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អភិបាលកិច្ចល្អ.pdf
GPi)alkic©l¥
Extula qñaM 2010
e)aHBum<elIkTI2
matika
esckþIepþIm>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>1
1>TidæPaBTUeTAénGPi)alkic©l¥>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>3
1>1 niymn½y >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>3
1>2 eKalbMNgénGPi)alkic©l¥ >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>3
1>3 tYGgÁsMxan;² kñúgGPi)alkic©l¥ >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>4
2>eKalkarN_énGPi)alkic©l¥ >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>6
TI1 ³ karcUlrYm>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>7
TI2 ³ nItirdæ>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>10
TI3 ³ tmøaPaB >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>13
TI4 ³ karRBmeRBog nigÉkPaB >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>13
TI5 ³ smFm’>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>15
TI6 ³ RbsiT§PaB nigPaBs½kþisiT§i>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>16
TI7 ³ KNenyüPaB >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>17
TI8 ³ kareqøIytb >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>18
TI9 ³ ckçúvis½yCayuT§saRsþ >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>18
3>GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐeKalneya)ay nigc,ab;>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>19
3>1 GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐyuT§saRsþctuekaN
rbs;raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>19
3>2 GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐc,ab;sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alXMusgáat; >>23
3>3 GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐc,ab;sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanI
extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>24
3>3>1 GMBIeKalkarN_RKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanIextþRkugRsukxNÐ >>24
3>3>2 KNenyüPaBrbs;RkumRbwkSaKN³GPi)alnigbuKÁlik>>>>25
BaküKnøwH>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>27
esckþIepþIm
GPi)alkic©l¥ CaEpñkmYyy:agsMxan;kñúgkarCMruj nigKaMRTdMeNIrkar
énkarRKb;RKgFnFanrbs;sßab½n GgÁPaB nigkarGPivDÆmYyRbkbeday
nirnþrPaB.
GPi)alkic©EdlRbkbedaysuPvinicä½y KWCaGPi)alkic©l¥ edaykar
cat;Ecg nigkarRKb;RKgbBaða nigFnFansaFarN³RbkbedayRbsiT§PaB
ehIyeqøIytbeTAnwgtRmUvkar nigplRbeyaCn_rbs;sgÁmCatiTaMgmUl.
PaBRtwmRtUvtameKalneya)ay KWCal½kçx½NÐcaM)ac;dMbUgeKbMput
énGPi)alkic©l¥. PaBRtwmRtUvtameKalneya)ay RtUv)anBicarNa
edayepþatCasMxan;eTAelIktþaBIry:agKW ³ 1¦-karKaMRTedayRbCaBlrdæ
PaKeRcInbMput b¤TaMgGs; nig 2¦-karbeRmIplRbeyaCn_dl;RbCaBlrdæ
PaKeRcInbMput b¤TaMgGs;. ebIrdæ sßab½n b¤GgÁPaB minmanPaBRtwmRtUv
tameKalneya)ayeTenaHeyIgminGacniyayGMBIGPi)alkic©l¥)aneLIy.
edayyl;eXIjBIsar³sMxan;énGPi)alkic©l¥ raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa
)anRbkasfa :GPi)alkic©l¥KWCabuerl½kçx½NÐsMxan;bMputmYyedIm,IFana[man
karGPivDÆsgÁm esdækic©RbkbedaycIrPaB smFm’ nigyutþiFm’kñúgsgÁm :.
Ep¥kelIsar³sMxan;énGPi)alkic©l¥raCrdæaPi)al)annwgkMBugbnþGnuvtþEpnkar
1
skmµPaBGPi)alkic©l¥ eday)ankMNt;enAkñúgyuT§saRsþctuekaNrbs;
raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa nig)anbBa©ÚleKalkarN_énGPi)alkic©l¥eTAkñúg
Rkbx½NÐeKalneya)ay nigyuT§saRsþnanarbs;raCrdæaPi)al nigc,ab;
sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanIextþRkugRsukxNÐedIm,Ieq<aHeTArkkarGPivDÆ
RbeTsRbkbedayeCaKC½y.
2
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
1> TidæPaBTUeTAénGPi)alkic©l¥
1>1> niymn½y
GPi)alkic©l¥ RtUv)aneK[niymn½yepSg²KñaCaeRcInGaRs½ynwg
sßanPaBCak;Esþg.CasamBaØGPi)alkic©l¥mann½yfa³{CaviFIsa®sþEdlrdæ
sßab½n GgÁPaB eRbIR)as;kñúgkarRKb;RKgesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigsnþisux
edIm,IbeRmIplRbeyaCn_rYmrbs;RbCaBlrdæ}.
RsedogKñaenHEdr kmµviFIGPivDÆn_shRbCaCati (UNDP 1997)
)an[niymn½yfa {GPi)alkic©l¥ CakareRbIR)as;GMNacxagneya)ay
esdækic© nigrdæ)al edIm,IRKb;RKgkic©karrbs;RbeTs}.
1>2> eKalbMNgénGPi)alkic©l¥
eKalbMNgénGPi)alkic©l¥ KWedIm,IRKb;RKgesdækic© sgÁmkic©
nigvibtþiTaMgLaytammeFüa)aymYyEdlpþl;nUvplRbeyaCn_y:ageRcInbMput
dl;RbCaBlrdæ.
edIm,IseRmc)annUveKalbMNgxagelIenHeK)anTTYlsÁal;CaTUeTAfa
GPi)alkic©l¥TamTarnUvkarGPivDÆFnFanmnusSRbkbedaynirnþrPaB.cMNuc
sMxan;²énkarGPivDÆFnFanmnusSRbkbedaynirnþrPaBmandUcxageRkam³
 RtUvmanesvaEfTaMsuxPaBl¥smRsb nigRKb;RKan;sRmab;RbCaCn
3
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
TaMgGs;edIm,ICYy[BYkeKmansuxPaBmaMmYnnigGayuyWnyUr.enHCa
ktþaEdlGaceFVI[RbCaBlrdæmansuxumalPaBnigfamBlRKb;RKan;
edIm,IcUlrYm)any:ageBjeljenAkñúgskmµPaBesdækic© nigsgÁm.
 RtUvmanesvaGb;rMl¥smRsb nigRKb;RKan;sRmab;RbCaBlrdæTUeTA
edIm,I[BYkeKmancMeNHdwg nigCMnajeBjeljkñúgkarbegáIt»kas
[)aneRcIn nigsmRsbbMputsRmab;xøÜneK.
 RtUvbegáIt»kassRmab;RbCaBlrdæTUeTA edIm,ITTYl)annUvpl
RbeyaCn_BIskmµPaBesdækic©nigmankargareFVIedIm,Irk)anR)ak;cMNUl
RKb;RKan;sRmab;bMeBjtRmUvkarCamUldæan dUcCa es,ógGahar
sMelokbMBak; CRmk CaedIm sRmab;BYkeKpÞal; nigRkumRKYsar
rbs;BYkeK.
1>3> tYGgÁsMxan;² kñúgGPi)alkic©l¥
kalBImuneKyl;eXIjfa manEtrdæaPi)almYyKt; EdlCatYGgÁén
GPi)alkic©l¥. b:uEnþbc©úb,nñenH manKMnitfµI²CaeRcIn)anbgðaj[eXIjfa
EpñkÉkCn nigGgÁkarsgÁmsIuvilepSg²eTotk¾)anedIrtYnaTIy:agsMxan;
kñúgkarRKb;RKgesdækic© nigsgÁmkic©rbs;RbeTspgEdr. dUcenHtYGgÁ
sMxan;kñúgGPi)alkic©l¥ manbIKW ³
 sßab½nrdæ ¬sßab½nneya)ay nigrdæaPi)al³ CatYGgÁsMxan;CageK¦
 EpñkÉkCn
 sgÁmsIuvil
4
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
T§iBléntYGgÁEpñkÉkCn nigsgÁmsIuvil manPaBxusKñaBI
RbeTsmYyeTARbeTsmYyGaRs½yelIl½kçx½NÐmYycMnYn dUcCa RbB½n§
neya)ay lkçN³GMeNayplxagFnFanFmµCati RbCaBlrdæ TItaMg
PUmisa®sþ Rbvtþisa®sþ vb,Fm’ nigkRmiténkarGPivDÆesdækic© .l.
5
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
karcUlrYm
karRBmeRBogÉkPaBKña
tmøaPaB
nItirdæ
smFm’
KNenyüPaB
kareqøIytb
ckçúvis½yCayuT§saRsþ
RbsiT§PaB nigPaBs½kþisiT§i
GPi)alkic©l¥
2> eKalkarN_énGPi)alkic©l¥
GPi)alkic©l¥ CaviFIsa®sþ b¤meFüa)ayEdlrdæ sßab½n GgÁPaB
eRbIR)as;kñúgkarRKb;RKgesdækic©sgÁmkic©nigsnþisuxedIm,IbeRmIplRbeyaCn_
rYmrbs;RbCaBlrdæ edaybMeBjnUveKalkarN_TaMg 9 dUcxageRkamenH ³
6
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
TI1³ karcUlrYm
karcUlrYmkñúgbribTGPi)alkic©l¥ sMedAeTAelIkarcUlrYmrbs;
RbCaBlrdæTaMgburs nig®sþI ¬GaCJaFr RbCaBlrdæ GgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)al
nananigGñkBak;B½n§epSg²eTot¦kñúgdMeNIrkareFVIesckþIseRmccitþnigGnuvtþ
esckþIseRmccitþenaH. sar³sMxan;énkarcUlrYm KWedIm,IFanafa B½t’man
TaMgLaysþIBIbBaðatRmUvkar nigbMNgR)afñarbs;RbCaBlrdæRKb;rUb RtUv)an
RbmUl nigviPaK)anRKb;RCugeRCay munnwgeFVIkarseRmccitþ.
CaTUeTA karcUlrYmeFVIeLIgtam 2rebob KWkarcUlrYmedaypÞal;
nigkarcUlrYmtamry³GñktMNag.
1>1>karcUlrYmedaypÞal;
karcUlrYmedaypÞal;mann½yfaCakarcUlrYmrbs;GñkBak;B½n§RKb;rUb
edayxøÜnÉgpÞal;enAkñúgdMeNIrénkareFVIesckþIseRmccitþnigkarGnuvtþesckþI
seRmccitþenaH.kñúgrbbRbCaFibetyüRbCaBlrdæmansiT§icUlrYmedaypÞal;
Bak;B½n§eTAnwgkic©karsaFarN³nigenAkñúgskmµPaBGPivDÆn_mUldæandUcCa³
 kare)aHeqñat
 karcUlrYmkñúgKNbkSneya)ay
 karQreQµaHe)aHeqñat
 karbegáItsmaKm shKmn_nana
 karcUlrYmenAkñúgdMeNIrkar nigeFVIesckþIseRmccitþenAkñúgkarksag
7
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
EpnkarGPivDÆn_mUldæanrbs;xøÜn
 karcUlrYmCakmøaMgBlkmµ nigFnFanrbs;RbCaBlrdæ enAkñúg
skmµPaBGPivDÆn_mUldæanrbs;xøÜn k¾cat;TukCakarcUlrYmeday
pÞal;Edr.l.
1>2>karcUlrYmtamry³GñktMNag
karcUlrYmtamry³GñktMNagmann½yfaGñktMNagrbs;RbCaBlrdæ
cUlrYmkñúgdMeNIrkarénkarseRmccitþ nigGnuvtþesckþIseRmcenaH.
GñktMNagRtUvEtbMeBjtYnaTICaGñktMNag[qnÞ³nigplRbeyaCn_
RbCaBlrdæEdlxøÜntMNag[.
GñktMNagRbCaBlrdæGacRtUv)aneRCIserIstamnItiviFIepSg²eTAtam
lkçN³ nigsßanPaBCak;Esþg dUcCa ³
 karEtgtaMg b¤kareRCIserIsedaymankarRBmeRBogÉkPaBKña
 kare)aHeqñatskl b¤Gskl ¬smaCikrdæsPa smaCikRBwT§sPa
RkumRbwkSaraCFanI extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ nig XMu sgáat;¦
 TMenomTMlab;RbéBNI .l.
kñúgkareRCIserIsGñktMNag RtUvBicarNacMNucmYycMnYn dUcxageRkam ³
- manlkçN³sm,tþiRKb;RKan; ehIymansmtßPaB niglT§PaBGac
bMeBjtYnaTICaGñktMNag)an
- CatMNagBitR)akd[RkumCak;lak;NamYy
8
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
- eRCIserIs b¤EtgtaMgGñktMNageTAtamnItiviFIEdlsmRsbeTAnwg
sßanPaBCak;Esþg
- kMNt;tYnaTI nigkarTTYlxusRtUv[)anc,as;las;
- manEpnkarkargarc,as;las;
- mannItiviFIpøas;bþÚrsmaCikGñktMNagc,as;las;
- mankmµviFIBRgwgsmtßPaB nigkarKaMRTCaRbcaMdl;GñktMNag.l.
viFIsa®sþedIm,ICMrujkarcUlrYm³edIm,ICMruj[skmµPaBcUlrYmkan;Et
manPaBRbesIreLIg nigedIm,IFana[RbCaBlrdæ nigGñktMNagrbs;
RbCaBlrdæman»kascUlrYmy:ageBjelj CaBiesstMNagRkumGñkRkIRk
RkumRsþI nigRkumgayrgeRKaH. cMNucmYycMnYnEdlKYrBicarNa mandUc
xageRkam ³
 pSBVpSaydl;RbCaBlrdæGMBIsar³sMxan;nigPaBcaM)ac;énkarcUlrYm
rbs;BYkeK
 pSBVpSayB½t’mansþIBIkic©RbCuM nigB½t’manepSg²[)anTUlMTUlay
dl;RbCaBlrdæ
 kMNt;eBlevla nigTIkEnøgRbCuM[)ansmRsb
 bgábriyakasénkarRbCuM[manlkçN³CacMh mankarcUlrYmy:ag
pulpus nigsb,ayrIkray
 erobcMTIkEnøgRbCuMRbkbedaypasuxPaB
9
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
10
 erobcM[manRbB½n§TTYl nigpþl;B½t’manEdlmanlkçN³gay² nig
GacTTYlyk)an
 begáItTMnak;TMngl¥ nigsñiT§sñalCamYyRbCaBlrdæ .l.
TI2³ nItirdæ
nItirdækñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥ TamTar[manÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab;
RKb;RKan; edIm,IbeRmI nigkarBarplRbeyaCn_saFarN³ karBarsiT§imnusS
CaBiessRkumgayrgeRKaH b¤RkumPaKtic ehIyc,ab;TaMgenaHRtUv)anGnuvtþ
edayminlMeGog. elIsBIenHeTot RtUvmanRbB½n§TTYlxusRtUv manRbB½n§
tulakarÉkraCünigyutþiFm’nigsmtßkic©BRgwgkarGnuvtþc,ab;edayminlMeGog
nigminBukrlYy.
nItirdækñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥epþatCasMxan;eTAelI ³
 ÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab;
 karkarBarsiT§imnusS
 RbB½n§TTYlxusRtUv
 RbB½n§yutþiFm’
 smtßkic©BRgwgkarGnuvtþc,ab;edayminlMeGog nigminBukrlYy.
2>1>ÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab;
ÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab; KWCalixitbTdæanKtiyutþ EdlrYmman c,ab;
RBHraCRkwtü GnuRkwtü Rbkas esckþIseRmc esckþIENnaM dIka niglixit
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
11
bTdæanKtiyutþnana. ÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab;sMxan;² rYmman ³
- eKalkarN_ ³ tamkarvivtþrbs;sgÁm nigtamtRmUvkarénkar
RKb;RKgrdæ
- c,ab;épÞkñúg ³ c,ab; RBHraCRkwtü GnuRkwtü Rbkas .l.
- c,ab;GnþrCati ³ sn§isBaØa GnusBaØa ktikasBaØa BiFIsar .l.
2>2>karkarBarsiT§imnusS
siTi§mnusS KWCaesckþIRtUvkarcaM)ac;rbs;mnusSRKb;²rUb Edl
mantaMgBIkMeNIt edIm,ITamTarnUvGVI²EdleFVI[mnusSrs;enARbkbeday
vicarNBaØaN nigesckþIéføfñÚr. karTTYlsÁal;nUvesckþIéføfñÚrCab;BIkMeNIt
rbs;ral;smaCikénRKYsarmnusS RBmTaMgsiT§iesµI²Kñarbs;mnusSTaMgGs;
EdlminGaclk;bþÚrepÞrb¤dkhUt)anCaRKwHénesrIPaByutþiFm’nigsnþiPaB.
siT§iCamUldæanFMbMputsRmab;mnusSRKb;rUbKW CIvit esrIPaB nigkarsVHEsVg
rksuPmgÁl.
2>3>RbB½n§TTYlxusRtUv
RbB½n§TTYlxusRtUvsMxan;²bMput rYmman ³
- xagGMNacneya)ay ³ sPa rdæaPi)al Rbmuxrdæ
- xagGMNacnItibBaØtþi ³ sPaTTYlxusRtUvenAkñúgkartak;Etgc,ab;
- xagGMNacRbtibtþi ³ rdæ)al GaCJaFrEdndI m®nþIraCkar
- xagGMNactulakar ³ CaGñkeFVI[mankareKarBc,ab;
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
12
2>4>RbB½n§yutþiFm’
eKalkarN_ énRbB½n§yutþiFm’KW ÉkraCü nigyutþiFm’. tulakarman
tYnaTIkat;kþInigCemøaHnanaedayyutþiFm’nigminlMeGog.dUecñHtulakarÉkraCü
nigyutþiFm’CaynþkarsñÚlmYykñúgkarCMruj[mankareKarBnigGnuvtþc,ab;.
RbB½n§yutþiFm’enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa rYmman ³
- RbB½n§tulakar ³
 tulakarraCFanI extþ nigtulakareyaFa
 sala]T§rN_
 tulakarkMBUl
- eRkARbB½n§tulakar ³
 karcrca
 sn§ankmµ ¬karnaMsRmuHsRmYl¦
 mCÄtþvinicä½y ¬karvinicä½ykñúgzan³CaGaCJakNþal¦
2>5>smtßkic©BRgwgkarGnuvtþc,ab;minlMeGog nigminBukrlYy
ÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab;RtUv)andak;[eRbIR)as;CabnþbnÞab;.ral;kar
GnuvtþRtUvEteFVIeLIgedayRsb tamÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab;TaMgenaHy:ag
eBjeljRtwmRtUvyutþiFm’nigminlMeGog.smtßkic©TTYlxusRtUvRtUvGnuvtþ
tamc,ab;edayminlMeGog nigminBukrlYy KWCakarrYmcMENky:agxøaMgkñúg
GPi)alkic©l¥.
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
13
TI3³ tmøaPaB
tmøaPaBkñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥mann½yfa ral;karseRmccitþ nig
karGnuvtþesckþIseRmcenaH RtUveFVIeLIg ³
 edayGnuelameTAtamc,ab; nigbTdæannana
 B½t’manBak;B½n§nwgkarseRmccitþ nigkarGnuvtþesckþIseRmccitþ
RtUvpSBVpSayCacMh tamry³ RbB½n§smRsb nigGacEsVgrk)an
CaBiess cMeBaHGñkEdlTTYlrgnUvplb:HBal;BIkarseRmccitþ
nigkarGnuvtþesckþIseRmccitþTaMgenaH
 B½t’manTaMgenaHRtUvEtmanlkçN³RKb;RKan; niggayyl;.
TI4³ karRBmeRBogÉkPaBKña
karRBmeRBogÉkPaBKñakñúgn½y GPi)alkic©l¥ KWCakarBicarNa
TUlMTUlay nigEvgq¶ayelIplRbeyaCn_ nigtRmUvkarrbs;GñkBak;B½n§
epSg²KñaenAkñúgsgÁmehIyQaneTArkkarseRmccitþedaymankarRBmeRBog
ÉkPaBKñaelICMerIs nigviFIsa®sþl¥NamYy EdlbeRmIplRbeyaCn_
saFarN³.
4>1>PaBepSg²KñaenAkñúgsgÁm
RkummnusSkñúgsgÁmEtgEtmanKMnit bBaða tRmUvkarGaTiPaB
dMeNaHRsaykareBjcitþcMeNHdwgnigkaryl;eXIjepSg²Kña.ehtudUecñH
karBicarNa[)any:agTUlMTUlay nigEvgq¶ayelIplRbeyaCn_énGñk
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
14
Bak;B½n§epSg²KñaTaMgenaH RtUvKitdl;cMNucmYycMnYn dUcCa ³
 sßanPaBrYmmanbBaðatRmUvkarGaTiPaBePTGayuzan³kñúgsgÁm
muxrbr .l.
 RkumCngayrgeRKaH rYmman GñkCMgWeGds_ CnBikar GñkeRbIR)as;
eRKOgejón kumarkMRBa ®sþIrksuIpøÚvePT TurKtCn cas;Cra .l.
 RbvtþisaRsþrYmman Rbvtþirbs;Rkum b¤CnCatinImYy²
 vb,Fm’ TMenomTmøab;RbéBNI rYmman Pasa BiFIGaBah_BiBah_ BiFI
buNüRbéBNIepSg²eTot
 CMenOsasnarYmmansasnaRBHBuT§sasnasøamsasnaRKisþ.l.
 KNbkSneya)ayrYmmanKNbkSRbCaCnhVú‘nsiunbiucsmrgSIú.l.
 RkumCatisasn_rYmmanKYyPñgcarayRKwgkack;cincamevotNam.l.
4>2>eKalkarN_ENnaMsRmab;sRmbsRmYl[mankarRBmeRBógÉkPaBKña
k¦>l½kçx½NÐénkarRBmeRBogÉkPaBKña
l½kçx½NÐénkarRBmeRBógÉkPaBKña rYmman ³
 karRBmeRBogKñaRbkbedaysuxdumrmna
 karBieRKaHeyabl;CamYyRkumBak;B½n§TaMgGs;
 karcUlrYmBIRkumGñkBak;B½n§epSg²kñúgdMeNIrkarénkareFVIesckþI
seRmccitþ
 karyl;dwgGMBIKñaeTAvijeTAmk rvagRkumBak;B½n§TaMgGs;.
x¦>dMeNIrkarénkarRBmeRBogÉkPaBKña
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
15
xageRkamenHCakarENnaMxøH²edIm,IeFVIkarsRmuHsRmYl[mankar-
RBmeRBogÉkPaBKña ³
 erobcM[mankarCYbCMuKñarvagRkumBak;B½n§TaMgGs;
 EsVgyl;KñaeTAvijeTAmkrvagRkumGñkBak;B½n§TaMgGs; nig
begáItkareyaKyl;Kña
 BiPakSaCamYyRkumBak;B½n§TaMgGs;GMBIplRbeyaCn_ nigbegáIt
CeRmIsnana
 sRmuHsRmYl edIm,IseRmcykCeRmIsl¥mYyEdlbeRmInUvpl
RbeyaCn_rYm edaymankarRBmeRBogÉkPaBKñaRbkbeday
suxdumrmna.
TI5³ smFm’
smFm’kñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥mann½yfa Rkum b¤CnRKb;rUbTaMgGs;
CaBiess RkumPaKtic nigRkumEdlgayrgeRKaH man»kasRKb;RKan;
enAkñúgkarcUlrYmbeBa©jeyabl;elIkeLIgnUvtRmUvkarBitGnuvtþskmµPaB
nigTTYlplRbeyaCn_smRsb edIm,IEklMG nigEfrkSasuxumalPaBrbs;
BYkeK. elIsBIenHeTot BYkeKmanGarmµN_fa xøÜnKWCasmaCikBitR)akd
rbs;sgÁm nigminRtUv)ansgÁme)aHbg;ecalenaHeT.
suxumalPaBrbs;smaCik b¤RkumnImYy² KWCasuxumalPaBrbs;
sgÁmTaMgmUl.dUcenHdMeNIrkarénkarseRmccitþnigkarGnuvtþesckþIseRmc
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
16
citþRbkbedaysmFm’nwgeFVI[RKb;smaCikTaMgGs;enAkñúgsgÁmmanGarmµN_
faBYkeKmñak;²KWCasmaCikBitR)akdrbs;sgÁmnig)ancUlrYmcMENkenAkñúg
dMeNIrkarGPivDÆn_sgÁmenaH.elIsBIenHeTotminmansmaCikNamñak;Kitfa
xøÜneKRtUv)ansgÁme)aHbg;ecaleLIy.
suxumalPaB epþatCasMxan;eTAelI PaBsb,ay PaBsuxRsYl
suvtßiPaBsnþisuxsuxPaBl¥.l.suxumalPaBrbs;mnusSmñak;²minRKan;Et
KitelIEpñkrUbragkaybu:eNÑaHeTEtRtUvKitdl;EpñkCMenOsasnasµartIpøÚvcitþ
GarmµN_ RBmTaMgPaBRKb;RKan;kñúgCIvPaBrs;enApgEdr.
TI6³ RbsiT§PaB nigPaBs½kþisiT§i
RbsiT§PaB nigPaBs½kþisiT§ikñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥ mann½yfaCa
dMeNIrkar nigrcnasm<½n§RKb;RKgkñúg kareRbIR)as;FnFan[Gs;lT§PaB
nigsnSMsMécx<s;edIm,IbegáItlT§plEdlmanKuNPaBx<s;brimaNeRcInGac
beRmIplRbeyaCn_CaGtibrmanig)aneqøIytbeTAtRmUvkarBitrbs;sgÁm.
eKalKMniténPaBs½kþisiT§ienAkñúgbribTGPi)alkic©l¥k¾)anbBa©ÚlpgEdrcMeBaH
kareRbIR)as;FnFanFmµCati RbkbedaynirnþrPaB nigkarkarBarbrisßan.
edIm,I[manRbsiT§PaB nigPaBs½kþisiT§ikñúgkarGnuvtþ RtUvBicarNa
elIcMNucmYycMnYn dUcxageRkam ³
 kareRbIR)as;FnFan»ü)anRtwmRtUv
¬FnFanmnusS hirBaØvtßú smÖar eBlevla¦
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
17
 karGnuvtþskmµPaBEdlCaGaTiPaBx<s;
 eCosvagGnuvtþnUvkariyaFibetyü
 karKitKUrry³eBlEvgelIkareRbIR)as;FnFanFmµCati
 KµanGMeBIBukrlYy
 karseRmccitþtamEbbcUlrYm .l.
TI7³ KNenyüPaB
KNenyüPaBkñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥ mann½yfa CakarGnuvtþtYnaTI
nigParkic©enAkñúgdMeNIrkarnigGnuvtþesckþIseRmccitþehIyTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaH
TegVIrbs;xøÜn edayraykarN_ RBmTaMgbBa¢ak;BImUlehtu nUvGVIEdlxøÜn)an
seRmc nigGnuvtþ.
KNenyüPaBKWminRtwmEtCakarTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHmuxGñkNamñak;
Edl)anesñIsuM[eFVIGVImYyenaHeTb:uEnþCakarTTYlxusRtUvnUvskmµPaBEdl)an
GnuvtþcMeBaHmuxGñkBak;B½n§TaMgGs;pgEdr.
minEmnmanEtsßab½n GgÁPaBrbs;rdæaPi)alb:ueNÑaHeTEdlRtUvman
KNenyüPaBGgÁkarsgÁmsIuvilnigRkumh‘unÉkCnk¾RtUvmanKNenyüPaB
CasaFarN³cMeBaHGñkBak;B½n§TaMgGs;rbs;xøÜnpgEdrBiesscMeBaHGñkEdl
TTYlrgnUvplb:HBal;GMBIkarseRmccitþ.
KNenyüPaB rYmman KNenyüPaBcMeBaHmuxfñak;dwknaM nig
KNenyüPaBcMeBaHmuxsaFarNCn.
TI8³ kareqøIytb
kareqøIytbkñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥mann½yfa CakarBüayam xitxM
RbwgERbgrbs;GgÁPaBsßab½nedIm,IbeRmIdl;RbCaBlrdænigGñkBak;B½n§TaMgGs;
edayesµIPaBKñanigminerIseGIgenAkñúgRkbx½NÐeBlevlamYyd¾smehtupl.
kareqøIytbGacCa ³
 karbMeBjesvakmµCUnRbCaBlrdætamkaresñIsMu
 dMeNaHRsayEdlEsþgeLIgCaskmµPaB edIm,IedaHRsaybBaða
b¤karlM)aknana
 kareqøIybMPøWGMBImUlehtu EdlminGacQandl;kareFVIskmµPaB
edIm,IedaHRsaybBaða b¤karlM)ak TaMgenaH)an
 sMeNIsMuGnþraKmn_BIsßab½nGgÁPaBmansmtßkic©edIm,ICYyedaHRsay
bBaða b¤karlM)akTaMgenaH RBmTaMgCMrabGMBIsMeNIsMuGnþraKmn_enH
dl;RbCaBlrdæEdlBak;B½n§nwgbBaða b¤karlM)akTaMgenaH.
TI9³ ckçúvis½yCayuT§sa®sþ
GñkdwknaMTaMgGs;nigsßab½nsaFarN³nanaRtUvmanTsSn³TUlMTUlay
nigsRmab;ry³eBlEvgGMBIGPi)alkic©l¥ nigkarGPivDÆFnFanmnusS
edayykcitþTukdak;GMBItRmUvkarcaM)ac;nanaEdlRtUvGPivDÆn_elIkargarenH.
CagenHeTotGñkdwknaMTaMgGs;RtUvmankaryl;dwg[)anc,as;GMBITidæPaBnana
EpñkRbvtþisa®sþ vb,Fm’ nigsgÁm EdlBak;B½n§nwgGPi)alkic©l¥.
18
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
3> GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐeKalneya)ay nigc,ab;
3>1> GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐyuT§saRsþctuekaN
raCrdæaPi)alnItikalTI 4 énrdæsPa bnþCMrujGnuvtþnUvyuT§saRsþ
ctuekaNedIm,IkMeNIn kargar smFm’ nigRbsiT§PaB dMNak;kalTI 2 sMedA
elIksÞÜykic©GPivDÆelIRKb;vis½yenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa.
sñÚlényuT§saRsþctuekaNKWGPi)alkic©l¥EdlepþatkarykcitþTuk
dak;eTAelIkMENTRmg;bYn y:agKW³
1¦karRbyuT§RbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYy
2¦kMENTRmg;RbB½n§c,ab; nigRbB½n§yutþiFm’
3¦kMENTRmg;rdæ)alsaFarN³
4¦kMENTRmg;kgkmøaMgRbdab;GavuF
karRbyuT§RbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYy enAEtCarebobvar³GaTiPaBmYy
d¾sMxan;énbBa¢Irebobvar³rbs;raCrdæaPi)alnItikalTI4énrdæsPa.c,ab;sþIBI
karRbyuT§RbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYyKWCamUldæanKtiyutþKnøwHmYyminGacxVH)an
sRmab;karRbyuT§RbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYyRbkbedayRbsiT§PaB. CamYyKña
enHEdrraCrdæaPi)alnwgbnþviFankarmutRsYcCayuT§saRsþCak;EsþgEdlGac
edaHRsaybBaðaGMeBIBukrlYyRbkb edayRbsiT§PaBtamry³viFankar
19
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
RbTak;RkLaKñarYmman³
1> karbgáarTb;sáat;Camun
2> karBRgwgKNenyüPaB nigBRgwgsmtßPaBsßab½n
3> karKaMRT nigkarcUlrYmBIsaFarN³Cn
4> karcUlrYmBI vis½yÉkCn nig
5> karBRgwgkarGnuvtþc,ab;.
kMENTRmg;c,ab;nigRbB½n§yutþiFm’raCrdæaPi)al)anEklMGRbB½n§c,ab;
nigRbB½n§yutþiFm’edayepþatCasMxan;eTAelIkarerobcMRkbx½NÐc,ab;[)anrwgmaM
nigkareFVITMenIbnIykmµc,ab;RBmTaMgdak;ecjnUvyuT§saRsþnigviFankarcaM)ac;
nanakñúgeKaledABRgwgsmtßPaB ÉkraCü nigGBüaRkwténsßab½ntulakar
EdlCaktþasMxan;kñúgdMeNIrkarBRgwgnItirdæ.raCrdæaPi)alnwgepþatkarykcitþ
Tukdak;EfmeTotkñúgkarbnþ nigCMrujGnum½tc,ab;eKalsMxan;² dUcCa
RkmRBhµTNÐc,ab;sþIBIkarRbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYyc,ab;sþIBIlkçnþik³ecARkm
nigRBHraCGaCJa c,ab;sþIBIkarerobcM nigkarRbRBwtþeTAénGgÁkartulakar nig
c,ab;sþIBIviesaFnkmµc,ab;sþIBI]tþmRkumRbwkSaénGgÁecARkm.CamYyKñaenHEdr
raCrdæaPi)alnwgbnþerobcMkmµviFIpSBVpSayc,ab;dl;RbCaBlrdæ nigbNþúH
bNþalc,ab;dl;m®nþIGnuvtþc,ab;kñúgeKaledAbegáInkaryl;dwg nigkarGnuvtþ
[)anRtwmRtUv. raCrdæaPi)al nwgbnþpþl;GaTiPaBbEnßmeToteTAelI ³
1> karBRgwgsmtßPaBrbs;ecARkm
20
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
2> karksagnUvynþkarepSg² EdlcUlrYmbeRmI[vis½yyutþiFm’
3> karpþl;CMnYyEpñkc,ab; nig
4> karbnþCMrujelIkkm<s;ynþkarénkaredaHRsayvivaTeRkARbB½n§
tulakar.
kMENTRmg;rdæ)alsaFarN³epþateTAelIkarFanapþl;esvasaFarN³
CUnRbCaBlrdæRbkbedayKuNPaBtmøaPaBnigRbsiT§PaB.esvasaFarN³
EdlmanEcgenAkñúgeKalneya)aysþIBIkarpþl;esvasaFarN³énRkumRbwkSa
kMENTRmg;rdæ)alRtUv)ancgRkgnigRbmUlpþMúCa7RbePTFM²eTAtamvis½y
nigkarTTYlxusRtUvrbs;RksYg sßab½n rYmman ³
1> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§nwgGFibetyüPaBrdæ
2> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§nwgEpñksnþisuxsNþab;Fñab;
3> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§nwgyutþiFm’ nigGaCJakNþal
4> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§ nwgkarelIkkMBs;kic©karBaNiC¢kmµ
shRKasFuntUcnigmFümbrisßanvinieyaKnigkarcUlrYmrbs;
EpñkÉkCnkñúgkarksag nigkarEfTaMehdæarcnasm<½n§
5> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§nwgsgÁmkic© vb,Fm’ nigkic©karnarI
6> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§nwgkarGPivDÆehdæarcnasm<½n§rUbvnþ nig
7> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§nwgkarRbmUlcMNUl kareFVIvicarNkmµ
cMNay nigkarebIkpþl;.
21
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
karBRgwgkarpþl;esvasaFarN³CamUldæanesvaGFibetyürbs;rdæ
esvaBak;B½n§eTAnwgkarvinieyaKnigBaNiC¢kmµFuntUcnigmFümtamry³ynþkar
{RckecjcUlEtmYy}kat;bnßykariyaFibetyüRBmTaMg begáIteLIgnUv
ynþkarmYyedIm,IFanadl;karGnuvtþRbkbedaytmøaPaBnigKµanGMeBIBukrlYy
KWkarbegáIt kariyal½yRbCaBlrdæ. raCrdæaPi)albnþCMrujGnuvtþeKal
neya)ayvimCÄkarnigvishmCÄkartamry³karerobcMbTdæanKtiyutþnigkar
dak;ecjnUvviFankarfµIEfmeTot edIm,IGnuvtþ[manRbsiT§PaBnUvc,ab;sþIBI
karRKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanIextþRkugRsukxNÐCaBiesskarerobcMnigGnuvtþ
lixitbTdæanEdlBak;B½n§nwg karepÞrGMNacBIrdæ)alfñak;Catimkrdæ)al
fñak;eRkamCatiedaykMNt;[)anc,as;las;nUvtYnaTIsiT§iGMNacnigkarFana
KNenyüPaBenAkñúgkarbMeBjkargar. TnÞwmenHEdr karRKb;RKghirBaØvtßú
tamEbbvishmCÄkarnwgRtUvGnuvtþedayPaBTn;Pøn;nigtamdMNak;²kñúgry³
eBlmFüm edIm,ImaneBlRKb;RKan;kñúgkarksag smtßPaBfñak;eRkamCati
sRmab;karRKb;RKghirBaØvtßúsaFarN³.
kMENTRmg;kgkmøaMgRbdab;GavuF edIm,IFana)annUvkic©karBarRbkb
edayRbsiT§PaBnUvGFibetyü nigbUrNPaBTwkdI snþisux nigsNþab;Fñab;
sgÁménRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa. CamYyKñaenHEdr raCrdæaPi)albnþCMruj
kic©shRbtibtþikarCamYyshKmn_GnþrCatiedIm,IrYmcMENkkarBarnigEfrkSa
snþiPaB nigsnþisuxCaGnþrCati CaBiessedIm,IbgáarTb;sáat; nigb®gáabGMeBI
22
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
ePrvkmµ nig]RkidækmµqøgEdnRKb;RbePTmanCaGaT× karCYjdUreRKOgejón
karCYjdUrmnusS nigbTelµIsepSgeTot.
3>2> GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐc,ab;
sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alXMu sgáat;
c,ab;sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alXMusgáat;maneKaledAkMNt;karRKb;RKg
XMu sgáat;TaMgGs;kñúg RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCatamneya)ayvimCÄkar.
rdæ)alXMusgáat;mantYnaTICMrujnigKaMBarGPi)alkic©l¥edaycat;Ecg
eRbIR)as;FnFannanaEdlmanRbkbedayecrPaBsRmab;bMeBjesckþIRtUvkar
CamUldæanenAkñúgXMu sgáat;rbs;xøÜn beRmIplRbeyaCn_rYmrbs;RbCaBlrdæ
nigeKarBplRbeyaCn_rbs;CatiRsbtamneya)ayTUeTArbs;rdæ.
RbB½n§énGPi)alkic©mUldæanRtUvGnuvtþenAfñak;XMusgáat;.GMNacdwknaM
nigRKb;RKgXMusgáat;)anmkedaykare)aHeqñatCaTUeTACaskledayesrI
RtwmRtUv nigyutþiFm’ edayesµIPaB edaycMeBaH edaysm¶at; kñúgRkbx½NÐXMu
sgáat;nImYy².
rdæ)alXMu sgáat;mantYnaTIBIrRbePTKW tYnaTIbeRmIkargarmUldæan
sRmab;plRbeyaCn_XMu sgáat; nigRbCaBlrdæenAkñúgXMu sgáat;rbs;xøÜÜn nig
tYnaTICaPñak;gartMNagrdæeRkamkarcat;taMgb¤karRbKl;GMNacrbs;GaCJaFrrdæ.
XMusgáat;CaGgÁkartMNagRbCaBlrdækñúgXMusgáat;rbs;xøÜnnigman
ebskkmµbeRmIplRbeyaCn_TUeTAkñúgXMusgáat;rbs;xøÜn.RkumRbwkSaXMusgááat;
23
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
RtUvmanKNenyüPaBcMeBaHRbCaBlrdæenAkñúgXMusgáat;rbs;xøÜnGMBICeRmIs
CaGaTiPaB edIm,IeFVIesckþIseRmc Tak;TinnwgskmµPaBbeRmIplRbeyaCn_
TUeTAkñúgXMu sgáat;rbs;xøÜn.
RkumRbwkSaXMusgáat;RtUvmanKNenyüPaBcMeBaHraCrdæaPi)alGMBIkar
RbtibtþitamrdæFmµnuBaØc,ab;RBHraCRkwtüGnuRkwtüRbkasniglixitbTdæannana.
3>3> GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐc,ab;sþIBI
karRKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanI extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ
3>3>1 GMBIeKalkarN_RKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanI extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ
raCFanI extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ RtUvRKb;RKgtameKalkarN_énrdæ)al
ÉkPaBedIm,IbegáIt CMruj nigeFVI[mancIrPaBdl;karGPivDÆtamEbb
RbCaFibetyü tamry³neya)ayvimCÄkar nigvishmCÄkar.
karGPivDÆtamEbbRbCaFibetyü (Democratic Development)
KWCabBaðasMxan;énGPi)alkic©l¥. karGPivDÆtamEbbRbCaFibetyü KWCa
karGPivDÆEdldMeNIrkaredaymanlkçN³dUcxageRkam ³
1¦PaBCatMNagsaFarN³
2¦sV½yPaBrbs;mUldæan
3¦karBieRKaHeyabl; nigkarcUlrYm
4¦kareqøIytb nigKNenyüPaB
5¦karelIkkm<s;KuNPaBCIvitrbs;RbCaBlrdækñúgmUldæan
24
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
6¦karelIksÞÜysmFm’
7¦tmøaPaB nigsucritPaB
8¦viFankarRbqaMgGMeBIBukrlYy nigkarrMelaPGMNac
3>3>2 KNenyüPaBrbs;RkumRbwkSa KN³GPi)al nigbuKÁlik
k-KNenyüPaBcMeBaHRbCaBlrdæ
RkumRbwkSaRtUvmanKNenyüPaBedaypÞal;cMeBaHRbCaBlrdæ
TaMgGs;GMBICeRmIsCaGaTiPaB edIm,IeFVIesckþIseRmcFana)annUvkarGPivDÆ
tamEbbRbCaFibetyü enAkñúgEdnsmtßkic©rbs;xøÜn.
RkumRbwkSaGaceFVIkarGegátelIkrNITaMgLayEdlxøÜnyl;eXIjfa
mansar³sMxan;dl;RbCaBlrdæ EdlxøÜnCatMNag RBmTaMgGacpSBVpSay
lT§plénkareFVIGegátenaH rYcehIyRtUvpþl;eKalkarN_ENnaMGnuvtþdl;
KN³GPi)al nigGPi)al.
RkumRbwkSaRtUvcat;Ecgkic©karhirBaØvtßú[mantmøaPaB nigman
KNenyüPaBcMeBaHRbCaBlrdærbs;xøÜn.
x-KNenyüPaBcMeBaHraCrdæaPi)al
RkumRbwkSaRtUvmanKNenyüPaBcMeBaHraCrdæaPi)alGMBIkarRbtibtþi
tamrdæFmµnuBaØ c,ab; RBHraCRkwtü GnuRkwtü niglixitbTdæannana.
RkumRbwkSaRtUvRKb;RKghirBaØvtßúrbs;xøÜnRbkbedayRbsiT§PaBtmøáaPaB
nigKNenyüPaBcMeBaH RbCaBlrdærbs;xøÜn nigcMeBaHraCrdæaPi)al.
25
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
kñúgtYnaTICatMNagraCrdæaPi)alRksYgsßab½nnanarbs;raCrdæaPi)al
GPi)alRtUvmanKNenyüPaBcMeBaHraCrdæaPi)al RksYgmhaépÞ nigRksYg
sßab½nnana.
K-karTTYlxusRtUv nigKNenyüPaBcMeBaHfñak;elI
buKÁlikTaMgGs;RtUvmankarTTYlxusRtUvnigKNenyüPaBedaypÞal;
cMeBaHRbFanRKb;RKgpÞal;rbs;xøÜnnigRtUvmankarTTYlxusRtUvnigKNenyüPaB
edayRbeyalcMeBaHnaykrdæ)alGPi)alKN³GPi)alnigRkumRbwkSatam
zananuRkm.
26
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
BaküKnøwH
kariyaFibetyü (Bureaucracy): GgÁkarmYydUcCaTIPñak;garrdæ)al b¤kgT½B
CaedImEdlmanlkçN³ smÁal;dUcteTAenH KWExSry³bBa¢aedayman
mnusSenAfñak;elIticCagenAfñak;eRkammuxtMENgnigkarTTYlxusRtUv
mankMNt;c,as;las; viFan nignItiviFIrwgkMRBws manEbbbTeRcInRtUv
bMeBjehIymannItiviFIBi)ak²nwgRtUvqøgkat;nigkareFVIRbtiPUkmµGMNac
eTAeRkameFVIeLIgBIfñak;mYyeTAfñak;mYy.
karGPivDÆtamEbbRbCaFibetyü (Democratic Development): sMedAeTAelI
karGPivDÆEdldMeNIrkaredaymanlkçN³
1> PaBCatMNagsaFarN³(PublicRepresentation)mann½yfaRkumRbwkSa
RtUvGnuvtþkargarkñúgnam nigeFVICatMNag[RbCaBlrdæTaMgGs;
enAkñúgEdnsmtßkic©rbs;xøÜn .
2>sV½yPaBrbs;mUldæan(Local Autonomy) mann½yfasßanPaBEdl
RkumRbwkSaGacm©as;karcat;Ecg RKb;RKgnUvkic©karEdl)anRbKl;
b¤eFVIRbtiPUkmµedayc,ab;sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanI extþ Rkug
Rsuk xNÐ RbkbedayRbsiT§PaB .
3> karBieRKaHeyabl; nigkarcUlrYm(Consultation and Participation)
27
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
mann½yfaCadMeNIrkarénkarGnuvtþkargarnigkareFVIesckþIseRmc
citþrbs;RkumRbwkSaEdlRkumRbwkSaRtUvCYbBiPakSanigBieRKaHeyabl;
CamYyRbCaBlrdæenAmUldæanRBmTaMgelIkTwkcitþnigsRmbsRmYl
[mankarcUlrYmrbs;RbCaBlrdæenAmUldæanenARKb;EpñkTaMgGs;én
GPi)alkic©edIm,IEsVgyl;nigeqøIytbtRmUvkarrbs;RbCaBlrdæ.
4> kareqøIytb nigKNenyüPaB(Responsiveness andAccountability)
mann½yfa kñúgnamCatMNagRbCalrdæenAmUldæan RkumRbwkSaRtUv
eqøIytbcMeBaHRbCaBlrdærbs;xøÜnkñúgkareFVIeKalneya)ayesckþI
seRmccitþ skmµPaB nigkarbMeBjkargarrbs;xøÜnRbkbeday
karTTYlxusRtUvnUvGVIEdlxøÜn)anGnuvtþ.RkumRbwkSak¾TTYlxusRtUv
pgEdr cMeBaHraCrdæaPi)alkñúgkarRbtibtþitamrdæFmµnuBaØ nigc,ab;
nana.
5> karelIkkm<s;KuNPaBCIvitrbs;RbCaBlrdækñúgmUldæan (Promotion of
Life Quality of the Local Residents) sMedAeTAelIkic©xitxMRbwgERbg
edIm,IbegáIt nigeFVI[mannirnþrPaBnUvbriyakasmYyRbkbeday
snþiPaB suvtßiPaB nigsuxumalPaB elIkkm<s;sRmab;karGPivDÆ
sgÁm nigesdækic© nigelIkkm<s;pasuxPaB nigKuNPaBCIvitén
RbCaBlrdækñúgmUldæan.
6> karelIksÞÜysmFm’ (Promotion of Equity) mann½yfakarKitKUr
nigykcitþTukdak;CaBiesseTAelItRmUvkarxus²Kñarbs;RsþI burs
28
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
yuvCnnigkumarRBmTaMgtRmUvkarxus²Kñarbs;RkumCngayrgeRKaH
rab;bBa©ÚlTaMgRbCaBlrdæRkIRk nigCnCatiedImPaKtic.
7> tmøaPaB nigsucritPaB(Transparency and Integrity) mann½yfa
Cakarcat;EcgnigRKb;RKgkic©karnanarab;bBa©ÚlTaMgkic©karhirBaØvtßú
edayGnuelamtambTdæanx<s;bMputénsucritPaB nigc,ab;kñúg
lkçN³ebIkcMhRbkbedaytmøaPaB karcUlrYm nigkareqøIytb.
8> viFankarRbqaMgGMeBIBukrlYy nigkarrMelaPGMNac(Measures to Fight
Corruption andAbuse of Power) mann½yfaCakarRbkan;yknUv
viFanénc,ab; RBmTaMgkarRbqaMg nigraykarN_GMBIGMeBIBukrlYy
nigkarrMelaPGMNac.
karTTYlxusRtUv (Responsibility): sMedAeTAelItYnaTInigkatBVkic©Edl)an
RbKl;[edayc,ab;b¤lixitbTdæanKtiyutþeTA[buKÁlGgÁkarcat;taMg
énrdæ)alNamYy b¤rdæ)alnImYy²énrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati.
KNenyüPaB (Accountability): KWCakatBVkic©rbs;GñkEdlTTYl)annUvkar
TTYlxusRtUvnigsiT§iGMNacedIm,IeqøIybMPøWnigTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHTegVI
nanarbs;xøÜnrYmTaMgplvi)akEdlekIteLIgBITegVITaMgenaH.
KNenyüPaBExSTTwg (Horizontal Accountability) sMedAeTAelIExS
KNenyüPaBrvagmnÞIr GgÁPaBrbs;RksYg sßab½nfñak;Cati CamYy
rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati EdlxøÜnRbtibtþienAkñúgEdnsmtßkic©rbs;
29
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatienaH.
KNenyüPaBExSbeNþay (Vertical Accountability) sMedAeTAelIExS
KNenyüPaBrvagrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatiCamYyRksYgsßab½nfñak;Cati
b¤rvagmnÞIr GgÁPaBrbs;RksYg sßab½nEdlRbtibtþienAfñak;eRkamCati
CamYyRksYg sßab½nsamI.
KNenyüPaBcMeBaHRbCaBlrdæ (Accountability to Citizens): sMedAeTAelI
ExSKNenyüPaBrvagrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatiCamYyRbCaBlrdækñúgEdn
smtßkic©rbs;xøÜn. ]TahrN_ ³
 rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatieqøIytbeTAnwgtRmUvkarCaGaTiPaBrbs;
RbCaBlrdæCaBiessRsþIkumarRkumCngayrgeRKaHnigCnCatiedIm
PaKtic nigpþl;esvasaFarN³RbkbedayRbsiT§PaB
 rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatierobcM[manynþkarsRmab;karcUlrYmRbCaBlrdæ
enAkñúgdMeNIrkarerobcM nigGnuvtþEpnkarnigfvika nigesckþIseRmc
nanarbs;rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati
 rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatierobcM[manynþkarsRmab;karBarsiT§i nig
plRbeyaCn_rbs;RbCaBlrdæ nigpþl;B½t’mandl;RbCaBlrdæ.
KNenyüPaBépÞkñúg (Internal Accountability) sMedAeTAelIKNenyüPaB
enAkñúgGgÁkarcat;taMgmYy rbs;rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati b¤enAkñúgrgVg;
rdæ)almYyénrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati. ]TahrN_ ³
30
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
 KNenyüPaBrvagKN³GPi)alnigTIcat;karnanaénrdæ)alextþ{k}
CamYynwgRkumRbwkSaextþ {k}
 KNenyüPaBenAkñúgKN³GPi)alextþ {k}
 KNenyüPaBenAkñúgTIcat;karnImYy²énrdæ)alextþ {k} .
KNenyüPaBEpñkeKalneya)ay (Political Accountability) sMedAeTAelI
KNenyüPaBrbs;GñkCab;eqñatcMeBaHRbCaBlrdæ b¤Gñke)aHeqñat
tamry³karbMeBjtYnaTIenAkñúgGMLúgGaNtþirbs;xøÜn.
KNenyüPaBEpñkc,ab; (Legal Accountability) sMedAeTAelIKNenyüPaB
cMeBaHmuxc,ab; niglixitbTdæanKtiyutþnanaCaFrman.
KNenyüPaBEpñkrdæ)al (Administrative Accountability) sMedAeTAelI
KNenyüPaBEdlBak;B½n§nwgkarerobcMRbB½n§RKb;RKg nItiviFIRbtibtþi
sþg;darnigniyamkargarrbs;buKÁlnigGgÁkarcat;taMgeTAtamzananuRkm.
KNenyüPaBEpñkhirBaØvtßú (Financial Accountability) sMedAeTAelI
KNenyüPaBEdlBak;B½n§nwgkarerobcMRbB½n§nignItiviFIRKb;RKgfvika
nighirBaØvtßú RsbeTAtamc,ab; nigeKalkarN_hirBaØvtßúsaFarN³.
KNenyüPaBEpñksgÁm (Social Accountability) sMedAeTAelIskmµPaB nig
ynþkarnana EdlRbCaBlrdæGaceRbIR)as;edIm,ITamTar[rdæman
KNenyüPaBcMeBaHxøÜn RBmTaMgskmµPaBnanarbs;rdæa)alPi)al
sgÁmsIuvil nigtYGgÁdéTeTotkñúgkarelIkkm<s;karGnuvtþskmµPaB
31
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
nigynþkarTaMgenaH.
KNenyüPaBGnþrrdæ)al(Inter-governmental Accountability) sMedAeTAelI
KNenyüPaBrvagRksYgsßab½nmnÞIrTIPñak;garnanarbs;RksYgsßab½n
CamYynwgrdæ)alnanaénrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati. ]TahrN_ ³
 KNenyüPaBrvagRksYg sßab½n CamYynwgrdæ)alraCFanI extþ
b¤rdæ)alRkug Rsuk xNÐ b¤rdæ)al XMu sgáat;
 KNenyüPaBrvagmnÞIrTIPñak;garnanarbs;RksYgsßab½nCamYynwg
rdæ)alraCFanI extþ b¤rdæ)alRkug Rsuk xNÐ b¤rdæ)alXMu sgáat;
KNenyüPaBGnþrrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati(Intra-SNAAccountability) sMedAeTA
elIKNenyüPaBrvagrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatib¤rvagGgÁkarcat;taMgnana
énrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatiEdlmanRbePTdUcKña b¤RbePTepSgKña.
]TahrN_ ³
 KNenyüPaBrvagrdæ)alextþ {k} nigrdæ)alextþ {x}
 KNenyüPaBrvagrdæ)alraCFanI extþ rdæ)alRkug Rsuk xNÐ
nigrdæ)alXMu sgáat;
 KNenyüPaBrvagRkumRbwkSaextþ {k} nigRkumRbwkSaextþ {x}
 KNenyüPaBrvagRkumRbwkSaraCFanIextþRkumRbwkSaRkugRsukxNÐ
nigRkumRbwkSaXMu sgáat;
 KNenyüPaBrvagKN³GPi)alextþ{k}nigKN³GPi)alextþ{x}
32
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
 KNenyüPaBrvagKN³GPi)alraCFanIextþKN³GPi)alRkugRsuk
xNÐ nigemXMu ecAsgáat;.
mCÄtþvinicä½y (Arbitration) karvinicä½ytamGaCJakNþal KWCakarRbKl;CemøaH
mYyeTA[PaKITIbI ¬GaCJakNþal¦ EdlKUPaKITaMgsgxageRCIserIs
eLIg ehIy[GMNaceTAPaKITIbIenaHeFVIesckþIseRmcCasßaBrkñúgkic©
RbwgERbgmYyedIm,IedaHRsayCemøáaHenaH.
sn§ankmµ(Mediation) karnaMsRmuHsRmYlKWCaviFImYyénkaredaHRsayCemøaH
enAeRkAtulakar. kñúgviFIenH PaKITIbIGBüaRkit RtUv)ansMu[edIrtYCa
s<anP¢ab;PaKITaMgLay ehIyPaKIGBüaRkitenaHRKan;EtGacbBa©úH
bBa©ÚlPaKITaMgenaH[TTYlRBmdMeNaHRsayb:ueNÑaH.
33
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
RksYgmhaépÞ
Éksareyag
1> GPi)alkic©l¥ sRmab;RkumRbwkSaXMu sgáat;
2> What is Good Governance, United Nation Economic and Social
Commission for Asia and the Pacific
3> ÉksarsRmab;CMnYykñúgvKÁbNþúHbNþalsþIBIkic©karrdæ)alrbs;naykdæan
buKÁlik RksYgmhaépÞ
4> yuT§saRsþctuekaNedIm,IkMeNIn kargar smFm’ nigRbsiT§PaBenA
km<úCadMNak;kalTI 2
5> eKalneya)aysþIBIkarpþl;esvasaFarN³rbs;RkumRbwkSakMENTRmg;
rdæ)alénraCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa
6> c,ab;sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alXMu sgáat;
7> c,ab;sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanI extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ
8> siT§imnusS³ kRmgÉksarén]bkrN_GgÁkarshRbCaCati
34
RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
KaMRTeday
FnaKarBiPBelak
raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa
eroberog nigcgRkgeday
RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
Can;TI1énGKarnaykdæanbuKÁlik nigbNþúHbNþalviC¢aCIv³RksYgmhaépÞ
mhavifIRBHneratþm sgáat;Tenø)asak; xNÐcMkarmn raCFanIPñMeBj
TUrs½BÞ³ 023 726 861/220 935
Email: info@owso.gov.kh, Website: www.owso.gov.kh

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  • 3. matika esckþIepþIm>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>1 1>TidæPaBTUeTAénGPi)alkic©l¥>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>3 1>1 niymn½y >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>3 1>2 eKalbMNgénGPi)alkic©l¥ >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>3 1>3 tYGgÁsMxan;² kñúgGPi)alkic©l¥ >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>4 2>eKalkarN_énGPi)alkic©l¥ >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>6 TI1 ³ karcUlrYm>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>7 TI2 ³ nItirdæ>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>10 TI3 ³ tmøaPaB >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>13 TI4 ³ karRBmeRBog nigÉkPaB >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>13 TI5 ³ smFm’>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>15 TI6 ³ RbsiT§PaB nigPaBs½kþisiT§i>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>16 TI7 ³ KNenyüPaB >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>17 TI8 ³ kareqøIytb >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>18 TI9 ³ ckçúvis½yCayuT§saRsþ >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>18 3>GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐeKalneya)ay nigc,ab;>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>19 3>1 GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐyuT§saRsþctuekaN rbs;raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>19
  • 4. 3>2 GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐc,ab;sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alXMusgáat; >>23 3>3 GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐc,ab;sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanI extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>24 3>3>1 GMBIeKalkarN_RKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanIextþRkugRsukxNÐ >>24 3>3>2 KNenyüPaBrbs;RkumRbwkSaKN³GPi)alnigbuKÁlik>>>>25 BaküKnøwH>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>27
  • 5. esckþIepþIm GPi)alkic©l¥ CaEpñkmYyy:agsMxan;kñúgkarCMruj nigKaMRTdMeNIrkar énkarRKb;RKgFnFanrbs;sßab½n GgÁPaB nigkarGPivDÆmYyRbkbeday nirnþrPaB. GPi)alkic©EdlRbkbedaysuPvinicä½y KWCaGPi)alkic©l¥ edaykar cat;Ecg nigkarRKb;RKgbBaða nigFnFansaFarN³RbkbedayRbsiT§PaB ehIyeqøIytbeTAnwgtRmUvkar nigplRbeyaCn_rbs;sgÁmCatiTaMgmUl. PaBRtwmRtUvtameKalneya)ay KWCal½kçx½NÐcaM)ac;dMbUgeKbMput énGPi)alkic©l¥. PaBRtwmRtUvtameKalneya)ay RtUv)anBicarNa edayepþatCasMxan;eTAelIktþaBIry:agKW ³ 1¦-karKaMRTedayRbCaBlrdæ PaKeRcInbMput b¤TaMgGs; nig 2¦-karbeRmIplRbeyaCn_dl;RbCaBlrdæ PaKeRcInbMput b¤TaMgGs;. ebIrdæ sßab½n b¤GgÁPaB minmanPaBRtwmRtUv tameKalneya)ayeTenaHeyIgminGacniyayGMBIGPi)alkic©l¥)aneLIy. edayyl;eXIjBIsar³sMxan;énGPi)alkic©l¥ raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa )anRbkasfa :GPi)alkic©l¥KWCabuerl½kçx½NÐsMxan;bMputmYyedIm,IFana[man karGPivDÆsgÁm esdækic©RbkbedaycIrPaB smFm’ nigyutþiFm’kñúgsgÁm :. Ep¥kelIsar³sMxan;énGPi)alkic©l¥raCrdæaPi)al)annwgkMBugbnþGnuvtþEpnkar 1
  • 6. skmµPaBGPi)alkic©l¥ eday)ankMNt;enAkñúgyuT§saRsþctuekaNrbs; raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa nig)anbBa©ÚleKalkarN_énGPi)alkic©l¥eTAkñúg Rkbx½NÐeKalneya)ay nigyuT§saRsþnanarbs;raCrdæaPi)al nigc,ab; sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanIextþRkugRsukxNÐedIm,Ieq<aHeTArkkarGPivDÆ RbeTsRbkbedayeCaKC½y. 2 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 7. 1> TidæPaBTUeTAénGPi)alkic©l¥ 1>1> niymn½y GPi)alkic©l¥ RtUv)aneK[niymn½yepSg²KñaCaeRcInGaRs½ynwg sßanPaBCak;Esþg.CasamBaØGPi)alkic©l¥mann½yfa³{CaviFIsa®sþEdlrdæ sßab½n GgÁPaB eRbIR)as;kñúgkarRKb;RKgesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigsnþisux edIm,IbeRmIplRbeyaCn_rYmrbs;RbCaBlrdæ}. RsedogKñaenHEdr kmµviFIGPivDÆn_shRbCaCati (UNDP 1997) )an[niymn½yfa {GPi)alkic©l¥ CakareRbIR)as;GMNacxagneya)ay esdækic© nigrdæ)al edIm,IRKb;RKgkic©karrbs;RbeTs}. 1>2> eKalbMNgénGPi)alkic©l¥ eKalbMNgénGPi)alkic©l¥ KWedIm,IRKb;RKgesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvibtþiTaMgLaytammeFüa)aymYyEdlpþl;nUvplRbeyaCn_y:ageRcInbMput dl;RbCaBlrdæ. edIm,IseRmc)annUveKalbMNgxagelIenHeK)anTTYlsÁal;CaTUeTAfa GPi)alkic©l¥TamTarnUvkarGPivDÆFnFanmnusSRbkbedaynirnþrPaB.cMNuc sMxan;²énkarGPivDÆFnFanmnusSRbkbedaynirnþrPaBmandUcxageRkam³  RtUvmanesvaEfTaMsuxPaBl¥smRsb nigRKb;RKan;sRmab;RbCaCn 3 RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
  • 8. TaMgGs;edIm,ICYy[BYkeKmansuxPaBmaMmYnnigGayuyWnyUr.enHCa ktþaEdlGaceFVI[RbCaBlrdæmansuxumalPaBnigfamBlRKb;RKan; edIm,IcUlrYm)any:ageBjeljenAkñúgskmµPaBesdækic© nigsgÁm.  RtUvmanesvaGb;rMl¥smRsb nigRKb;RKan;sRmab;RbCaBlrdæTUeTA edIm,I[BYkeKmancMeNHdwg nigCMnajeBjeljkñúgkarbegáIt»kas [)aneRcIn nigsmRsbbMputsRmab;xøÜneK.  RtUvbegáIt»kassRmab;RbCaBlrdæTUeTA edIm,ITTYl)annUvpl RbeyaCn_BIskmµPaBesdækic©nigmankargareFVIedIm,Irk)anR)ak;cMNUl RKb;RKan;sRmab;bMeBjtRmUvkarCamUldæan dUcCa es,ógGahar sMelokbMBak; CRmk CaedIm sRmab;BYkeKpÞal; nigRkumRKYsar rbs;BYkeK. 1>3> tYGgÁsMxan;² kñúgGPi)alkic©l¥ kalBImuneKyl;eXIjfa manEtrdæaPi)almYyKt; EdlCatYGgÁén GPi)alkic©l¥. b:uEnþbc©úb,nñenH manKMnitfµI²CaeRcIn)anbgðaj[eXIjfa EpñkÉkCn nigGgÁkarsgÁmsIuvilepSg²eTotk¾)anedIrtYnaTIy:agsMxan; kñúgkarRKb;RKgesdækic© nigsgÁmkic©rbs;RbeTspgEdr. dUcenHtYGgÁ sMxan;kñúgGPi)alkic©l¥ manbIKW ³  sßab½nrdæ ¬sßab½nneya)ay nigrdæaPi)al³ CatYGgÁsMxan;CageK¦  EpñkÉkCn  sgÁmsIuvil 4 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 9. T§iBléntYGgÁEpñkÉkCn nigsgÁmsIuvil manPaBxusKñaBI RbeTsmYyeTARbeTsmYyGaRs½yelIl½kçx½NÐmYycMnYn dUcCa RbB½n§ neya)ay lkçN³GMeNayplxagFnFanFmµCati RbCaBlrdæ TItaMg PUmisa®sþ Rbvtþisa®sþ vb,Fm’ nigkRmiténkarGPivDÆesdækic© .l. 5 RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
  • 10. karcUlrYm karRBmeRBogÉkPaBKña tmøaPaB nItirdæ smFm’ KNenyüPaB kareqøIytb ckçúvis½yCayuT§saRsþ RbsiT§PaB nigPaBs½kþisiT§i GPi)alkic©l¥ 2> eKalkarN_énGPi)alkic©l¥ GPi)alkic©l¥ CaviFIsa®sþ b¤meFüa)ayEdlrdæ sßab½n GgÁPaB eRbIR)as;kñúgkarRKb;RKgesdækic©sgÁmkic©nigsnþisuxedIm,IbeRmIplRbeyaCn_ rYmrbs;RbCaBlrdæ edaybMeBjnUveKalkarN_TaMg 9 dUcxageRkamenH ³ 6 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 11. TI1³ karcUlrYm karcUlrYmkñúgbribTGPi)alkic©l¥ sMedAeTAelIkarcUlrYmrbs; RbCaBlrdæTaMgburs nig®sþI ¬GaCJaFr RbCaBlrdæ GgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)al nananigGñkBak;B½n§epSg²eTot¦kñúgdMeNIrkareFVIesckþIseRmccitþnigGnuvtþ esckþIseRmccitþenaH. sar³sMxan;énkarcUlrYm KWedIm,IFanafa B½t’man TaMgLaysþIBIbBaðatRmUvkar nigbMNgR)afñarbs;RbCaBlrdæRKb;rUb RtUv)an RbmUl nigviPaK)anRKb;RCugeRCay munnwgeFVIkarseRmccitþ. CaTUeTA karcUlrYmeFVIeLIgtam 2rebob KWkarcUlrYmedaypÞal; nigkarcUlrYmtamry³GñktMNag. 1>1>karcUlrYmedaypÞal; karcUlrYmedaypÞal;mann½yfaCakarcUlrYmrbs;GñkBak;B½n§RKb;rUb edayxøÜnÉgpÞal;enAkñúgdMeNIrénkareFVIesckþIseRmccitþnigkarGnuvtþesckþI seRmccitþenaH.kñúgrbbRbCaFibetyüRbCaBlrdæmansiT§icUlrYmedaypÞal; Bak;B½n§eTAnwgkic©karsaFarN³nigenAkñúgskmµPaBGPivDÆn_mUldæandUcCa³  kare)aHeqñat  karcUlrYmkñúgKNbkSneya)ay  karQreQµaHe)aHeqñat  karbegáItsmaKm shKmn_nana  karcUlrYmenAkñúgdMeNIrkar nigeFVIesckþIseRmccitþenAkñúgkarksag 7 RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
  • 12. EpnkarGPivDÆn_mUldæanrbs;xøÜn  karcUlrYmCakmøaMgBlkmµ nigFnFanrbs;RbCaBlrdæ enAkñúg skmµPaBGPivDÆn_mUldæanrbs;xøÜn k¾cat;TukCakarcUlrYmeday pÞal;Edr.l. 1>2>karcUlrYmtamry³GñktMNag karcUlrYmtamry³GñktMNagmann½yfaGñktMNagrbs;RbCaBlrdæ cUlrYmkñúgdMeNIrkarénkarseRmccitþ nigGnuvtþesckþIseRmcenaH. GñktMNagRtUvEtbMeBjtYnaTICaGñktMNag[qnÞ³nigplRbeyaCn_ RbCaBlrdæEdlxøÜntMNag[. GñktMNagRbCaBlrdæGacRtUv)aneRCIserIstamnItiviFIepSg²eTAtam lkçN³ nigsßanPaBCak;Esþg dUcCa ³  karEtgtaMg b¤kareRCIserIsedaymankarRBmeRBogÉkPaBKña  kare)aHeqñatskl b¤Gskl ¬smaCikrdæsPa smaCikRBwT§sPa RkumRbwkSaraCFanI extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ nig XMu sgáat;¦  TMenomTMlab;RbéBNI .l. kñúgkareRCIserIsGñktMNag RtUvBicarNacMNucmYycMnYn dUcxageRkam ³ - manlkçN³sm,tþiRKb;RKan; ehIymansmtßPaB niglT§PaBGac bMeBjtYnaTICaGñktMNag)an - CatMNagBitR)akd[RkumCak;lak;NamYy 8 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 13. - eRCIserIs b¤EtgtaMgGñktMNageTAtamnItiviFIEdlsmRsbeTAnwg sßanPaBCak;Esþg - kMNt;tYnaTI nigkarTTYlxusRtUv[)anc,as;las; - manEpnkarkargarc,as;las; - mannItiviFIpøas;bþÚrsmaCikGñktMNagc,as;las; - mankmµviFIBRgwgsmtßPaB nigkarKaMRTCaRbcaMdl;GñktMNag.l. viFIsa®sþedIm,ICMrujkarcUlrYm³edIm,ICMruj[skmµPaBcUlrYmkan;Et manPaBRbesIreLIg nigedIm,IFana[RbCaBlrdæ nigGñktMNagrbs; RbCaBlrdæman»kascUlrYmy:ageBjelj CaBiesstMNagRkumGñkRkIRk RkumRsþI nigRkumgayrgeRKaH. cMNucmYycMnYnEdlKYrBicarNa mandUc xageRkam ³  pSBVpSaydl;RbCaBlrdæGMBIsar³sMxan;nigPaBcaM)ac;énkarcUlrYm rbs;BYkeK  pSBVpSayB½t’mansþIBIkic©RbCuM nigB½t’manepSg²[)anTUlMTUlay dl;RbCaBlrdæ  kMNt;eBlevla nigTIkEnøgRbCuM[)ansmRsb  bgábriyakasénkarRbCuM[manlkçN³CacMh mankarcUlrYmy:ag pulpus nigsb,ayrIkray  erobcMTIkEnøgRbCuMRbkbedaypasuxPaB 9 RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
  • 14. RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ 10  erobcM[manRbB½n§TTYl nigpþl;B½t’manEdlmanlkçN³gay² nig GacTTYlyk)an  begáItTMnak;TMngl¥ nigsñiT§sñalCamYyRbCaBlrdæ .l. TI2³ nItirdæ nItirdækñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥ TamTar[manÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab; RKb;RKan; edIm,IbeRmI nigkarBarplRbeyaCn_saFarN³ karBarsiT§imnusS CaBiessRkumgayrgeRKaH b¤RkumPaKtic ehIyc,ab;TaMgenaHRtUv)anGnuvtþ edayminlMeGog. elIsBIenHeTot RtUvmanRbB½n§TTYlxusRtUv manRbB½n§ tulakarÉkraCünigyutþiFm’nigsmtßkic©BRgwgkarGnuvtþc,ab;edayminlMeGog nigminBukrlYy. nItirdækñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥epþatCasMxan;eTAelI ³  ÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab;  karkarBarsiT§imnusS  RbB½n§TTYlxusRtUv  RbB½n§yutþiFm’  smtßkic©BRgwgkarGnuvtþc,ab;edayminlMeGog nigminBukrlYy. 2>1>ÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab; ÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab; KWCalixitbTdæanKtiyutþ EdlrYmman c,ab; RBHraCRkwtü GnuRkwtü Rbkas esckþIseRmc esckþIENnaM dIka niglixit
  • 15. RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ 11 bTdæanKtiyutþnana. ÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab;sMxan;² rYmman ³ - eKalkarN_ ³ tamkarvivtþrbs;sgÁm nigtamtRmUvkarénkar RKb;RKgrdæ - c,ab;épÞkñúg ³ c,ab; RBHraCRkwtü GnuRkwtü Rbkas .l. - c,ab;GnþrCati ³ sn§isBaØa GnusBaØa ktikasBaØa BiFIsar .l. 2>2>karkarBarsiT§imnusS siTi§mnusS KWCaesckþIRtUvkarcaM)ac;rbs;mnusSRKb;²rUb Edl mantaMgBIkMeNIt edIm,ITamTarnUvGVI²EdleFVI[mnusSrs;enARbkbeday vicarNBaØaN nigesckþIéføfñÚr. karTTYlsÁal;nUvesckþIéføfñÚrCab;BIkMeNIt rbs;ral;smaCikénRKYsarmnusS RBmTaMgsiT§iesµI²Kñarbs;mnusSTaMgGs; EdlminGaclk;bþÚrepÞrb¤dkhUt)anCaRKwHénesrIPaByutþiFm’nigsnþiPaB. siT§iCamUldæanFMbMputsRmab;mnusSRKb;rUbKW CIvit esrIPaB nigkarsVHEsVg rksuPmgÁl. 2>3>RbB½n§TTYlxusRtUv RbB½n§TTYlxusRtUvsMxan;²bMput rYmman ³ - xagGMNacneya)ay ³ sPa rdæaPi)al Rbmuxrdæ - xagGMNacnItibBaØtþi ³ sPaTTYlxusRtUvenAkñúgkartak;Etgc,ab; - xagGMNacRbtibtþi ³ rdæ)al GaCJaFrEdndI m®nþIraCkar - xagGMNactulakar ³ CaGñkeFVI[mankareKarBc,ab;
  • 16. RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ 12 2>4>RbB½n§yutþiFm’ eKalkarN_ énRbB½n§yutþiFm’KW ÉkraCü nigyutþiFm’. tulakarman tYnaTIkat;kþInigCemøaHnanaedayyutþiFm’nigminlMeGog.dUecñHtulakarÉkraCü nigyutþiFm’CaynþkarsñÚlmYykñúgkarCMruj[mankareKarBnigGnuvtþc,ab;. RbB½n§yutþiFm’enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa rYmman ³ - RbB½n§tulakar ³  tulakarraCFanI extþ nigtulakareyaFa  sala]T§rN_  tulakarkMBUl - eRkARbB½n§tulakar ³  karcrca  sn§ankmµ ¬karnaMsRmuHsRmYl¦  mCÄtþvinicä½y ¬karvinicä½ykñúgzan³CaGaCJakNþal¦ 2>5>smtßkic©BRgwgkarGnuvtþc,ab;minlMeGog nigminBukrlYy ÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab;RtUv)andak;[eRbIR)as;CabnþbnÞab;.ral;kar GnuvtþRtUvEteFVIeLIgedayRsb tamÉksarRkbx½NÐc,ab;TaMgenaHy:ag eBjeljRtwmRtUvyutþiFm’nigminlMeGog.smtßkic©TTYlxusRtUvRtUvGnuvtþ tamc,ab;edayminlMeGog nigminBukrlYy KWCakarrYmcMENky:agxøaMgkñúg GPi)alkic©l¥.
  • 17. RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ 13 TI3³ tmøaPaB tmøaPaBkñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥mann½yfa ral;karseRmccitþ nig karGnuvtþesckþIseRmcenaH RtUveFVIeLIg ³  edayGnuelameTAtamc,ab; nigbTdæannana  B½t’manBak;B½n§nwgkarseRmccitþ nigkarGnuvtþesckþIseRmccitþ RtUvpSBVpSayCacMh tamry³ RbB½n§smRsb nigGacEsVgrk)an CaBiess cMeBaHGñkEdlTTYlrgnUvplb:HBal;BIkarseRmccitþ nigkarGnuvtþesckþIseRmccitþTaMgenaH  B½t’manTaMgenaHRtUvEtmanlkçN³RKb;RKan; niggayyl;. TI4³ karRBmeRBogÉkPaBKña karRBmeRBogÉkPaBKñakñúgn½y GPi)alkic©l¥ KWCakarBicarNa TUlMTUlay nigEvgq¶ayelIplRbeyaCn_ nigtRmUvkarrbs;GñkBak;B½n§ epSg²KñaenAkñúgsgÁmehIyQaneTArkkarseRmccitþedaymankarRBmeRBog ÉkPaBKñaelICMerIs nigviFIsa®sþl¥NamYy EdlbeRmIplRbeyaCn_ saFarN³. 4>1>PaBepSg²KñaenAkñúgsgÁm RkummnusSkñúgsgÁmEtgEtmanKMnit bBaða tRmUvkarGaTiPaB dMeNaHRsaykareBjcitþcMeNHdwgnigkaryl;eXIjepSg²Kña.ehtudUecñH karBicarNa[)any:agTUlMTUlay nigEvgq¶ayelIplRbeyaCn_énGñk
  • 18. RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ 14 Bak;B½n§epSg²KñaTaMgenaH RtUvKitdl;cMNucmYycMnYn dUcCa ³  sßanPaBrYmmanbBaðatRmUvkarGaTiPaBePTGayuzan³kñúgsgÁm muxrbr .l.  RkumCngayrgeRKaH rYmman GñkCMgWeGds_ CnBikar GñkeRbIR)as; eRKOgejón kumarkMRBa ®sþIrksuIpøÚvePT TurKtCn cas;Cra .l.  RbvtþisaRsþrYmman Rbvtþirbs;Rkum b¤CnCatinImYy²  vb,Fm’ TMenomTmøab;RbéBNI rYmman Pasa BiFIGaBah_BiBah_ BiFI buNüRbéBNIepSg²eTot  CMenOsasnarYmmansasnaRBHBuT§sasnasøamsasnaRKisþ.l.  KNbkSneya)ayrYmmanKNbkSRbCaCnhVú‘nsiunbiucsmrgSIú.l.  RkumCatisasn_rYmmanKYyPñgcarayRKwgkack;cincamevotNam.l. 4>2>eKalkarN_ENnaMsRmab;sRmbsRmYl[mankarRBmeRBógÉkPaBKña k¦>l½kçx½NÐénkarRBmeRBogÉkPaBKña l½kçx½NÐénkarRBmeRBógÉkPaBKña rYmman ³  karRBmeRBogKñaRbkbedaysuxdumrmna  karBieRKaHeyabl;CamYyRkumBak;B½n§TaMgGs;  karcUlrYmBIRkumGñkBak;B½n§epSg²kñúgdMeNIrkarénkareFVIesckþI seRmccitþ  karyl;dwgGMBIKñaeTAvijeTAmk rvagRkumBak;B½n§TaMgGs;. x¦>dMeNIrkarénkarRBmeRBogÉkPaBKña
  • 19. RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ 15 xageRkamenHCakarENnaMxøH²edIm,IeFVIkarsRmuHsRmYl[mankar- RBmeRBogÉkPaBKña ³  erobcM[mankarCYbCMuKñarvagRkumBak;B½n§TaMgGs;  EsVgyl;KñaeTAvijeTAmkrvagRkumGñkBak;B½n§TaMgGs; nig begáItkareyaKyl;Kña  BiPakSaCamYyRkumBak;B½n§TaMgGs;GMBIplRbeyaCn_ nigbegáIt CeRmIsnana  sRmuHsRmYl edIm,IseRmcykCeRmIsl¥mYyEdlbeRmInUvpl RbeyaCn_rYm edaymankarRBmeRBogÉkPaBKñaRbkbeday suxdumrmna. TI5³ smFm’ smFm’kñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥mann½yfa Rkum b¤CnRKb;rUbTaMgGs; CaBiess RkumPaKtic nigRkumEdlgayrgeRKaH man»kasRKb;RKan; enAkñúgkarcUlrYmbeBa©jeyabl;elIkeLIgnUvtRmUvkarBitGnuvtþskmµPaB nigTTYlplRbeyaCn_smRsb edIm,IEklMG nigEfrkSasuxumalPaBrbs; BYkeK. elIsBIenHeTot BYkeKmanGarmµN_fa xøÜnKWCasmaCikBitR)akd rbs;sgÁm nigminRtUv)ansgÁme)aHbg;ecalenaHeT. suxumalPaBrbs;smaCik b¤RkumnImYy² KWCasuxumalPaBrbs; sgÁmTaMgmUl.dUcenHdMeNIrkarénkarseRmccitþnigkarGnuvtþesckþIseRmc
  • 20. RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ 16 citþRbkbedaysmFm’nwgeFVI[RKb;smaCikTaMgGs;enAkñúgsgÁmmanGarmµN_ faBYkeKmñak;²KWCasmaCikBitR)akdrbs;sgÁmnig)ancUlrYmcMENkenAkñúg dMeNIrkarGPivDÆn_sgÁmenaH.elIsBIenHeTotminmansmaCikNamñak;Kitfa xøÜneKRtUv)ansgÁme)aHbg;ecaleLIy. suxumalPaB epþatCasMxan;eTAelI PaBsb,ay PaBsuxRsYl suvtßiPaBsnþisuxsuxPaBl¥.l.suxumalPaBrbs;mnusSmñak;²minRKan;Et KitelIEpñkrUbragkaybu:eNÑaHeTEtRtUvKitdl;EpñkCMenOsasnasµartIpøÚvcitþ GarmµN_ RBmTaMgPaBRKb;RKan;kñúgCIvPaBrs;enApgEdr. TI6³ RbsiT§PaB nigPaBs½kþisiT§i RbsiT§PaB nigPaBs½kþisiT§ikñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥ mann½yfaCa dMeNIrkar nigrcnasm<½n§RKb;RKgkñúg kareRbIR)as;FnFan[Gs;lT§PaB nigsnSMsMécx<s;edIm,IbegáItlT§plEdlmanKuNPaBx<s;brimaNeRcInGac beRmIplRbeyaCn_CaGtibrmanig)aneqøIytbeTAtRmUvkarBitrbs;sgÁm. eKalKMniténPaBs½kþisiT§ienAkñúgbribTGPi)alkic©l¥k¾)anbBa©ÚlpgEdrcMeBaH kareRbIR)as;FnFanFmµCati RbkbedaynirnþrPaB nigkarkarBarbrisßan. edIm,I[manRbsiT§PaB nigPaBs½kþisiT§ikñúgkarGnuvtþ RtUvBicarNa elIcMNucmYycMnYn dUcxageRkam ³  kareRbIR)as;FnFan»ü)anRtwmRtUv ¬FnFanmnusS hirBaØvtßú smÖar eBlevla¦
  • 21. RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ 17  karGnuvtþskmµPaBEdlCaGaTiPaBx<s;  eCosvagGnuvtþnUvkariyaFibetyü  karKitKUrry³eBlEvgelIkareRbIR)as;FnFanFmµCati  KµanGMeBIBukrlYy  karseRmccitþtamEbbcUlrYm .l. TI7³ KNenyüPaB KNenyüPaBkñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥ mann½yfa CakarGnuvtþtYnaTI nigParkic©enAkñúgdMeNIrkarnigGnuvtþesckþIseRmccitþehIyTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaH TegVIrbs;xøÜn edayraykarN_ RBmTaMgbBa¢ak;BImUlehtu nUvGVIEdlxøÜn)an seRmc nigGnuvtþ. KNenyüPaBKWminRtwmEtCakarTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHmuxGñkNamñak; Edl)anesñIsuM[eFVIGVImYyenaHeTb:uEnþCakarTTYlxusRtUvnUvskmµPaBEdl)an GnuvtþcMeBaHmuxGñkBak;B½n§TaMgGs;pgEdr. minEmnmanEtsßab½n GgÁPaBrbs;rdæaPi)alb:ueNÑaHeTEdlRtUvman KNenyüPaBGgÁkarsgÁmsIuvilnigRkumh‘unÉkCnk¾RtUvmanKNenyüPaB CasaFarN³cMeBaHGñkBak;B½n§TaMgGs;rbs;xøÜnpgEdrBiesscMeBaHGñkEdl TTYlrgnUvplb:HBal;GMBIkarseRmccitþ. KNenyüPaB rYmman KNenyüPaBcMeBaHmuxfñak;dwknaM nig KNenyüPaBcMeBaHmuxsaFarNCn.
  • 22. TI8³ kareqøIytb kareqøIytbkñúgn½yGPi)alkic©l¥mann½yfa CakarBüayam xitxM RbwgERbgrbs;GgÁPaBsßab½nedIm,IbeRmIdl;RbCaBlrdænigGñkBak;B½n§TaMgGs; edayesµIPaBKñanigminerIseGIgenAkñúgRkbx½NÐeBlevlamYyd¾smehtupl. kareqøIytbGacCa ³  karbMeBjesvakmµCUnRbCaBlrdætamkaresñIsMu  dMeNaHRsayEdlEsþgeLIgCaskmµPaB edIm,IedaHRsaybBaða b¤karlM)aknana  kareqøIybMPøWGMBImUlehtu EdlminGacQandl;kareFVIskmµPaB edIm,IedaHRsaybBaða b¤karlM)ak TaMgenaH)an  sMeNIsMuGnþraKmn_BIsßab½nGgÁPaBmansmtßkic©edIm,ICYyedaHRsay bBaða b¤karlM)akTaMgenaH RBmTaMgCMrabGMBIsMeNIsMuGnþraKmn_enH dl;RbCaBlrdæEdlBak;B½n§nwgbBaða b¤karlM)akTaMgenaH. TI9³ ckçúvis½yCayuT§sa®sþ GñkdwknaMTaMgGs;nigsßab½nsaFarN³nanaRtUvmanTsSn³TUlMTUlay nigsRmab;ry³eBlEvgGMBIGPi)alkic©l¥ nigkarGPivDÆFnFanmnusS edayykcitþTukdak;GMBItRmUvkarcaM)ac;nanaEdlRtUvGPivDÆn_elIkargarenH. CagenHeTotGñkdwknaMTaMgGs;RtUvmankaryl;dwg[)anc,as;GMBITidæPaBnana EpñkRbvtþisa®sþ vb,Fm’ nigsgÁm EdlBak;B½n§nwgGPi)alkic©l¥. 18 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 23. 3> GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐeKalneya)ay nigc,ab; 3>1> GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐyuT§saRsþctuekaN raCrdæaPi)alnItikalTI 4 énrdæsPa bnþCMrujGnuvtþnUvyuT§saRsþ ctuekaNedIm,IkMeNIn kargar smFm’ nigRbsiT§PaB dMNak;kalTI 2 sMedA elIksÞÜykic©GPivDÆelIRKb;vis½yenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa. sñÚlényuT§saRsþctuekaNKWGPi)alkic©l¥EdlepþatkarykcitþTuk dak;eTAelIkMENTRmg;bYn y:agKW³ 1¦karRbyuT§RbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYy 2¦kMENTRmg;RbB½n§c,ab; nigRbB½n§yutþiFm’ 3¦kMENTRmg;rdæ)alsaFarN³ 4¦kMENTRmg;kgkmøaMgRbdab;GavuF karRbyuT§RbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYy enAEtCarebobvar³GaTiPaBmYy d¾sMxan;énbBa¢Irebobvar³rbs;raCrdæaPi)alnItikalTI4énrdæsPa.c,ab;sþIBI karRbyuT§RbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYyKWCamUldæanKtiyutþKnøwHmYyminGacxVH)an sRmab;karRbyuT§RbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYyRbkbedayRbsiT§PaB. CamYyKña enHEdrraCrdæaPi)alnwgbnþviFankarmutRsYcCayuT§saRsþCak;EsþgEdlGac edaHRsaybBaðaGMeBIBukrlYyRbkb edayRbsiT§PaBtamry³viFankar 19 RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
  • 24. RbTak;RkLaKñarYmman³ 1> karbgáarTb;sáat;Camun 2> karBRgwgKNenyüPaB nigBRgwgsmtßPaBsßab½n 3> karKaMRT nigkarcUlrYmBIsaFarN³Cn 4> karcUlrYmBI vis½yÉkCn nig 5> karBRgwgkarGnuvtþc,ab;. kMENTRmg;c,ab;nigRbB½n§yutþiFm’raCrdæaPi)al)anEklMGRbB½n§c,ab; nigRbB½n§yutþiFm’edayepþatCasMxan;eTAelIkarerobcMRkbx½NÐc,ab;[)anrwgmaM nigkareFVITMenIbnIykmµc,ab;RBmTaMgdak;ecjnUvyuT§saRsþnigviFankarcaM)ac; nanakñúgeKaledABRgwgsmtßPaB ÉkraCü nigGBüaRkwténsßab½ntulakar EdlCaktþasMxan;kñúgdMeNIrkarBRgwgnItirdæ.raCrdæaPi)alnwgepþatkarykcitþ Tukdak;EfmeTotkñúgkarbnþ nigCMrujGnum½tc,ab;eKalsMxan;² dUcCa RkmRBhµTNÐc,ab;sþIBIkarRbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYyc,ab;sþIBIlkçnþik³ecARkm nigRBHraCGaCJa c,ab;sþIBIkarerobcM nigkarRbRBwtþeTAénGgÁkartulakar nig c,ab;sþIBIviesaFnkmµc,ab;sþIBI]tþmRkumRbwkSaénGgÁecARkm.CamYyKñaenHEdr raCrdæaPi)alnwgbnþerobcMkmµviFIpSBVpSayc,ab;dl;RbCaBlrdæ nigbNþúH bNþalc,ab;dl;m®nþIGnuvtþc,ab;kñúgeKaledAbegáInkaryl;dwg nigkarGnuvtþ [)anRtwmRtUv. raCrdæaPi)al nwgbnþpþl;GaTiPaBbEnßmeToteTAelI ³ 1> karBRgwgsmtßPaBrbs;ecARkm 20 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 25. 2> karksagnUvynþkarepSg² EdlcUlrYmbeRmI[vis½yyutþiFm’ 3> karpþl;CMnYyEpñkc,ab; nig 4> karbnþCMrujelIkkm<s;ynþkarénkaredaHRsayvivaTeRkARbB½n§ tulakar. kMENTRmg;rdæ)alsaFarN³epþateTAelIkarFanapþl;esvasaFarN³ CUnRbCaBlrdæRbkbedayKuNPaBtmøaPaBnigRbsiT§PaB.esvasaFarN³ EdlmanEcgenAkñúgeKalneya)aysþIBIkarpþl;esvasaFarN³énRkumRbwkSa kMENTRmg;rdæ)alRtUv)ancgRkgnigRbmUlpþMúCa7RbePTFM²eTAtamvis½y nigkarTTYlxusRtUvrbs;RksYg sßab½n rYmman ³ 1> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§nwgGFibetyüPaBrdæ 2> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§nwgEpñksnþisuxsNþab;Fñab; 3> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§nwgyutþiFm’ nigGaCJakNþal 4> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§ nwgkarelIkkMBs;kic©karBaNiC¢kmµ shRKasFuntUcnigmFümbrisßanvinieyaKnigkarcUlrYmrbs; EpñkÉkCnkñúgkarksag nigkarEfTaMehdæarcnasm<½n§ 5> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§nwgsgÁmkic© vb,Fm’ nigkic©karnarI 6> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§nwgkarGPivDÆehdæarcnasm<½n§rUbvnþ nig 7> cegáamesvaBak;B½n§nwgkarRbmUlcMNUl kareFVIvicarNkmµ cMNay nigkarebIkpþl;. 21 RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
  • 26. karBRgwgkarpþl;esvasaFarN³CamUldæanesvaGFibetyürbs;rdæ esvaBak;B½n§eTAnwgkarvinieyaKnigBaNiC¢kmµFuntUcnigmFümtamry³ynþkar {RckecjcUlEtmYy}kat;bnßykariyaFibetyüRBmTaMg begáIteLIgnUv ynþkarmYyedIm,IFanadl;karGnuvtþRbkbedaytmøaPaBnigKµanGMeBIBukrlYy KWkarbegáIt kariyal½yRbCaBlrdæ. raCrdæaPi)albnþCMrujGnuvtþeKal neya)ayvimCÄkarnigvishmCÄkartamry³karerobcMbTdæanKtiyutþnigkar dak;ecjnUvviFankarfµIEfmeTot edIm,IGnuvtþ[manRbsiT§PaBnUvc,ab;sþIBI karRKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanIextþRkugRsukxNÐCaBiesskarerobcMnigGnuvtþ lixitbTdæanEdlBak;B½n§nwg karepÞrGMNacBIrdæ)alfñak;Catimkrdæ)al fñak;eRkamCatiedaykMNt;[)anc,as;las;nUvtYnaTIsiT§iGMNacnigkarFana KNenyüPaBenAkñúgkarbMeBjkargar. TnÞwmenHEdr karRKb;RKghirBaØvtßú tamEbbvishmCÄkarnwgRtUvGnuvtþedayPaBTn;Pøn;nigtamdMNak;²kñúgry³ eBlmFüm edIm,ImaneBlRKb;RKan;kñúgkarksag smtßPaBfñak;eRkamCati sRmab;karRKb;RKghirBaØvtßúsaFarN³. kMENTRmg;kgkmøaMgRbdab;GavuF edIm,IFana)annUvkic©karBarRbkb edayRbsiT§PaBnUvGFibetyü nigbUrNPaBTwkdI snþisux nigsNþab;Fñab; sgÁménRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa. CamYyKñaenHEdr raCrdæaPi)albnþCMruj kic©shRbtibtþikarCamYyshKmn_GnþrCatiedIm,IrYmcMENkkarBarnigEfrkSa snþiPaB nigsnþisuxCaGnþrCati CaBiessedIm,IbgáarTb;sáat; nigb®gáabGMeBI 22 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 27. ePrvkmµ nig]RkidækmµqøgEdnRKb;RbePTmanCaGaT× karCYjdUreRKOgejón karCYjdUrmnusS nigbTelµIsepSgeTot. 3>2> GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐc,ab; sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alXMu sgáat; c,ab;sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alXMusgáat;maneKaledAkMNt;karRKb;RKg XMu sgáat;TaMgGs;kñúg RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCatamneya)ayvimCÄkar. rdæ)alXMusgáat;mantYnaTICMrujnigKaMBarGPi)alkic©l¥edaycat;Ecg eRbIR)as;FnFannanaEdlmanRbkbedayecrPaBsRmab;bMeBjesckþIRtUvkar CamUldæanenAkñúgXMu sgáat;rbs;xøÜn beRmIplRbeyaCn_rYmrbs;RbCaBlrdæ nigeKarBplRbeyaCn_rbs;CatiRsbtamneya)ayTUeTArbs;rdæ. RbB½n§énGPi)alkic©mUldæanRtUvGnuvtþenAfñak;XMusgáat;.GMNacdwknaM nigRKb;RKgXMusgáat;)anmkedaykare)aHeqñatCaTUeTACaskledayesrI RtwmRtUv nigyutþiFm’ edayesµIPaB edaycMeBaH edaysm¶at; kñúgRkbx½NÐXMu sgáat;nImYy². rdæ)alXMu sgáat;mantYnaTIBIrRbePTKW tYnaTIbeRmIkargarmUldæan sRmab;plRbeyaCn_XMu sgáat; nigRbCaBlrdæenAkñúgXMu sgáat;rbs;xøÜÜn nig tYnaTICaPñak;gartMNagrdæeRkamkarcat;taMgb¤karRbKl;GMNacrbs;GaCJaFrrdæ. XMusgáat;CaGgÁkartMNagRbCaBlrdækñúgXMusgáat;rbs;xøÜnnigman ebskkmµbeRmIplRbeyaCn_TUeTAkñúgXMusgáat;rbs;xøÜn.RkumRbwkSaXMusgááat; 23 RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
  • 28. RtUvmanKNenyüPaBcMeBaHRbCaBlrdæenAkñúgXMusgáat;rbs;xøÜnGMBICeRmIs CaGaTiPaB edIm,IeFVIesckþIseRmc Tak;TinnwgskmµPaBbeRmIplRbeyaCn_ TUeTAkñúgXMu sgáat;rbs;xøÜn. RkumRbwkSaXMusgáat;RtUvmanKNenyüPaBcMeBaHraCrdæaPi)alGMBIkar RbtibtþitamrdæFmµnuBaØc,ab;RBHraCRkwtüGnuRkwtüRbkasniglixitbTdæannana. 3>3> GPi)alkic©l¥kñúgRkbx½NÐc,ab;sþIBI karRKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanI extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ 3>3>1 GMBIeKalkarN_RKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanI extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ raCFanI extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ RtUvRKb;RKgtameKalkarN_énrdæ)al ÉkPaBedIm,IbegáIt CMruj nigeFVI[mancIrPaBdl;karGPivDÆtamEbb RbCaFibetyü tamry³neya)ayvimCÄkar nigvishmCÄkar. karGPivDÆtamEbbRbCaFibetyü (Democratic Development) KWCabBaðasMxan;énGPi)alkic©l¥. karGPivDÆtamEbbRbCaFibetyü KWCa karGPivDÆEdldMeNIrkaredaymanlkçN³dUcxageRkam ³ 1¦PaBCatMNagsaFarN³ 2¦sV½yPaBrbs;mUldæan 3¦karBieRKaHeyabl; nigkarcUlrYm 4¦kareqøIytb nigKNenyüPaB 5¦karelIkkm<s;KuNPaBCIvitrbs;RbCaBlrdækñúgmUldæan 24 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 29. 6¦karelIksÞÜysmFm’ 7¦tmøaPaB nigsucritPaB 8¦viFankarRbqaMgGMeBIBukrlYy nigkarrMelaPGMNac 3>3>2 KNenyüPaBrbs;RkumRbwkSa KN³GPi)al nigbuKÁlik k-KNenyüPaBcMeBaHRbCaBlrdæ RkumRbwkSaRtUvmanKNenyüPaBedaypÞal;cMeBaHRbCaBlrdæ TaMgGs;GMBICeRmIsCaGaTiPaB edIm,IeFVIesckþIseRmcFana)annUvkarGPivDÆ tamEbbRbCaFibetyü enAkñúgEdnsmtßkic©rbs;xøÜn. RkumRbwkSaGaceFVIkarGegátelIkrNITaMgLayEdlxøÜnyl;eXIjfa mansar³sMxan;dl;RbCaBlrdæ EdlxøÜnCatMNag RBmTaMgGacpSBVpSay lT§plénkareFVIGegátenaH rYcehIyRtUvpþl;eKalkarN_ENnaMGnuvtþdl; KN³GPi)al nigGPi)al. RkumRbwkSaRtUvcat;Ecgkic©karhirBaØvtßú[mantmøaPaB nigman KNenyüPaBcMeBaHRbCaBlrdærbs;xøÜn. x-KNenyüPaBcMeBaHraCrdæaPi)al RkumRbwkSaRtUvmanKNenyüPaBcMeBaHraCrdæaPi)alGMBIkarRbtibtþi tamrdæFmµnuBaØ c,ab; RBHraCRkwtü GnuRkwtü niglixitbTdæannana. RkumRbwkSaRtUvRKb;RKghirBaØvtßúrbs;xøÜnRbkbedayRbsiT§PaBtmøáaPaB nigKNenyüPaBcMeBaH RbCaBlrdærbs;xøÜn nigcMeBaHraCrdæaPi)al. 25 RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
  • 30. kñúgtYnaTICatMNagraCrdæaPi)alRksYgsßab½nnanarbs;raCrdæaPi)al GPi)alRtUvmanKNenyüPaBcMeBaHraCrdæaPi)al RksYgmhaépÞ nigRksYg sßab½nnana. K-karTTYlxusRtUv nigKNenyüPaBcMeBaHfñak;elI buKÁlikTaMgGs;RtUvmankarTTYlxusRtUvnigKNenyüPaBedaypÞal; cMeBaHRbFanRKb;RKgpÞal;rbs;xøÜnnigRtUvmankarTTYlxusRtUvnigKNenyüPaB edayRbeyalcMeBaHnaykrdæ)alGPi)alKN³GPi)alnigRkumRbwkSatam zananuRkm. 26 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 31. BaküKnøwH kariyaFibetyü (Bureaucracy): GgÁkarmYydUcCaTIPñak;garrdæ)al b¤kgT½B CaedImEdlmanlkçN³ smÁal;dUcteTAenH KWExSry³bBa¢aedayman mnusSenAfñak;elIticCagenAfñak;eRkammuxtMENgnigkarTTYlxusRtUv mankMNt;c,as;las; viFan nignItiviFIrwgkMRBws manEbbbTeRcInRtUv bMeBjehIymannItiviFIBi)ak²nwgRtUvqøgkat;nigkareFVIRbtiPUkmµGMNac eTAeRkameFVIeLIgBIfñak;mYyeTAfñak;mYy. karGPivDÆtamEbbRbCaFibetyü (Democratic Development): sMedAeTAelI karGPivDÆEdldMeNIrkaredaymanlkçN³ 1> PaBCatMNagsaFarN³(PublicRepresentation)mann½yfaRkumRbwkSa RtUvGnuvtþkargarkñúgnam nigeFVICatMNag[RbCaBlrdæTaMgGs; enAkñúgEdnsmtßkic©rbs;xøÜn . 2>sV½yPaBrbs;mUldæan(Local Autonomy) mann½yfasßanPaBEdl RkumRbwkSaGacm©as;karcat;Ecg RKb;RKgnUvkic©karEdl)anRbKl; b¤eFVIRbtiPUkmµedayc,ab;sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanI extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ RbkbedayRbsiT§PaB . 3> karBieRKaHeyabl; nigkarcUlrYm(Consultation and Participation) 27 RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
  • 32. mann½yfaCadMeNIrkarénkarGnuvtþkargarnigkareFVIesckþIseRmc citþrbs;RkumRbwkSaEdlRkumRbwkSaRtUvCYbBiPakSanigBieRKaHeyabl; CamYyRbCaBlrdæenAmUldæanRBmTaMgelIkTwkcitþnigsRmbsRmYl [mankarcUlrYmrbs;RbCaBlrdæenAmUldæanenARKb;EpñkTaMgGs;én GPi)alkic©edIm,IEsVgyl;nigeqøIytbtRmUvkarrbs;RbCaBlrdæ. 4> kareqøIytb nigKNenyüPaB(Responsiveness andAccountability) mann½yfa kñúgnamCatMNagRbCalrdæenAmUldæan RkumRbwkSaRtUv eqøIytbcMeBaHRbCaBlrdærbs;xøÜnkñúgkareFVIeKalneya)ayesckþI seRmccitþ skmµPaB nigkarbMeBjkargarrbs;xøÜnRbkbeday karTTYlxusRtUvnUvGVIEdlxøÜn)anGnuvtþ.RkumRbwkSak¾TTYlxusRtUv pgEdr cMeBaHraCrdæaPi)alkñúgkarRbtibtþitamrdæFmµnuBaØ nigc,ab; nana. 5> karelIkkm<s;KuNPaBCIvitrbs;RbCaBlrdækñúgmUldæan (Promotion of Life Quality of the Local Residents) sMedAeTAelIkic©xitxMRbwgERbg edIm,IbegáIt nigeFVI[mannirnþrPaBnUvbriyakasmYyRbkbeday snþiPaB suvtßiPaB nigsuxumalPaB elIkkm<s;sRmab;karGPivDÆ sgÁm nigesdækic© nigelIkkm<s;pasuxPaB nigKuNPaBCIvitén RbCaBlrdækñúgmUldæan. 6> karelIksÞÜysmFm’ (Promotion of Equity) mann½yfakarKitKUr nigykcitþTukdak;CaBiesseTAelItRmUvkarxus²Kñarbs;RsþI burs 28 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 33. yuvCnnigkumarRBmTaMgtRmUvkarxus²Kñarbs;RkumCngayrgeRKaH rab;bBa©ÚlTaMgRbCaBlrdæRkIRk nigCnCatiedImPaKtic. 7> tmøaPaB nigsucritPaB(Transparency and Integrity) mann½yfa Cakarcat;EcgnigRKb;RKgkic©karnanarab;bBa©ÚlTaMgkic©karhirBaØvtßú edayGnuelamtambTdæanx<s;bMputénsucritPaB nigc,ab;kñúg lkçN³ebIkcMhRbkbedaytmøaPaB karcUlrYm nigkareqøIytb. 8> viFankarRbqaMgGMeBIBukrlYy nigkarrMelaPGMNac(Measures to Fight Corruption andAbuse of Power) mann½yfaCakarRbkan;yknUv viFanénc,ab; RBmTaMgkarRbqaMg nigraykarN_GMBIGMeBIBukrlYy nigkarrMelaPGMNac. karTTYlxusRtUv (Responsibility): sMedAeTAelItYnaTInigkatBVkic©Edl)an RbKl;[edayc,ab;b¤lixitbTdæanKtiyutþeTA[buKÁlGgÁkarcat;taMg énrdæ)alNamYy b¤rdæ)alnImYy²énrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati. KNenyüPaB (Accountability): KWCakatBVkic©rbs;GñkEdlTTYl)annUvkar TTYlxusRtUvnigsiT§iGMNacedIm,IeqøIybMPøWnigTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHTegVI nanarbs;xøÜnrYmTaMgplvi)akEdlekIteLIgBITegVITaMgenaH. KNenyüPaBExSTTwg (Horizontal Accountability) sMedAeTAelIExS KNenyüPaBrvagmnÞIr GgÁPaBrbs;RksYg sßab½nfñak;Cati CamYy rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati EdlxøÜnRbtibtþienAkñúgEdnsmtßkic©rbs; 29 RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
  • 34. rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatienaH. KNenyüPaBExSbeNþay (Vertical Accountability) sMedAeTAelIExS KNenyüPaBrvagrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatiCamYyRksYgsßab½nfñak;Cati b¤rvagmnÞIr GgÁPaBrbs;RksYg sßab½nEdlRbtibtþienAfñak;eRkamCati CamYyRksYg sßab½nsamI. KNenyüPaBcMeBaHRbCaBlrdæ (Accountability to Citizens): sMedAeTAelI ExSKNenyüPaBrvagrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatiCamYyRbCaBlrdækñúgEdn smtßkic©rbs;xøÜn. ]TahrN_ ³  rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatieqøIytbeTAnwgtRmUvkarCaGaTiPaBrbs; RbCaBlrdæCaBiessRsþIkumarRkumCngayrgeRKaHnigCnCatiedIm PaKtic nigpþl;esvasaFarN³RbkbedayRbsiT§PaB  rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatierobcM[manynþkarsRmab;karcUlrYmRbCaBlrdæ enAkñúgdMeNIrkarerobcM nigGnuvtþEpnkarnigfvika nigesckþIseRmc nanarbs;rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati  rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatierobcM[manynþkarsRmab;karBarsiT§i nig plRbeyaCn_rbs;RbCaBlrdæ nigpþl;B½t’mandl;RbCaBlrdæ. KNenyüPaBépÞkñúg (Internal Accountability) sMedAeTAelIKNenyüPaB enAkñúgGgÁkarcat;taMgmYy rbs;rdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati b¤enAkñúgrgVg; rdæ)almYyénrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati. ]TahrN_ ³ 30 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 35.  KNenyüPaBrvagKN³GPi)alnigTIcat;karnanaénrdæ)alextþ{k} CamYynwgRkumRbwkSaextþ {k}  KNenyüPaBenAkñúgKN³GPi)alextþ {k}  KNenyüPaBenAkñúgTIcat;karnImYy²énrdæ)alextþ {k} . KNenyüPaBEpñkeKalneya)ay (Political Accountability) sMedAeTAelI KNenyüPaBrbs;GñkCab;eqñatcMeBaHRbCaBlrdæ b¤Gñke)aHeqñat tamry³karbMeBjtYnaTIenAkñúgGMLúgGaNtþirbs;xøÜn. KNenyüPaBEpñkc,ab; (Legal Accountability) sMedAeTAelIKNenyüPaB cMeBaHmuxc,ab; niglixitbTdæanKtiyutþnanaCaFrman. KNenyüPaBEpñkrdæ)al (Administrative Accountability) sMedAeTAelI KNenyüPaBEdlBak;B½n§nwgkarerobcMRbB½n§RKb;RKg nItiviFIRbtibtþi sþg;darnigniyamkargarrbs;buKÁlnigGgÁkarcat;taMgeTAtamzananuRkm. KNenyüPaBEpñkhirBaØvtßú (Financial Accountability) sMedAeTAelI KNenyüPaBEdlBak;B½n§nwgkarerobcMRbB½n§nignItiviFIRKb;RKgfvika nighirBaØvtßú RsbeTAtamc,ab; nigeKalkarN_hirBaØvtßúsaFarN³. KNenyüPaBEpñksgÁm (Social Accountability) sMedAeTAelIskmµPaB nig ynþkarnana EdlRbCaBlrdæGaceRbIR)as;edIm,ITamTar[rdæman KNenyüPaBcMeBaHxøÜn RBmTaMgskmµPaBnanarbs;rdæa)alPi)al sgÁmsIuvil nigtYGgÁdéTeTotkñúgkarelIkkm<s;karGnuvtþskmµPaB 31 RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
  • 36. nigynþkarTaMgenaH. KNenyüPaBGnþrrdæ)al(Inter-governmental Accountability) sMedAeTAelI KNenyüPaBrvagRksYgsßab½nmnÞIrTIPñak;garnanarbs;RksYgsßab½n CamYynwgrdæ)alnanaénrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati. ]TahrN_ ³  KNenyüPaBrvagRksYg sßab½n CamYynwgrdæ)alraCFanI extþ b¤rdæ)alRkug Rsuk xNÐ b¤rdæ)al XMu sgáat;  KNenyüPaBrvagmnÞIrTIPñak;garnanarbs;RksYgsßab½nCamYynwg rdæ)alraCFanI extþ b¤rdæ)alRkug Rsuk xNÐ b¤rdæ)alXMu sgáat; KNenyüPaBGnþrrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCati(Intra-SNAAccountability) sMedAeTA elIKNenyüPaBrvagrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatib¤rvagGgÁkarcat;taMgnana énrdæ)alfñak;eRkamCatiEdlmanRbePTdUcKña b¤RbePTepSgKña. ]TahrN_ ³  KNenyüPaBrvagrdæ)alextþ {k} nigrdæ)alextþ {x}  KNenyüPaBrvagrdæ)alraCFanI extþ rdæ)alRkug Rsuk xNÐ nigrdæ)alXMu sgáat;  KNenyüPaBrvagRkumRbwkSaextþ {k} nigRkumRbwkSaextþ {x}  KNenyüPaBrvagRkumRbwkSaraCFanIextþRkumRbwkSaRkugRsukxNÐ nigRkumRbwkSaXMu sgáat;  KNenyüPaBrvagKN³GPi)alextþ{k}nigKN³GPi)alextþ{x} 32 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 37.  KNenyüPaBrvagKN³GPi)alraCFanIextþKN³GPi)alRkugRsuk xNÐ nigemXMu ecAsgáat;. mCÄtþvinicä½y (Arbitration) karvinicä½ytamGaCJakNþal KWCakarRbKl;CemøaH mYyeTA[PaKITIbI ¬GaCJakNþal¦ EdlKUPaKITaMgsgxageRCIserIs eLIg ehIy[GMNaceTAPaKITIbIenaHeFVIesckþIseRmcCasßaBrkñúgkic© RbwgERbgmYyedIm,IedaHRsayCemøáaHenaH. sn§ankmµ(Mediation) karnaMsRmuHsRmYlKWCaviFImYyénkaredaHRsayCemøaH enAeRkAtulakar. kñúgviFIenH PaKITIbIGBüaRkit RtUv)ansMu[edIrtYCa s<anP¢ab;PaKITaMgLay ehIyPaKIGBüaRkitenaHRKan;EtGacbBa©úH bBa©ÚlPaKITaMgenaH[TTYlRBmdMeNaHRsayb:ueNÑaH. 33 RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ
  • 38. Éksareyag 1> GPi)alkic©l¥ sRmab;RkumRbwkSaXMu sgáat; 2> What is Good Governance, United Nation Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific 3> ÉksarsRmab;CMnYykñúgvKÁbNþúHbNþalsþIBIkic©karrdæ)alrbs;naykdæan buKÁlik RksYgmhaépÞ 4> yuT§saRsþctuekaNedIm,IkMeNIn kargar smFm’ nigRbsiT§PaBenA km<úCadMNak;kalTI 2 5> eKalneya)aysþIBIkarpþl;esvasaFarN³rbs;RkumRbwkSakMENTRmg; rdæ)alénraCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa 6> c,ab;sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alXMu sgáat; 7> c,ab;sþIBIkarRKb;RKgrdæ)alraCFanI extþ Rkug Rsuk xNÐ 8> siT§imnusS³ kRmgÉksarén]bkrN_GgÁkarshRbCaCati 34 RksYgmhaépÞ RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ
  • 39. KaMRTeday FnaKarBiPBelak raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa eroberog nigcgRkgeday RkumKaMRTRkug Rsuk xNÐ RksYgmhaépÞ Can;TI1énGKarnaykdæanbuKÁlik nigbNþúHbNþalviC¢aCIv³RksYgmhaépÞ mhavifIRBHneratþm sgáat;Tenø)asak; xNÐcMkarmn raCFanIPñMeBj TUrs½BÞ³ 023 726 861/220 935 Email: info@owso.gov.kh, Website: www.owso.gov.kh