70% 61% 63% 48% 57%
39 73% 87% 75% 74% 74% 87% 83% 73% 65% 71% 77% 75% 72% 60% 70% 80% 74% 78% 67% 77% 68% 73% 72% 64% 67% 54% 75% 59%
40 72% 81% 62% 82% 88% 80% 88% 73% 72% 86% 73% 78% 71% 69% 84% 79% 70% 77% 77% 65% 72% 68% 77% 71% 72% 64% 60% 61%
41 75% 64% 76% 80% 80% 76% 86% 79% 73% 67% 81% 61% 76% 74% 69% 70% 70% 81% 79% 78% 72% 73% 76% 76% 70% 74% 67% 75%
42 79% 88% 71% 80% 78% 75% 85% 76% 86% 80% 79% 77% 86% 73% 73% 74% 78% 80% 72% 88% 70% 72% 79% 74% 72% 72% 63% 70%
43 78% 83% 69% 75% 83% 88% 77% 77% 79% 86% 70% 76% 40% 78% 72% 71% 73% 73% 78% 74% 77% 73% 72% 77% 68% 69% 61% 74%
44 71% 81% 81% 88% 76% 81% 79% 79% 68% 79% 71% 79% 82% 83% 75% 80% 75% 77% 75% 82% 75% 74% 78% 69% 72% 66% 52% 64%
45 74% 80% 77% 81% 69% 90% 75% 60% 84% 82% 71% 81% 92% 74% 67% 72% 70% 84% 78% 80% 77% 77% 82% 80% 77% 75% 70% 69%
46 68% 79% 73% 78% 82% 79% 83% 81% 85% 75% 79% 83% 83% 85% 79% 63% 77% 69% 67% 80% 75% 88% 66% 65% 76% 72% 69% 71%
47 83% 85% 57% 88% 82% 84% 63% 78% 75% 83% 73% 89% 65% 74% 74% 66% 80% 78% 64% 80% 68% 83% 71% 79% 86% 74% 72% 66%
48 67% 84% 62% 74% 84% 79% 82% 70% 88% 86% 79% 79% 94% 79% 76% 69% 87% 80% 77% 69% 78% 77% 70% 75% 61% 75% 66% 64%
49 70% 58% 85% 75% 78% 82% 71% 84% 79% 81% 71% 75% 85% 85% 72% 78% 69% 74% 72% 75% 82% 86% 80% 75% 72% 80% 73% 59%
50 66% 81% 60% 59% 71% 76% 85% 76% 69% 84% 81% 77% 80% 83% 76% 74% 81% 86% 71% 83% 78% 72% 85% 78% 62% 66% 73% 67%
51 73% 100% 74% 79% 93% 79% 79% 81% 74% 84% 80% 85% 61% 78% 76% 76% 89% 82% 79% 88% 77% 83% 72% 76% 76% 71% 69% 72%
52 65% 63% 75% 80% 88% 78% 68% 65% 69% 63% 71% 89% 79% 85% 85% 81% 79% 77% 75% 84% 77% 80% 78% 81% 72% 70% 70% 67%
53 77% 62% 73% 79% 74% 82% 85% 78% 73% 80% 67% 82% 82% 76% 76% 71% 84% 80% 71% 75% 85% 63% 73% 75% 85% 78% 78% 72%
54 56% 71% 67% 65% 71% 81% 73% 82% 86% 81% 75% 74% 67% 71% 93% 69% 83% 78% 75% 79% 82% 89% 84% 78% 82% 79% 63% 77%
55 38% 74% 59% 67% 69% 73% 74% 70% 77% 95% 65% 66% 71% 76% 81% 85% 79% 88% 90% 66% 71% 76% 74% 76% 75% 76% 62% 62%
56 67% 68% 38% 65% 92% 76% 77% 80% 81% 70% 77% 74% 93% 82% 86% 74% 73% 95% 82% 80% 74% 85% 67% 83% 75% 80% 70% 68%
57 69% 59% 56% 67% 77% 78% 82% 71% 74% 75% 80% 71% 86% 75% 89% 80% 76% 85% 74% 91% 79% 79% 82% 87% 74% 65% 75% 81%
58 54% 60% 46% 54% 74% 77% 77% 82% 84% 71% 68% 77% 82% 78% 77% 86% 80% 81% 71% 81% 75% 92% 87% 81% 74% 77% 76% 68%
59 48% 59% 50% 69% 71% 70% 81% 68% 57% 75% 77% 73% 86% 75% 70% 70% 65% 75% 76% 75% 73% 80% 68% 77% 81% 80% 90% 71%
60 64% 64% 77% 64% 65% 64% 84% 73% 76% 81% 73% 78% 36% 85% 84% 83% 78% 78% 88% 83% 75% 77% 85% 79% 77% 75% 75% 88%
61 35% 41% 54% 61% 63% 63% 77% 68% 81% 84% 78% 82% 82% 76% 77% 72% 78% 89% 82% 86% 86% 82% 81% 80% 83% 81% 77% 87%
62 45% 53% 62% 58% 68% 76% 71% 72% 70% 71% 80% 78% 71% 68% 73% 78% 68% 70% 69% 82% 79% 85% 77% 83% 81% 76% 80% 82%
63 68% 73% 76% 50% 66% 64% 76% 73% 67% 69% 83% 82% 78% 81% 78% 71% 74% 64% 76% 70% 70% 84% 79% 72% 68% 73% 77% 75%
64 47% 63% 49% 62% 61% 61% 63% 72% 68% 71% 66% 62% 77% 74% 72% 68% 81% 86% 71% 70% 79% 64% 83% 80% 72% 80% 74% 80%
65 59% 40% 32% 61% 60% 55% 73% 70% 58% 56% 68% 73% 71% 75% 80% 67% 71% 76% 72% 76% 67% 70% 84% 78% 69% 74% 85% 83%
66 68% 67% 35% 62% 69% 59% 78% 57% 64% 70% 60% 73% 80% 75% 79% 71% 81% 72% 83% 79% 79% 77% 84% 67% 78% 80% 80% 77%
67 38% 60% 59% 46% 67% 63% 68% 59% 57% 64% 67% 71% 82% 68% 85% 79% 77% 63% 80% 74% 74% 81% 76% 80% 79% 86% 76% 79%
68 67% 43% 71% 56% 54% 58% 69% 57% 69% 53% 71% 70% 61% 73% 86% 87% 66% 69% 69% 65% 77% 77% 80% 78% 76% 70% 72% 80%
69 55% 58% 50% 64% 53% 47% 65% 39% 60% 76% 58% 61% 50% 73% 72% 59% 67% 74% 69% 80% 64% 71% 72% 70% 86% 79% 79% 78%
70 50% 47% 44% 53% 48% 63% 69% 60% 48% 66% 70% 65% 79% 79% 63% 71% 77% 73% 79% 81% 79% 72% 78% 74% 68% 70% 66% 73%
71 78% 68% 44% 61% 65% 54% 62% 63% 43% 60% 59% 61% 75% 71% 51% 73% 61% 78% 79% 80% 81% 83% 82% 78% 80% 83% 78% 73%
72 60% 62% 23% 53% 58% 70% 52% 52% 58% 40% 69% 69% 67% 61% 65% 60% 77% 85% 71% 72% 73% 71% 77% 82% 88% 77% 73% 86%
73 61% 56% 43% 64% 48% 63% 65% 50% 35% 47% 71% 61% 88% 64% 58% 62% 60% 76% 78% 67% 69% 78% 78% 78% 65% 86% 71% 70%
74 61% 53% 36% 68% 53% 61% 73% 52% 67% 57% 45% 73% 70% 66% 73% 76% 56% 69% 80% 71% 63% 63% 78% 83% 77% 68% 80% 77%
75 38% 78% 33% 52% 60% 71% 56% 71% 57% 68% 55% 61% 64% 69% 62% 52% 59% 62% 65% 64% 76% 84% 79% 74% 78% 83% 79% 77%
76 69% 75% 53% 50% 39% 46% 61% 51% 47% 58% 66% 64% 71% 48% 74% 65% 73% 67% 73% 64% 75% 74% 80% 65% 86% 90% 71% 82%
77 57% 40% 38% 74% 40% 56% 67% 48% 48% 55% 44% 54% 50% 65% 61% 62% 46% 73% 64% 69% 60% 76% 59% 83% 68% 75% 78% 89%
78 65% 73% 50% 39% 39% 68% 47% 70% 50% 57% 71% 65% 50% 67% 74% 73% 57% 69% 65% 77% 76% 67% 78% 76% 78% 84% 82% 77%
79 29% 13% 54% 52% 46% 50% 57% 57% 63% 46% 53% 66% 29% 62% 57% 58% 72% 68% 72% 84% 85% 61% 83% 70% 74% 67% 77% 72%
80 38% 43% 75% 56% 67% 47% 74% 26% 48% 48% 63% 60% 33% 68% 45% 54% 65% 54% 63% 81% 64% 71% 67% 77% 70% 79% 84% 69%
81 78% 100% 44% 36% 42% 75% 38% 50% 45% 39% 64% 53% 50% 41% 57% 58% 62% 63% 76% 68% 64% 74% 72% 70% 64% 83% 83% 85%
82 50% 33% 43% 60% 59% 45% 45% 54% 65% 60% 47% 67% 62% 42% 50% 47% 48% 63% 60% 62% 59% 62% 84% 71% 63% 83% 59% 83%
83 75% 63% 33% 75% 17% 57% 50% 27% 57% 56% 38% 59% 55% 70% 59% 78% 55% 44% 62% 56% 56% 88% 67% 65% 92% 52% 67% 74%
84 67% 50% 46% 63% 60% 38% 29% 63% 56% 55% 60% 39% 43% 68% 53% 59% 69% 50% 50% 67% 81% 64% 73% 70% 76% 78% 77% 81%
85 100% 50% 43% 50% 67% 18% 27% 33% 55% 36% 55% 65% 25% 57% 60% 40% 50% 67% 57% 67% 69% 79% 52% 70% 77% 73% 83% 72%
86 0% 50% 67% 67% 50% 38% 50% 50% 18% 43% 89% 50% 50% 52% 50% 47% 57% 62% 73% 86% 53% 70% 56% 53% 64% 64% 76% 93%
87 0% 50% 100% 50% 25% 0% 60% 86% 50% 14% 56% 57% 25% 56% 43% 78% 29% 57% 45% 63% 69% 57% 76% 67% 100% 63% 67% 92%
88 100% 0% 100% 20% x 100% 100% 80% 71% 100% 67% 62% 33% 50% 17% 44% 64% 63% 55% 75% 50% 38% 45% 60% 67% 86% 50% 89%
89 50% 67% 0% 0% 100% 67% 67% 50% 40% 33% 50% 38% 75% 60% 33% 57% 50% 38% 58% 14% 67% 50% 71% 50% 88% 50% 71% 86%
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.5.1: People with a mortgage in the UK by age 1983-2012
Source: Dorling, D.(2015) Only one lucky generation ever struck housing gold, The Telegraph, April 28th 2015.
The figures along the right hand side are people’s ages. The figures along the top are the year of the data collection (note that dat for the years1988 and
1992 were missing). And the figure in each cell is the proportion of people in Britain in that year of that age who had a mortgage or owned their home.
There were no 88 year olds in the 1986 (British Social Attitudes) sample - hence the “x” with the white background in that cell.
The colours vary from red to dark blue change as the % rises and the proportion of home owners or buyers rises.
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.6.1: The Value of Property in Britain by Urban Area, 2012
Note: total equity (£bn) Source: Analysis by Hometrack, areas defined by the State
of the Cities Report, reported in: Collinson, P. (2012) House prices: guide to property
hotspots, The Guardian, March 30th.
Figure 3.6.2 The London Bubble: boroughs sized by housing value, 2013
Dorling, D.
(2018) Peak
Inequality:
Britain's ticking
time bomb,
Bristol: Policy
Press
Source: London
mapper (Ben
Hennig)
Figure 3.6.3: The very rich, the
river and the losers, London today
Source:
anonymous
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press.
Figure 3.7.1: Households with children private renting, England 1984-2012
Note that Annex Table 1.5: Households with dependent children, by tenure, 2003-04 to 2015-16 gives the
figures for the four years after this as being 21%, 24%, 24% and 25%, or 6,602,000 households in
England by 2015/16 according to the 2015-16 English Housing Survey Headline Report.
Original source: Source: Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission (2013) State of the Nation
2013 October 2013, London: The Stationery Office.
0
1
2
3
4
5
1911 1921 1931 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
Ratio
90:10 ratio 90: 50 ratio 50: 10 ratio
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.7.2: Relative overcrowding, England and Wales, 1911-2001
Source, Tunstall per com, based on Censuses 1911-2011 (General Register Office 1913, 1925, 1935, 1956, 1964, Office of Population, Censuses
and Surveys, 1974, www.casweb.mimas.ac.uk; www.nomisweb.co.uk). Note the 90:10 ratio is the ratio of the average number of rooms per
person that the best housed 10th of the population have access to compared to the worst-housed tenth of the population of England and Wales.
Figure 3.7.3: Life Expectancy and wealth inequality, 14 countries, 2000
Source: Nowatzki, N.R. (2012) Wealth Inequality and Health: a Political Economy Perspective,
International Journal of Health Services, 42, 3, 403–424
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.8.1: Arts Spending in London and the Rest of England 1980-2013
This figure is a screenshot of the two key graphs in the “RoCC” report (Stark et al., 2013). AQ4
RoCC is not the first time the report of this kind. Although the rise in spending in London looks very
large presented this way the ratios of London versus the rest of England spending are 5.1:1 in 1980/
1981, rising to 5.4:1 and then 5.6:1 in 2012/2013. Arts spending is still concentrating in London but
slightly less quickly than it was, partly because there is so little government arts money not spent
outside of London nowadays.
Source: Stark, P., Gordon, C., & Powell, D. (2013). Rebalancing our cultural capital: A contribution to the
debate on national policy for the arts and culture in England.
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's
ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.8.2: The regions of England
in proportion to arts funding 2013
Data Source: Stark, P., Gordon, C., & Powell, D.
(2013). Rebalancing our cultural capital: A
contribution to the debate on national policy for
the arts and culture in England.
Here each region is shown with its size
drawn in proportion to its share of Arts
Council Funding.
Maps of this kind can only show absolute
data, not figures presented as a ratio, for
instance divided by population. This is
because the statistics have to be additive so
that the total area is made up of the sum of
the smaller areas.
An inset map is provided to illustrate the land
area of each region but if you want to see the
population of each region have a look at
Figures 3.8.6 and 3.8.77 which both use a
base map drawn in proportion to population.
Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. (2016) London and
the English desert – the geography of cultural
capital in the UK, Cultural Trends, 25, 1, 35-46
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking
time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.8.3: London boroughs and
English regions housing wealth, 2014
This map of the English regions and
boroughs of London illustrates how wealth,
in the form of the value of housing, became
incredibly concentrated within London by
2014. London housing was, by then worth
more than all the housing of the North East
of England, North West of England, and
Yorkshire and Humberside combined. Since
2014 that concentration of wealth in the
capital has risen immensely as the London
bubble grows, although figures by borough
and region are no longer released so reliably
by the land registry. This has made is harder
for updated maps to be produced as easily
as we could produce them of the London
housing bubble last year.
Data Source: Land registry and the 2011 census
Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. (2016)
London and the English desert – the
geography of cultural capital in the
UK, Cultural Trends, 25, 1, 35-46
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's
ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.8.4: Exclusions rings
around British nuclear power
stations, 2015
Note how most people living in the
North of England live within 80 km of
a nuclear power station that they
could presumably visit, should they
so wish. In contrast, large numbers
of people living in London can easily
visit many very well-funded arts
venues but not a nuclear power
station. There are fewer power
stations in the English midlands
because large sources of water
needed to cool the stations are less
reliability available there.
The 20, 30 and 80 km
exclusion rings around
nuclear power stations in
the UK shown on both an
equal land area map and
on the population
cartogram. Some other
facilities are included hear
such as Sellafield where
spent but highly dangerous
fuel is stored.
Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. (2016)
London and the English desert – the
geography of cultural capital in the
UK, Cultural Trends, 25, 1, 35-46
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's
ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.8.5: The British Isles
shaped by the wealth of the
super-rich, 2014
The Sunday Times Magazine
produces an annual report on
the wealth of the 1000 richest
families in the UK and
Ireland. In 2014 it included a
regional breakdown . The
total area of the cartogram is
proportional to the total
wealth of these 1000 richest
families and the circles
drawn for individual families
show the total wealth of
those particular families who
are the richest within each
region and the 10 richest in
London.
Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. (2016)
London and the English desert – the
geography of cultural capital in the
UK, Cultural Trends, 25, 1, 35-46
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time
bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 3.8.6: The Universities of England
shaded by their power, 2012
In this map a circle is drawn to represent each university
with its size in proportion to the number of students
studying there, located where the university main
campus is. The circles are then coloured according to
the ratio of government research funding awarded per
student. The research funding is not for students so this
is an innovative and unusual measure. Data were only
available for England at the time of drawing this map. In
many ways Cambridge and Oxford are London suburbs
today so the interesting exception is Bristol, which does
not quite fit the mould, although the train from there to
London does not take very long at all to travel into the
heart of the capital.
Data Source: HESA statistics for 2012.
Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. (2016)
London and the English desert – the
geography of cultural capital in the
UK, Cultural Trends, 25, 1, 35-46
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality:
Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol:
Policy Press
Figure 3.8.7: Proportion
voting Conservative of all
who voted, UK 2015
In this figure each parliamentary
constituency of the UK is drawn in
proportion to the population living there and
coloured according to the share of the vote
won by the Conservative party in the May
2015 general election. Those who did not
vote are ignored. In a few areas, coloured
blue or purple, a narrow majority of the
voters did vote for the party that gained
power. Everywhere else only a minority of
voters, and an even smaller proportion of the
registered electorate, voted for the party that
actually secured the most seats in parliament
and a majority of 12 MPs. This was possible
because there were many opposition parties
in England: Labour, Green, Liberal, and
UKIP; and because of the archaic
“Westminster” first-past-the-post voting
system, itself another example of London
cultural dominance.
Data Source: The Electoral Commision
Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. (2016)
London and the English desert – the
geography of cultural capital in the
UK, Cultural Trends, 25, 1, 35-46
Figure 3.9.1: Households in private renting by
birth decade, UK 1950s-1990s
World Annual Population Growth 1821-2015
Source: World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision. New York: United Nations
AnnualChange
0%
0.5%
1%
1.5%
2%
2.5%
1820
2000
2005
2010
2015
1830
1840
1850
1860
1870
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
WWI and Pandemic
WWII and Return
Crash and Long Depression The Great
Chinese Famine
End of Global
Population Acceleration
1%
1.20%
1.26%
Figure 4.1.1: Annual rate of change in global
human population 1821–2015
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb,
Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.3.1: Harrovians at the 1914 Eton
versus Harrow match at Lords
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb,
Bristol: Policy Press
Note: Note Harrow had the hats! 13th July 1914, Mirror
Syndication International
Figure 4.3.2: Harrovians unsure of
themselves outside the 1937 cricket match
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb,
Bristol: Policy Press
Note: Note they had canes as well (Jimmy Sime, 1937/Hulton
Archive/ Getty Images)
Figure 4.3.3: Income inequality in Britain
1921-2009, take of the 10%
Note: by 2010 the take of the top 10% had returned to 1930s levels.
Source: Dorling, D., The Rich Get Richer: The harsh reality of class
in Britain, New Statesman, May 10th 2013 & Dorling, D. (2018) Peak
Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.3.4: UNDP estimates and
projections of GDP 1820-2050
Note: Brazil, China and India combined are projected to
account for 40% of global output by 2050, up from 10% in
1950. Source: UNDP (2013) & Dorling, D. (2018) Peak
Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press.
Figure 4.3.5: Spatial segregation of
Conservative voters, 1918-2010
Note: See figure 2.12.2 for the effect of the 2015 &
2017 elections: Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality:
Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press.
Figure 4.3.6: Age of women giving birth
in England and Wales, 1934-2008
Source: Office for National Statistics, Maternities,
dataset PBH34A Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality:
Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.3.7: Mother’s age by birth
order, England and Wales, 1938-2011
Source: ‘true’ means all births are included, ONS (2013)
Live births in England and Wales by characteristics of
mother, 2011, Report published January 24th, London:
Office for National Statistics & Dorling, D. (2018) Peak
Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy
Press
Figure 4.3.8: 1929 Labour Party
election poster – each man steps down
Source: J. F. Horrabin, 1929, in Dorling, D. (2018)
Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb,
Bristol: Policy Press
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.4.1: Equal area base map of London boroughs showing colour key
Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B.D., The dimensions that shape
London – mapped, The Observer, Sunday May 11th 2014
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.4.2: Boroughs drawn in proportion to homelessness, autumn 2013
Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B.D., The dimensions that shape
London – mapped, The Observer, Sunday May 11th 2014
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.4.3: London boroughs sized by the rise in housing value 2012-2013
Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B.D., The dimensions that shape
London – mapped, The Observer, Sunday May 11th 2014
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.4.4: Number of hedgehog sightings in London, 2014
Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B.D., The dimensions that shape
London – mapped, The Observer, Sunday May 11th 2014
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.4.5: Where the bankers live, by ward, population cartogram, 2011
Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B.D., The dimensions that shape
London – mapped, The Observer, Sunday May 11th 2014
Figure 4.5.1: English Regions and London
boroughs, area and households
Source 2011 census & Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality:
Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.5.2: Change in number of households by affluence, England
1980-2010
Increase in poor households Decline in middle households Increase in wealthy households
LONDONMAPPERDorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.5.3: Number of households by affluence 2010, England
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.5.4: Number of households by
affluence 2010, London
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's
ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.5.5: Number and % of poor/
wealthy households 2010, London
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's
ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.5.6: Rise in poor and wealthy
households 1980-2010, London
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's
ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.5.7: Decline in middling
households 1980-2010, London
The larger the borough the more
households in the middle of the income
distribution were lost and the brighter the
colour the higher proportion were lost
over time between 1980 and 2000
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's
ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.5.8: Reference Map, London
boroughs by population 2011
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's
ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 4.7.1: World population cartogram, highlighting low-lying areas
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. D. (2015)
Visualizing urban and regional worlds: power, politics, and practices
Environment and Planning A, 47, 1346-1350
Figure 4.7.2: Europe population
cartogram, highlighting low-
lying areas
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak
Inequality: Britain's ticking
time bomb, Bristol: Policy
Press
Source: Dorling, D. and
Hennig, B. D. (2015)
Visualizing urban and
regional worlds: power,
politics, and practices
Environment and Planning
A, 47, 1346-1350
Figure 4.7.3: UK population
cartogram, highlighting low-
lying areas
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak
Inequality: Britain's
ticking time bomb,
Bristol: Policy Press
Source: Dorling, D.
and Hennig, B. D.
(2015)
Visualizing urban
and regional worlds:
power, politics, and
practices
Environment and
Planning A, 47,
1346-1350
Figure 4.7.4: London population cartogram, highlighting low-
lying areas
Dorling, D. (2018)
Peak Inequality:
Britain's ticking time
bomb, Bristol:
Policy Press
Source: Dorling, D. and
Hennig, B. D. (2015) Visualizing urban
and regional worlds: power, politics, and
practices,Environment and Planning A, 47, 1346-1350
Figure 4.8.1: Change in disposable income by NUTS2 region,
2007-2011
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's
ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Ballas, D., Dorling, D., and Hennig, B. (2016) Analysing the regional geography of poverty,
austerity and inequality in Europe: a human cartographic perspective,Regional Studies
Figure 4.8.2: Change in GDP by NUTS2 region, Europe
2008-2011
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's
ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Ballas, D., Dorling, D., and Hennig, B. (2016) Analysing the regional geography of poverty,
austerity and inequality in Europe: a human cartographic perspective,Regional Studies
Figure 5.1.1 The Student loan bubble, USA
campaign poster 2011
Anonymous, reproduced in: Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality:
Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 5.10.1: Gini Coefficient of income inequality, OECD countries, 2015
Source: OECD, http://www.compareyourcountry.org/inequality?&lg=en
Starred statistics are from before 2015 as 2015 data was not available in 2018
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 5.4.1: Inaugural lecture, Oxford, February 3rd 2014
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol:
Policy Press
Figure 5.7.1: A-level grades by ability, state and fee-
paying school, 2009-11
Proportion securing these grades or higher at A level. Representative cohort
of children born in or around Bristol in 1991 and 1992. Source: Dorling, D.
(2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 5.9.1: Two ladders
of two very differently
shaped societies, 2017
Drawn by Ella Furness, reproduced in Dorling, D. (2018) Peak
Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 6.1.1: Excess mortality of men over women
in the USA 1935–2010
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol:
Policy Press. Source: Vanderbloemen, L., Dorling, D. and Minton, J.
(2016) Visualizing variation in mortality rates across the life course
and by sex, USA and comparator states, 1933–2010, Journal of
Epidemiology and Community Health, vol 70, no 8, pp 826-31.
Figure 6.10.1 Difference in mortality rates
compared with 2001, England, by age group
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb,
Bristol: Policy Press. Source: UK Office for National Statistics.
Note: refers to those aged 75 and over, 2002 to 2016.
Figure 6.10.2: SMRs for people aged 20 to 100 years, England 2000-2016
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press. Source: Continuous
Mortality Investigation (CMI) Note: SMR = Standardised Mortality Ratio, Trend lines are shown
Figure 6.3.1: Number of social care recipients,
England, 2007-2013 (thousands)
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol:
Policy Press; source: Figure 1 of CSA, Half a million older and disabled
people lose care since start of recession, December 15th 2013, London:
Care and Support Alliance
Figure 6.3.2: Expected years women live beyond age 65,
UK, 2007-2012 (years)
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb,
Bristol: Policy Press
60%
�
(Q
�t 50%k 00 0..
IL) r:,,
- i:::0 {IS
S.b
o<+-< 40%..c= 0
� a�
oc.8..... 30%-+,J i:::(lj,,...
- {IS
[8
0 k
P..'a:i
20%Q) ..c=
..c= -- r:,,
<+-< {IS
0�
� k
0 0
10%..... �
too-
p..
0
k
i:i...
0%
0
Note: The figures forJapan areonlyfor
Netherlands
-
workers, not students, and are low
because the train is the main means of
transport for so many in Japan. Area
proportional to population.
Germany
UK
Japan
l-
-
5 10 15 20
Inequality: Income share ofthe best-offone per cent ofthe
population (% all income taken by this group)
25
Australia
Ireland
Canada
Figure 6.5.1: People waking/cycling as main means of travel, and inequality, 2012
Source: World top incomes dataset and Buehler, R. and Pucher, J., Walking and cycling in
Western Europe and the United States: trends, policies, and lessons, TR News 280, May-June
2012. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 6.7.1: Interaction of housing tenure with housing arrears
and self-reported health, EU 2010
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Source: Data is from the EU_SILC modelled in Stata by Clarify Monte Carlo
simulations, displayed as kernel density plots. From a paper written with Clair, A.,
Reeves, A., Loopstra, R., McKee, M., and Stuckler, D., first published in in 2016.
Figure 6.9.1 Reasons for change in life expectancy 2013-2015, men, years
Note: for England and Wales showing cause of death contribution by age,
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy
Press. From a paper written with Hiam, L., Harrison, D., and McKee, M. (2017).
Note: for England and Wales showing cause of death contribution by age, Dorling,
D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press. From a
paper written with Hiam, L., Harrison, D., and McKee, M. (2017).
Figure 6.9.2 Reasons for change in life expectancy
2013-2015, women, years
Figure 7.1.1: Millbank Prison Plan 1828 (opened in 1816, closed in 1890)
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Source: G.P. Holford (1828), An Account of Millbank Penitentiary, London: C. J. Rivington and Hatchard and Son.
Figure 7.9.1: Guernica by Pablo Picasso, June 1937
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
Figure 7.9.2: Statue of Cecil Rhodes overlooking
Oxford’s High Street, 2016
Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol:
Policy Press. Source: Source: Oxford Student Magazine 2015

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Peak inequality

  • 1.
  • 2. 2008 2010 2012 Year NSSEC - Manual - Intermediate - Professional 2014 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 1.1.1: Infant mortality rate by social class, UK 2008–2015 Note: 95% confidence limits shown by shaded area around each line. Source: Taylor-Robinson, D. and Barr, B., ʻDeath rate now rising in UKʼs poorest infantsʼ, British Medical Journal, May 11th 2017, https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/3007455/
  • 3. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 2.1.1: Deprivation and the 2016 EU Referendum, England Source: Drawn by Daniel Watts in December 2017 and reproduced here with permission.
  • 4. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Figure 2.11.1: Labelling the political causeway - UK general election 2015 Source: Field, K. and Dorling, D. (2016) UK Election Cartography International Journal of Cartography, 2(2), pp.202-232.
  • 5. @FraserNelson 9 Jun 2017 Jeremy Corbyn has just increased Labour's share of the vote more than any other leader in any other election since Attlee in 1945 Source: https://twitter.com/FraserNelson/status/873048396054933505 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 2.12.1: Corbyn gives Labour biggest vote share increase since 1945
  • 6. 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 1922 (Bonar Law) 1923 Conservative (Baldwin) 1924 Labour (MacDonald) 1929 Labour (MacDonald) 1931 Conservative/Liberal/ Nat. Labour/etc. (MacDonald) 1935 Conservative/Liberal (Baldwin) 1945 Labour (Attlee) 1950 Labour (Attlee) 1951 Conservative (Churchill) 1955 Conservative (Eden) 1959 Conservative (Macmillan, followed by Douglas- Home in 1963) 1964 Labour (Wilson) 1966 Labour (Wilson) 1970 Conservative (Heath) 1974 (February) Labour (Wilson) Minority government 1974 (October) Labour (Wilson), followed by LibLab Pact (Callaghan) 1979 Conservative (Thatcher) 1983 Conservative (Thatcher) 1987 Conservative (Thatcher) 1992 Conservative (Major) 1997 New Labour (Blair) 2001 New Labour (Blair) 2005 New Labour (Blair) 2010 Conservative/ Liberal (Cameron/Clegg) 2015 Conservative (Cameron) 2017 Conservative/DUP (May/ Foster) 1924 Conservative (Baldwin) ‘National Govern- ment’ Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 2.12.2: The Segregation Index of Conservative voters 1920-2017 How geographically segregated Conservative voters were at each general election: the minimal proportion who would have to move constituency for there to be an even distribution (%). The date of each election is also show alongside the party that won and the surname of its leader(s). Source: updated version of Figure 13 of Dorling, D. (2015) Injustice, why social inequality still persists, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 7. May 2015 Jun 2015 Sep 2015 Jan 2016 Feb 2016 Mar 2016 Apr 2016 Aug 2016 Oct 2016 Nov 2016 Dec 2016 Jan 2017 Feb 2017 Mar 2017 Apr 2017 May 2017 Jun 2017 25 30 35 40 -6.0 0.0 6.0 Averagemonthlysupportatthistime(%) Rate of change: from month before to month after, per month (%) Share of the Labourvote in UK opinion polls, May 2015 to 1st June 2017 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 2.12.3: Labour vote in UK opinion polls, May 2015 to 1st June 2017 Source: Dorling, D. (2017) The Election Result in Three Graphs, Public Sector Focus, July/August 2017, pp.66-67 The figures along the Y axis: 25,30, 35 and 40 are the support for the Labour Party in the average opinion polls of the month shown. The figures along the x axis, -6.0, 0.0 and 6.0 are the average change in the polling of Labour within that month (fall or rise in. Its share often vote in the opinion polls). For June 2017 only the figure for the 1st of June is shown. Underlying data from: http://ukpollingreport.co.uk/voting-intention-2 first accessed April 26th 2016, last accessed in early June 2017.
  • 8. 0.1 1 10 100 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 %oftotalincomereceivedbyeachgroup highest income 10% highest income 1% highest income 0.1% highest income 0.01% Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 2.2.1: Incomes of the best-off in the UK, 1910–2009 Source: World top incomes database, missing data interpolated From Dorling, D. (2013) Fairness and the changing fortunes of people in Britain, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A (2013) 176, Part 1, pp. 97–128, The Beveridge Memorial Lecture, 2012, as presented to The Royal Statistical Society on Wednesday, June 27th 2012 Using: Atkinson, A. B. (2007) The distribution of top incomes in the United Kingdom 1908-2000, in: Top Incomes over the Twentieth Century: a Contrast between Continental European and English-speaking Countries (eds A.B. Atkinson and T. Piketty), chapter 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 9. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 2.3.1: Defendants brought before the courts, riot, England, 2011 Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. D., Mapping the August 2011 riots, New Statesman Blog, 5th August 2014
  • 10. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 2.3.2: Riot-related crimes and Index of Multiple Deprivation score, London 2010 Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. D., Mapping the August 2011 riots, New Statesman Blog, 5th August 2014
  • 11. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 2.5.1: Note left on Harold Wilson Memorial, April 17th 2013 Source: Note: The note reads “On the day of the pompous and prodigal funeral of a greatly overrated Prime Minister this is a simple and respectful tribute to a greatly underrated Prime Minister who sowed the seeds of equality, fairness and compassion in our country and whose crucial contributions are not acknowledged even by his own party.” Photograph taken by Dimitris Papadimitriou, Professor of Politics, University of Manchester.
  • 12. EdinburghEdinburghEdinburgh Bristol Oxford Birmingham Glasgow CarlisleCarlisle NewcastleNewcastle Sheffield MeadowhallSheffield Meadowhall EastEast Midlands HubMidlands Hub LiverpoolLiverpool Carlisle Newcastle Sheffield (Meadowhall) East Midlands Hub Leeds Manchester Liverpool CreweCreweCrewe WiganWiganWigan Leicester Manch’r Airport PARLIAMENT Old Oak Common LondonHeathrow Airport Birmingham Interchange B’ham Airport Cardiff Cambridge St Pancras 0 50 mls 100 km0 N North/South dividing line Agreed route of HS2 Other route Route of HS1 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 2.6.1: Relocating Parliament to the East of Birmingham, above the intersection of High Speed 2 Source: Danny Dorling and Ailsa Allen (cartography)
  • 13. 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Finland 57 54 51 49 48 47 43 41 40 36 (UK) 35 32 France Denmark Italy Norway Germany Greece Japan UK US Ireland Sweden Source: The 2010, 2012 and 2015 IMF database, projections after 2014 Figure 2.8.1: State spending as a % of GDP, twelve countries 2002-2020 of GDP, twelve countries 2002-2020 Dorling, D.(2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 14. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 2.9.1: The south votes out too. Leave majority in South of England
  • 15. English counties with area proportional to total loss of equity for buyers in the most recent 12months shaded by change in turnover __-~//f Pllt_~nb ear "·' .t··- ' ~-I>. The area of Greater London equals fl billion >.sf~tnbrt qr_~a,,ni....r -->"- .)_///i~ ··., __~-- -,,_, JI r-t-IJ.J~or b-Le ancasb_(r~,,:' : ( ;. ~ , 1,, · " ·: · !Yest !)orksbft:e~ / qEast~~filngof!)orksbtre Decline in sales in most recent 3 months D below65% D 65% to below 70% 70% and above ~-) " T!)ertforbsbtre 1&.ent Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 3.1.1: English counties sized by loss of housing equity Source: Estimates made in August 2016 using data released by the website Zoopla on turnover and prices by county, two months after the Brexit. Published first in Dorling, D., ‘Is Britain on the verge of a Brexit-fuelled house price crash?’, The Guardian, August 16th 2016.
  • 16. Figure 3.10.1: Housing Price growth in Prime Central London, 2015-2016 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 17. Figure 3.10.2: Housing Price growth in central London, year to December 2016 Source: Knight Frank Research, Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 18. Figure 3.11.1: Income Inequality Gini Coefficient, OECD countries, 2012-2014 Source: McGuinness, F. (2016) Income Inequality in the UK, House of Commons Library Briefing paper No. 7484, 24 November, updated using Source: https://data.oecd.org/inequality/income-inequality.htm, accessed March 2017. Note that as of March 2018 Estonia is no longer above the UK (inequality in Estonia fell after this data was collected). Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 19. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 3.12.1: Reasons for becoming homeless, England, 2010-2016
  • 20. 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 18 88% 69% 66% 71% 60% 68% 69% 70% 77% 65% 77% 59% 64% 76% 63% 59% 59% 65% 59% 83% 65% 58% 61% 70% 58% 66% 63% 53% 19 75% 52% 55% 66% 69% 54% 79% 61% 37% 60% 38% 35% 40% 65% 57% 67% 59% 50% 54% 40% 72% 54% 55% 52% 57% 31% 53% 64% 20 65% 67% 63% 74% 60% 81% 60% 36% 44% 46% 50% 41% 38% 43% 45% 67% 45% 48% 54% 52% 60% 54% 61% 43% 50% 39% 37% 46% 21 51% 59% 38% 52% 59% 64% 65% 47% 64% 47% 45% 48% 39% 39% 70% 38% 45% 49% 47% 47% 42% 52% 55% 46% 48% 31% 38% 39% 22 57% 54% 55% 48% 59% 70% 58% 57% 41% 54% 43% 48% 33% 45% 48% 45% 53% 56% 36% 41% 49% 31% 47% 31% 29% 42% 39% 29% 23 50% 67% 51% 58% 53% 63% 58% 58% 64% 60% 46% 47% 44% 59% 51% 35% 45% 53% 47% 51% 42% 40% 36% 36% 31% 40% 32% 41% 24 68% 67% 49% 63% 51% 63% 56% 62% 44% 46% 40% 35% 30% 38% 38% 51% 39% 45% 43% 45% 45% 46% 38% 50% 40% 43% 41% 29% 25 61% 64% 58% 55% 60% 69% 66% 61% 69% 53% 48% 55% 53% 58% 46% 25% 44% 50% 47% 56% 38% 42% 44% 53% 28% 41% 23% 36% 26 62% 69% 80% 68% 52% 71% 78% 70% 51% 64% 39% 62% 61% 50% 58% 52% 56% 44% 51% 59% 45% 39% 45% 45% 61% 40% 27% 38% 27 70% 82% 66% 71% 68% 60% 76% 54% 63% 64% 56% 65% 63% 50% 53% 58% 47% 51% 48% 43% 50% 60% 51% 43% 47% 51% 35% 44% 28 75% 71% 75% 82% 61% 80% 67% 53% 61% 61% 53% 61% 66% 55% 57% 68% 58% 61% 54% 54% 58% 66% 52% 68% 53% 37% 58% 53% 29 77% 62% 69% 79% 77% 73% 63% 67% 56% 69% 56% 60% 41% 71% 66% 59% 63% 78% 63% 65% 62% 48% 52% 63% 55% 45% 43% 42% 30 65% 51% 69% 61% 69% 67% 64% 67% 63% 70% 55% 68% 45% 60% 60% 70% 47% 58% 64% 59% 69% 57% 57% 45% 71% 43% 41% 36% 31 63% 68% 66% 65% 62% 75% 75% 64% 66% 72% 65% 61% 55% 67% 82% 67% 63% 68% 55% 71% 72% 62% 60% 64% 63% 52% 53% 55% 32 76% 68% 75% 70% 72% 77% 81% 69% 61% 61% 69% 70% 78% 73% 69% 65% 50% 67% 55% 74% 66% 57% 70% 60% 65% 54% 49% 56% 33 74% 67% 71% 72% 74% 67% 72% 71% 61% 72% 68% 67% 69% 68% 66% 66% 62% 68% 67% 64% 66% 56% 63% 54% 55% 54% 55% 52% 34 71% 76% 76% 76% 73% 80% 82% 74% 55% 73% 78% 63% 72% 76% 75% 65% 76% 73% 66% 74% 73% 74% 73% 71% 72% 62% 64% 53% 35 84% 83% 63% 80% 73% 69% 83% 70% 70% 68% 74% 72% 70% 60% 60% 67% 73% 69% 65% 60% 68% 61% 61% 60% 66% 65% 51% 58% 36 74% 70% 72% 74% 80% 71% 85% 68% 76% 65% 71% 70% 77% 75% 74% 70% 68% 64% 64% 69% 66% 65% 74% 71% 61% 68% 59% 58% 37 65% 87% 65% 77% 73% 80% 85% 72% 74% 70% 55% 70% 71% 73% 73% 67% 68% 79% 70% 80% 69% 70% 75% 66% 56% 57% 58% 58% 38 72% 73% 82% 73% 78% 75% 77% 80% 86% 72% 70% 67% 58% 73% 79% 73% 70% 83% 77% 80% 70% 73% 73% 70% 61% 63% 48% 57% 39 73% 87% 75% 74% 74% 87% 83% 73% 65% 71% 77% 75% 72% 60% 70% 80% 74% 78% 67% 77% 68% 73% 72% 64% 67% 54% 75% 59% 40 72% 81% 62% 82% 88% 80% 88% 73% 72% 86% 73% 78% 71% 69% 84% 79% 70% 77% 77% 65% 72% 68% 77% 71% 72% 64% 60% 61% 41 75% 64% 76% 80% 80% 76% 86% 79% 73% 67% 81% 61% 76% 74% 69% 70% 70% 81% 79% 78% 72% 73% 76% 76% 70% 74% 67% 75% 42 79% 88% 71% 80% 78% 75% 85% 76% 86% 80% 79% 77% 86% 73% 73% 74% 78% 80% 72% 88% 70% 72% 79% 74% 72% 72% 63% 70% 43 78% 83% 69% 75% 83% 88% 77% 77% 79% 86% 70% 76% 40% 78% 72% 71% 73% 73% 78% 74% 77% 73% 72% 77% 68% 69% 61% 74% 44 71% 81% 81% 88% 76% 81% 79% 79% 68% 79% 71% 79% 82% 83% 75% 80% 75% 77% 75% 82% 75% 74% 78% 69% 72% 66% 52% 64% 45 74% 80% 77% 81% 69% 90% 75% 60% 84% 82% 71% 81% 92% 74% 67% 72% 70% 84% 78% 80% 77% 77% 82% 80% 77% 75% 70% 69% 46 68% 79% 73% 78% 82% 79% 83% 81% 85% 75% 79% 83% 83% 85% 79% 63% 77% 69% 67% 80% 75% 88% 66% 65% 76% 72% 69% 71% 47 83% 85% 57% 88% 82% 84% 63% 78% 75% 83% 73% 89% 65% 74% 74% 66% 80% 78% 64% 80% 68% 83% 71% 79% 86% 74% 72% 66% 48 67% 84% 62% 74% 84% 79% 82% 70% 88% 86% 79% 79% 94% 79% 76% 69% 87% 80% 77% 69% 78% 77% 70% 75% 61% 75% 66% 64% 49 70% 58% 85% 75% 78% 82% 71% 84% 79% 81% 71% 75% 85% 85% 72% 78% 69% 74% 72% 75% 82% 86% 80% 75% 72% 80% 73% 59% 50 66% 81% 60% 59% 71% 76% 85% 76% 69% 84% 81% 77% 80% 83% 76% 74% 81% 86% 71% 83% 78% 72% 85% 78% 62% 66% 73% 67% 51 73% 100% 74% 79% 93% 79% 79% 81% 74% 84% 80% 85% 61% 78% 76% 76% 89% 82% 79% 88% 77% 83% 72% 76% 76% 71% 69% 72% 52 65% 63% 75% 80% 88% 78% 68% 65% 69% 63% 71% 89% 79% 85% 85% 81% 79% 77% 75% 84% 77% 80% 78% 81% 72% 70% 70% 67% 53 77% 62% 73% 79% 74% 82% 85% 78% 73% 80% 67% 82% 82% 76% 76% 71% 84% 80% 71% 75% 85% 63% 73% 75% 85% 78% 78% 72% 54 56% 71% 67% 65% 71% 81% 73% 82% 86% 81% 75% 74% 67% 71% 93% 69% 83% 78% 75% 79% 82% 89% 84% 78% 82% 79% 63% 77% 55 38% 74% 59% 67% 69% 73% 74% 70% 77% 95% 65% 66% 71% 76% 81% 85% 79% 88% 90% 66% 71% 76% 74% 76% 75% 76% 62% 62% 56 67% 68% 38% 65% 92% 76% 77% 80% 81% 70% 77% 74% 93% 82% 86% 74% 73% 95% 82% 80% 74% 85% 67% 83% 75% 80% 70% 68% 57 69% 59% 56% 67% 77% 78% 82% 71% 74% 75% 80% 71% 86% 75% 89% 80% 76% 85% 74% 91% 79% 79% 82% 87% 74% 65% 75% 81% 58 54% 60% 46% 54% 74% 77% 77% 82% 84% 71% 68% 77% 82% 78% 77% 86% 80% 81% 71% 81% 75% 92% 87% 81% 74% 77% 76% 68% 59 48% 59% 50% 69% 71% 70% 81% 68% 57% 75% 77% 73% 86% 75% 70% 70% 65% 75% 76% 75% 73% 80% 68% 77% 81% 80% 90% 71% 60 64% 64% 77% 64% 65% 64% 84% 73% 76% 81% 73% 78% 36% 85% 84% 83% 78% 78% 88% 83% 75% 77% 85% 79% 77% 75% 75% 88% 61 35% 41% 54% 61% 63% 63% 77% 68% 81% 84% 78% 82% 82% 76% 77% 72% 78% 89% 82% 86% 86% 82% 81% 80% 83% 81% 77% 87% 62 45% 53% 62% 58% 68% 76% 71% 72% 70% 71% 80% 78% 71% 68% 73% 78% 68% 70% 69% 82% 79% 85% 77% 83% 81% 76% 80% 82% 63 68% 73% 76% 50% 66% 64% 76% 73% 67% 69% 83% 82% 78% 81% 78% 71% 74% 64% 76% 70% 70% 84% 79% 72% 68% 73% 77% 75% 64 47% 63% 49% 62% 61% 61% 63% 72% 68% 71% 66% 62% 77% 74% 72% 68% 81% 86% 71% 70% 79% 64% 83% 80% 72% 80% 74% 80% 65 59% 40% 32% 61% 60% 55% 73% 70% 58% 56% 68% 73% 71% 75% 80% 67% 71% 76% 72% 76% 67% 70% 84% 78% 69% 74% 85% 83% 66 68% 67% 35% 62% 69% 59% 78% 57% 64% 70% 60% 73% 80% 75% 79% 71% 81% 72% 83% 79% 79% 77% 84% 67% 78% 80% 80% 77% 67 38% 60% 59% 46% 67% 63% 68% 59% 57% 64% 67% 71% 82% 68% 85% 79% 77% 63% 80% 74% 74% 81% 76% 80% 79% 86% 76% 79% 68 67% 43% 71% 56% 54% 58% 69% 57% 69% 53% 71% 70% 61% 73% 86% 87% 66% 69% 69% 65% 77% 77% 80% 78% 76% 70% 72% 80% 69 55% 58% 50% 64% 53% 47% 65% 39% 60% 76% 58% 61% 50% 73% 72% 59% 67% 74% 69% 80% 64% 71% 72% 70% 86% 79% 79% 78% 70 50% 47% 44% 53% 48% 63% 69% 60% 48% 66% 70% 65% 79% 79% 63% 71% 77% 73% 79% 81% 79% 72% 78% 74% 68% 70% 66% 73% 71 78% 68% 44% 61% 65% 54% 62% 63% 43% 60% 59% 61% 75% 71% 51% 73% 61% 78% 79% 80% 81% 83% 82% 78% 80% 83% 78% 73% 72 60% 62% 23% 53% 58% 70% 52% 52% 58% 40% 69% 69% 67% 61% 65% 60% 77% 85% 71% 72% 73% 71% 77% 82% 88% 77% 73% 86% 73 61% 56% 43% 64% 48% 63% 65% 50% 35% 47% 71% 61% 88% 64% 58% 62% 60% 76% 78% 67% 69% 78% 78% 78% 65% 86% 71% 70% 74 61% 53% 36% 68% 53% 61% 73% 52% 67% 57% 45% 73% 70% 66% 73% 76% 56% 69% 80% 71% 63% 63% 78% 83% 77% 68% 80% 77% 75 38% 78% 33% 52% 60% 71% 56% 71% 57% 68% 55% 61% 64% 69% 62% 52% 59% 62% 65% 64% 76% 84% 79% 74% 78% 83% 79% 77% 76 69% 75% 53% 50% 39% 46% 61% 51% 47% 58% 66% 64% 71% 48% 74% 65% 73% 67% 73% 64% 75% 74% 80% 65% 86% 90% 71% 82% 77 57% 40% 38% 74% 40% 56% 67% 48% 48% 55% 44% 54% 50% 65% 61% 62% 46% 73% 64% 69% 60% 76% 59% 83% 68% 75% 78% 89% 78 65% 73% 50% 39% 39% 68% 47% 70% 50% 57% 71% 65% 50% 67% 74% 73% 57% 69% 65% 77% 76% 67% 78% 76% 78% 84% 82% 77% 79 29% 13% 54% 52% 46% 50% 57% 57% 63% 46% 53% 66% 29% 62% 57% 58% 72% 68% 72% 84% 85% 61% 83% 70% 74% 67% 77% 72% 80 38% 43% 75% 56% 67% 47% 74% 26% 48% 48% 63% 60% 33% 68% 45% 54% 65% 54% 63% 81% 64% 71% 67% 77% 70% 79% 84% 69% 81 78% 100% 44% 36% 42% 75% 38% 50% 45% 39% 64% 53% 50% 41% 57% 58% 62% 63% 76% 68% 64% 74% 72% 70% 64% 83% 83% 85% 82 50% 33% 43% 60% 59% 45% 45% 54% 65% 60% 47% 67% 62% 42% 50% 47% 48% 63% 60% 62% 59% 62% 84% 71% 63% 83% 59% 83% 83 75% 63% 33% 75% 17% 57% 50% 27% 57% 56% 38% 59% 55% 70% 59% 78% 55% 44% 62% 56% 56% 88% 67% 65% 92% 52% 67% 74% 84 67% 50% 46% 63% 60% 38% 29% 63% 56% 55% 60% 39% 43% 68% 53% 59% 69% 50% 50% 67% 81% 64% 73% 70% 76% 78% 77% 81% 85 100% 50% 43% 50% 67% 18% 27% 33% 55% 36% 55% 65% 25% 57% 60% 40% 50% 67% 57% 67% 69% 79% 52% 70% 77% 73% 83% 72% 86 0% 50% 67% 67% 50% 38% 50% 50% 18% 43% 89% 50% 50% 52% 50% 47% 57% 62% 73% 86% 53% 70% 56% 53% 64% 64% 76% 93% 87 0% 50% 100% 50% 25% 0% 60% 86% 50% 14% 56% 57% 25% 56% 43% 78% 29% 57% 45% 63% 69% 57% 76% 67% 100% 63% 67% 92% 88 100% 0% 100% 20% x 100% 100% 80% 71% 100% 67% 62% 33% 50% 17% 44% 64% 63% 55% 75% 50% 38% 45% 60% 67% 86% 50% 89% 89 50% 67% 0% 0% 100% 67% 67% 50% 40% 33% 50% 38% 75% 60% 33% 57% 50% 38% 58% 14% 67% 50% 71% 50% 88% 50% 71% 86% Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 3.5.1: People with a mortgage in the UK by age 1983-2012 Source: Dorling, D.(2015) Only one lucky generation ever struck housing gold, The Telegraph, April 28th 2015. The figures along the right hand side are people’s ages. The figures along the top are the year of the data collection (note that dat for the years1988 and 1992 were missing). And the figure in each cell is the proportion of people in Britain in that year of that age who had a mortgage or owned their home. There were no 88 year olds in the 1986 (British Social Attitudes) sample - hence the “x” with the white background in that cell. The colours vary from red to dark blue change as the % rises and the proportion of home owners or buyers rises.
  • 21. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 3.6.1: The Value of Property in Britain by Urban Area, 2012 Note: total equity (£bn) Source: Analysis by Hometrack, areas defined by the State of the Cities Report, reported in: Collinson, P. (2012) House prices: guide to property hotspots, The Guardian, March 30th.
  • 22. Figure 3.6.2 The London Bubble: boroughs sized by housing value, 2013 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Source: London mapper (Ben Hennig)
  • 23. Figure 3.6.3: The very rich, the river and the losers, London today Source: anonymous
  • 24. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press. Figure 3.7.1: Households with children private renting, England 1984-2012 Note that Annex Table 1.5: Households with dependent children, by tenure, 2003-04 to 2015-16 gives the figures for the four years after this as being 21%, 24%, 24% and 25%, or 6,602,000 households in England by 2015/16 according to the 2015-16 English Housing Survey Headline Report. Original source: Source: Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission (2013) State of the Nation 2013 October 2013, London: The Stationery Office.
  • 25. 0 1 2 3 4 5 1911 1921 1931 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Ratio 90:10 ratio 90: 50 ratio 50: 10 ratio Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 3.7.2: Relative overcrowding, England and Wales, 1911-2001 Source, Tunstall per com, based on Censuses 1911-2011 (General Register Office 1913, 1925, 1935, 1956, 1964, Office of Population, Censuses and Surveys, 1974, www.casweb.mimas.ac.uk; www.nomisweb.co.uk). Note the 90:10 ratio is the ratio of the average number of rooms per person that the best housed 10th of the population have access to compared to the worst-housed tenth of the population of England and Wales.
  • 26. Figure 3.7.3: Life Expectancy and wealth inequality, 14 countries, 2000 Source: Nowatzki, N.R. (2012) Wealth Inequality and Health: a Political Economy Perspective, International Journal of Health Services, 42, 3, 403–424 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 27. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 3.8.1: Arts Spending in London and the Rest of England 1980-2013 This figure is a screenshot of the two key graphs in the “RoCC” report (Stark et al., 2013). AQ4 RoCC is not the first time the report of this kind. Although the rise in spending in London looks very large presented this way the ratios of London versus the rest of England spending are 5.1:1 in 1980/ 1981, rising to 5.4:1 and then 5.6:1 in 2012/2013. Arts spending is still concentrating in London but slightly less quickly than it was, partly because there is so little government arts money not spent outside of London nowadays. Source: Stark, P., Gordon, C., & Powell, D. (2013). Rebalancing our cultural capital: A contribution to the debate on national policy for the arts and culture in England.
  • 28. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 3.8.2: The regions of England in proportion to arts funding 2013 Data Source: Stark, P., Gordon, C., & Powell, D. (2013). Rebalancing our cultural capital: A contribution to the debate on national policy for the arts and culture in England. Here each region is shown with its size drawn in proportion to its share of Arts Council Funding. Maps of this kind can only show absolute data, not figures presented as a ratio, for instance divided by population. This is because the statistics have to be additive so that the total area is made up of the sum of the smaller areas. An inset map is provided to illustrate the land area of each region but if you want to see the population of each region have a look at Figures 3.8.6 and 3.8.77 which both use a base map drawn in proportion to population. Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. (2016) London and the English desert – the geography of cultural capital in the UK, Cultural Trends, 25, 1, 35-46
  • 29. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 3.8.3: London boroughs and English regions housing wealth, 2014 This map of the English regions and boroughs of London illustrates how wealth, in the form of the value of housing, became incredibly concentrated within London by 2014. London housing was, by then worth more than all the housing of the North East of England, North West of England, and Yorkshire and Humberside combined. Since 2014 that concentration of wealth in the capital has risen immensely as the London bubble grows, although figures by borough and region are no longer released so reliably by the land registry. This has made is harder for updated maps to be produced as easily as we could produce them of the London housing bubble last year. Data Source: Land registry and the 2011 census Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. (2016) London and the English desert – the geography of cultural capital in the UK, Cultural Trends, 25, 1, 35-46
  • 30. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 3.8.4: Exclusions rings around British nuclear power stations, 2015 Note how most people living in the North of England live within 80 km of a nuclear power station that they could presumably visit, should they so wish. In contrast, large numbers of people living in London can easily visit many very well-funded arts venues but not a nuclear power station. There are fewer power stations in the English midlands because large sources of water needed to cool the stations are less reliability available there. The 20, 30 and 80 km exclusion rings around nuclear power stations in the UK shown on both an equal land area map and on the population cartogram. Some other facilities are included hear such as Sellafield where spent but highly dangerous fuel is stored. Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. (2016) London and the English desert – the geography of cultural capital in the UK, Cultural Trends, 25, 1, 35-46
  • 31. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 3.8.5: The British Isles shaped by the wealth of the super-rich, 2014 The Sunday Times Magazine produces an annual report on the wealth of the 1000 richest families in the UK and Ireland. In 2014 it included a regional breakdown . The total area of the cartogram is proportional to the total wealth of these 1000 richest families and the circles drawn for individual families show the total wealth of those particular families who are the richest within each region and the 10 richest in London. Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. (2016) London and the English desert – the geography of cultural capital in the UK, Cultural Trends, 25, 1, 35-46
  • 32. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 3.8.6: The Universities of England shaded by their power, 2012 In this map a circle is drawn to represent each university with its size in proportion to the number of students studying there, located where the university main campus is. The circles are then coloured according to the ratio of government research funding awarded per student. The research funding is not for students so this is an innovative and unusual measure. Data were only available for England at the time of drawing this map. In many ways Cambridge and Oxford are London suburbs today so the interesting exception is Bristol, which does not quite fit the mould, although the train from there to London does not take very long at all to travel into the heart of the capital. Data Source: HESA statistics for 2012. Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. (2016) London and the English desert – the geography of cultural capital in the UK, Cultural Trends, 25, 1, 35-46
  • 33. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 3.8.7: Proportion voting Conservative of all who voted, UK 2015 In this figure each parliamentary constituency of the UK is drawn in proportion to the population living there and coloured according to the share of the vote won by the Conservative party in the May 2015 general election. Those who did not vote are ignored. In a few areas, coloured blue or purple, a narrow majority of the voters did vote for the party that gained power. Everywhere else only a minority of voters, and an even smaller proportion of the registered electorate, voted for the party that actually secured the most seats in parliament and a majority of 12 MPs. This was possible because there were many opposition parties in England: Labour, Green, Liberal, and UKIP; and because of the archaic “Westminster” first-past-the-post voting system, itself another example of London cultural dominance. Data Source: The Electoral Commision Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. (2016) London and the English desert – the geography of cultural capital in the UK, Cultural Trends, 25, 1, 35-46
  • 34. Figure 3.9.1: Households in private renting by birth decade, UK 1950s-1990s
  • 35. World Annual Population Growth 1821-2015 Source: World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision. New York: United Nations AnnualChange 0% 0.5% 1% 1.5% 2% 2.5% 1820 2000 2005 2010 2015 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 WWI and Pandemic WWII and Return Crash and Long Depression The Great Chinese Famine End of Global Population Acceleration 1% 1.20% 1.26% Figure 4.1.1: Annual rate of change in global human population 1821–2015 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 36. Figure 4.3.1: Harrovians at the 1914 Eton versus Harrow match at Lords Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Note: Note Harrow had the hats! 13th July 1914, Mirror Syndication International
  • 37. Figure 4.3.2: Harrovians unsure of themselves outside the 1937 cricket match Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Note: Note they had canes as well (Jimmy Sime, 1937/Hulton Archive/ Getty Images)
  • 38. Figure 4.3.3: Income inequality in Britain 1921-2009, take of the 10% Note: by 2010 the take of the top 10% had returned to 1930s levels. Source: Dorling, D., The Rich Get Richer: The harsh reality of class in Britain, New Statesman, May 10th 2013 & Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 39. Figure 4.3.4: UNDP estimates and projections of GDP 1820-2050 Note: Brazil, China and India combined are projected to account for 40% of global output by 2050, up from 10% in 1950. Source: UNDP (2013) & Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press.
  • 40. Figure 4.3.5: Spatial segregation of Conservative voters, 1918-2010 Note: See figure 2.12.2 for the effect of the 2015 & 2017 elections: Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press.
  • 41. Figure 4.3.6: Age of women giving birth in England and Wales, 1934-2008 Source: Office for National Statistics, Maternities, dataset PBH34A Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 42. Figure 4.3.7: Mother’s age by birth order, England and Wales, 1938-2011 Source: ‘true’ means all births are included, ONS (2013) Live births in England and Wales by characteristics of mother, 2011, Report published January 24th, London: Office for National Statistics & Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 43. Figure 4.3.8: 1929 Labour Party election poster – each man steps down Source: J. F. Horrabin, 1929, in Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 44. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 4.4.1: Equal area base map of London boroughs showing colour key Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B.D., The dimensions that shape London – mapped, The Observer, Sunday May 11th 2014
  • 45. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 4.4.2: Boroughs drawn in proportion to homelessness, autumn 2013 Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B.D., The dimensions that shape London – mapped, The Observer, Sunday May 11th 2014
  • 46. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 4.4.3: London boroughs sized by the rise in housing value 2012-2013 Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B.D., The dimensions that shape London – mapped, The Observer, Sunday May 11th 2014
  • 47. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 4.4.4: Number of hedgehog sightings in London, 2014 Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B.D., The dimensions that shape London – mapped, The Observer, Sunday May 11th 2014
  • 48. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Figure 4.4.5: Where the bankers live, by ward, population cartogram, 2011 Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B.D., The dimensions that shape London – mapped, The Observer, Sunday May 11th 2014
  • 49. Figure 4.5.1: English Regions and London boroughs, area and households Source 2011 census & Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 50. Figure 4.5.2: Change in number of households by affluence, England 1980-2010 Increase in poor households Decline in middle households Increase in wealthy households LONDONMAPPERDorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 51. Figure 4.5.3: Number of households by affluence 2010, England Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 52. Figure 4.5.4: Number of households by affluence 2010, London Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 53. Figure 4.5.5: Number and % of poor/ wealthy households 2010, London Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 54. Figure 4.5.6: Rise in poor and wealthy households 1980-2010, London Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 55. Figure 4.5.7: Decline in middling households 1980-2010, London The larger the borough the more households in the middle of the income distribution were lost and the brighter the colour the higher proportion were lost over time between 1980 and 2000 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 56. Figure 4.5.8: Reference Map, London boroughs by population 2011 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 57. Figure 4.7.1: World population cartogram, highlighting low-lying areas Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. D. (2015) Visualizing urban and regional worlds: power, politics, and practices Environment and Planning A, 47, 1346-1350
  • 58. Figure 4.7.2: Europe population cartogram, highlighting low- lying areas Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. D. (2015) Visualizing urban and regional worlds: power, politics, and practices Environment and Planning A, 47, 1346-1350
  • 59. Figure 4.7.3: UK population cartogram, highlighting low- lying areas Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. D. (2015) Visualizing urban and regional worlds: power, politics, and practices Environment and Planning A, 47, 1346-1350
  • 60. Figure 4.7.4: London population cartogram, highlighting low- lying areas Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Source: Dorling, D. and Hennig, B. D. (2015) Visualizing urban and regional worlds: power, politics, and practices,Environment and Planning A, 47, 1346-1350
  • 61. Figure 4.8.1: Change in disposable income by NUTS2 region, 2007-2011 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Ballas, D., Dorling, D., and Hennig, B. (2016) Analysing the regional geography of poverty, austerity and inequality in Europe: a human cartographic perspective,Regional Studies
  • 62. Figure 4.8.2: Change in GDP by NUTS2 region, Europe 2008-2011 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Ballas, D., Dorling, D., and Hennig, B. (2016) Analysing the regional geography of poverty, austerity and inequality in Europe: a human cartographic perspective,Regional Studies
  • 63. Figure 5.1.1 The Student loan bubble, USA campaign poster 2011 Anonymous, reproduced in: Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 64. Figure 5.10.1: Gini Coefficient of income inequality, OECD countries, 2015 Source: OECD, http://www.compareyourcountry.org/inequality?&lg=en Starred statistics are from before 2015 as 2015 data was not available in 2018 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 65. Figure 5.4.1: Inaugural lecture, Oxford, February 3rd 2014 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 66. Figure 5.7.1: A-level grades by ability, state and fee- paying school, 2009-11 Proportion securing these grades or higher at A level. Representative cohort of children born in or around Bristol in 1991 and 1992. Source: Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 67. Figure 5.9.1: Two ladders of two very differently shaped societies, 2017 Drawn by Ella Furness, reproduced in Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 68. Figure 6.1.1: Excess mortality of men over women in the USA 1935–2010 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press. Source: Vanderbloemen, L., Dorling, D. and Minton, J. (2016) Visualizing variation in mortality rates across the life course and by sex, USA and comparator states, 1933–2010, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol 70, no 8, pp 826-31.
  • 69. Figure 6.10.1 Difference in mortality rates compared with 2001, England, by age group Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press. Source: UK Office for National Statistics. Note: refers to those aged 75 and over, 2002 to 2016.
  • 70. Figure 6.10.2: SMRs for people aged 20 to 100 years, England 2000-2016 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press. Source: Continuous Mortality Investigation (CMI) Note: SMR = Standardised Mortality Ratio, Trend lines are shown
  • 71. Figure 6.3.1: Number of social care recipients, England, 2007-2013 (thousands) Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press; source: Figure 1 of CSA, Half a million older and disabled people lose care since start of recession, December 15th 2013, London: Care and Support Alliance
  • 72. Figure 6.3.2: Expected years women live beyond age 65, UK, 2007-2012 (years) Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 73. 60% � (Q �t 50%k 00 0.. IL) r:,, - i:::0 {IS S.b o<+-< 40%..c= 0 � a� oc.8..... 30%-+,J i:::(lj,,... - {IS [8 0 k P..'a:i 20%Q) ..c= ..c= -- r:,, <+-< {IS 0� � k 0 0 10%..... � too- p.. 0 k i:i... 0% 0 Note: The figures forJapan areonlyfor Netherlands - workers, not students, and are low because the train is the main means of transport for so many in Japan. Area proportional to population. Germany UK Japan l- - 5 10 15 20 Inequality: Income share ofthe best-offone per cent ofthe population (% all income taken by this group) 25 Australia Ireland Canada Figure 6.5.1: People waking/cycling as main means of travel, and inequality, 2012 Source: World top incomes dataset and Buehler, R. and Pucher, J., Walking and cycling in Western Europe and the United States: trends, policies, and lessons, TR News 280, May-June 2012. Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 74. Figure 6.7.1: Interaction of housing tenure with housing arrears and self-reported health, EU 2010 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Source: Data is from the EU_SILC modelled in Stata by Clarify Monte Carlo simulations, displayed as kernel density plots. From a paper written with Clair, A., Reeves, A., Loopstra, R., McKee, M., and Stuckler, D., first published in in 2016.
  • 75. Figure 6.9.1 Reasons for change in life expectancy 2013-2015, men, years Note: for England and Wales showing cause of death contribution by age, Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press. From a paper written with Hiam, L., Harrison, D., and McKee, M. (2017).
  • 76. Note: for England and Wales showing cause of death contribution by age, Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press. From a paper written with Hiam, L., Harrison, D., and McKee, M. (2017). Figure 6.9.2 Reasons for change in life expectancy 2013-2015, women, years
  • 77. Figure 7.1.1: Millbank Prison Plan 1828 (opened in 1816, closed in 1890) Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press Source: G.P. Holford (1828), An Account of Millbank Penitentiary, London: C. J. Rivington and Hatchard and Son.
  • 78. Figure 7.9.1: Guernica by Pablo Picasso, June 1937 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press
  • 79. Figure 7.9.2: Statue of Cecil Rhodes overlooking Oxford’s High Street, 2016 Dorling, D. (2018) Peak Inequality: Britain's ticking time bomb, Bristol: Policy Press. Source: Source: Oxford Student Magazine 2015