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Michaelson Jasper P. Duyan, LPT
FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL AND
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
(EDUC 103)
FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL AND
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
(EDUC 103)
ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO
ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO
ECOLAND DRIVE, MATINA, DAVAO CITY
ECOLAND DRIVE, MATINA, DAVAO CITY
BE PREPARED CELL PHONE POLICY
HOUSE RULES :
BE ON TIME
Be on class at least
10 minutes
before class.
All your things
must be prepared
before joining the class.
Kindly place your cell
phone on silent mode
or vibrate mode.
ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO
ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO
HOUSE RULES :
DRESS APPROPRIATELY RAISE YOUR HAND LISTEN ATTENTIVELY
Wear something
comfortable but
presentable.
Raise your hand
when you have questions
and/or clarifications.
Especially when the
Teacher is discussing.
ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO
ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO
ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO
ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO
CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND
EXCEPTIONALITIES
Lesson Outcomes:
Define and distinguish the differences between speech and language
impairments, autism spectrum disorder, visual impairments, hearing
impairments, physical, intellectual, and learning disabilities, ADHD,
and exceptional brightness.
EDUC 103
CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND
EXCEPTIONALITIES
Lesson Outcomes:
Understand the impact of these conditions on individuals'
communication, social interactions, learning, and daily functioning.
Explore various strategies and accommodations to support
individuals with these conditions in educational and social settings.
Reflect on the importance of inclusive practices and empathy
towards individuals with diverse needs.
EDUC 103
CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND
EXCEPTIONALITIES
Lesson Outcomes:
Demonstrate awareness and sensitivity towards individuals with
speech and language impairments, autism spectrum disorder, visual
impairments, hearing impairments, physical, intellectual, and
learning disabilities, ADHD, and exceptional brightness in their
interactions and academic environments.
EDUC 103
CHILDREN'S
DISABILITIES AND
EXCEPTIONALITIES
Part 1:
SPEECH AND LANGUAGE
IMPAIRMENTS AND DISORDERS
LESSON OUTLINE
EDUC 103
Part 2:
AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER, VISUAL
IMPAIRMENTS, AND HEARING IMPAIRMENTS
Part 3:
PHYSICAL, INTELLECTUAL, AND LEARNING
DISABILITIES, ADHD, AND
EXCEPTIONALLY BRIGHT
P A R T 1 :
SPEECH &
LANGUAGE
IMPAIRMENTS
AND DISORDERS
EDUC 103
Speech
and
Language Impairments
EDUC 103
Speech and Language Impairments
EDUC 103
Children's early years in school are an important and
challenging stage of their development. Those who suffer
from speech and language disorders face a more important and
more challenging journey. Children with language impairments
have difficulty processing language, communicating with others,
and formulating responses appropriately (Harris et al., 2009).
EDUC 103
Speech and language impairments are generally defined as
disorders that greatly affect the child's ability to read, write,
speak, and understand.
From a broader perspective, children with speech and
language impairments have difficulties with the following:
SPELLING,
READING COMPREHENSION;
READING ACCURACY,
PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS AND WRITING.
EDUC 103
In school, children with language and speech impairments
have common problems such as:
COMMUNICATING WITH CLASSMATES AND TEACHERS;
UNDERSTANDING WHAT THE CLASSMATES AND TEACHERS SAY;
GIVING ORAL PRESENTATIONS AND RECITATIONS; AND.
PARTICIPATING IN CLASS DISCUSSIONS.
EDUC 103
Several studies as cited in Harris et al., (2009) revealed that
speech and language impairments do not just affect the way
children speak, read, comprehend, and write, but also have an
impact on their numeracy skills. Another study found that
language impairments affect 7%-14% of 4-5-year-old children
(Justice et al., 2005).
Speech and Language Impairments
EDUC 103
Parents and teachers can notice and diagnose if such
problems occur by assessing and evaluating children's reading
achievement. Speech Impairments can be articulation, fluency,
and voice disorders. Meanwhile, Language Impairments include
phonological (sound), morphological (words), semantic (word
meaning), syntactical (sentence), and pragmatic (the meaning of
language in a social context) difficulties (Projectideal, 2013).
Speech and Language Impairments
The normal pattern of speech development adapted from
Laule (2017) is illustrated in the Table below:
E D U C 1 0 3 | S J P 2 C D
Age Language Level
0-1 Month The baby cries.
2-3 Months The baby makes a cooing sound and smiles.
6 Months The baby babbles and learns new sounds.
8 Months The baby learns to respond to names.
The normal pattern of speech development adapted from
Laule (2017) is illustrated in the Table below:
E D U C 1 0 3 | S J P 2 C D
Age Language Level
10 Month
The baby learns to shout to attract attention. He/she
also learns to utter syllables repeatedly.
12 Months
The baby can say 1-2 words. He/she also starts to
recognize names, imitate familiar sounds, and points
to objects.
12-17 Months The child starts to understand simple instructions.
The normal pattern of speech development adapted from
Laule (2017) is illustrated in the Table below:
E D U C 1 0 3 | S J P 2 C D
Age Language Level
18 Month
The child uses 10-20 words. He/she also starts to
combine two words.
2 Years
The child can say 2-3 word sentences. He/she can
identify colors, pictures, numbers, and other simple
words.
2 ½ Years
The child has already acquired approximately 450
vocabulary words.
The normal pattern of speech development adapted from
Laule (2017) is illustrated in the Table below:
E D U C 1 0 3 | S J P 2 C D
Age Language Level
3 Years
The child already tells a story. He/she can also say 3-
to-4-word sentences. The child has already a
vocabulary of approximately 1,00 words. He/She can
now identify names, songs, and stories
4 Years
The child starts to say the 4-to-5-word sentence.
He/she can also pronounce letters and basic sight
words correctly.
The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA)
classified and explained the different children's speech and
language impairments. The following are its classifications and
explanations.
SPEECH
DISORDERS
LANGUAGE
DISORDERS
Preschool Language Disorder
Learning Disabilities
Selective Mutism
EDUC 103
Apraxia
Dysarthria
Orofacial Myofunctional Disorder (OMD)
Speech Sound Disorder
Stuttering
Speech
Speech
Disorders
Disorders
EDUC 103
APRAXIA
APRAXIA
EDUC 103
A child with this disorder has difficulty moving
his/her lips and tongue, even if his/her facial
muscles are not weak. Sometimes, a child might
not speak at all. The problem with this disorder is
that the child might have something in his brain
that he could say, but cannot utter a word
because the brain also prevents the muscles in the
mouth from moving.
EDUC 103
A CHILD WITH APRAXIA MANIFESTS THE
FOLLOWING SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
The child inconsistently pronounces words.
The child cannot put the correct stress on a
syllable or a word.
The child may change the sound of the word.
The child can say only short words.
EDUC 103
To help a child with Apraxia, practice the child's
"Touch cues", like putting the fingers on their ear
when saying the word ear. Another strategy is the
use of "Visual cues" like looking at the mirror
when pronouncing words or making sounds. Finally,
"Listening cues" may also help like recording the
sounds produced and letting the child listen if
he/she pronounced the word correctly.
EDUC 103
"TOUCH CUES"
EDUC 103
"VISUAL CUES"
EDUC 103
"LISTENING CUES"
DYSARTHRIA
DYSARTHRIA
EDUC 103
This disorder happens if the
face, lips, tongue, throat, and other
muscles for breathing are weak. This
occurs when the muscles weaken
due to brain damage.
EDUC 103
A CHILD WITH DYSARTHRIA HAS THE
FOLLOWING SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
The child has mumbled speech that is difficult
to understand.
The child speaks slowly or too fast.
The child speaks softly.
The child cannot move the jaw, tongue,
or lips very well.
EDUC 103
A CHILD WITH DYSARTHRIA HAS THE
FOLLOWING SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
The child sounds like a robot or choppy.
The child may sound hoarse or breathy.
EDUC 103
THE FOLLOWING ARE SOME TIPS TO HELP A
CHILD WITH DYSARTHRIA.
Constantly talk to the child.
Watch and pay attention while the child talks.
Let the child know if you have difficulty
understanding him/her/.
Ask the child "yes" or "no" questions if you
understand what he/she says.
OROFACIAL MYOFUNCTIONAL
OROFACIAL MYOFUNCTIONAL
DISORDER (OMD)
DISORDER (OMD)
EDUC 103
This disorder affects the growth and
development of the muscles in the
mouth. A child with OMD has difficulty
with swallowing, talking, and, breathing
through the nose. A child who suffers
from this disorder pushes his/her tongue
when he/she eats, talks, or drinks.
EDUC 103
A CHILD WHO SUFFERS FROM OMD MAY SHOW
THE FOLLOWING SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS.
The child has limited tongue movement.
The child has difficulty saying some
sounds like "s" in "soap", "sh" in
"shore", or "j' in "just".
The child has difficulty closing the lips
to swallow.
EDUC 103
This disorder affects the growth and
development of the muscles in the
mouth. A child with OMD has difficulty
with swallowing, talking, and, breathing
through the nose. A child who suffers
from this disorder pushes his/her tongue
when he/she eats, talks, or drinks.
SPEECH SOUND DISORDER
SPEECH SOUND DISORDER
EDUC 103
This disorder can be detected if the
child already reaches the age of 4
because a child may have difficulty
learning x, z; V, or th. A child who
cannot still utter or say sounds expected
of his/her age may be suffering from
Speech Sounds Disorder.
EDUC 103
It is common for a child to
substitute one sound with another,
leave, add, or change a sound. For
example, instead of saying "ako" in
Filipino, the child might say "ato". Or
instead of saying, "road", and child
might say "woad".
EDUC 103
Or instead of saying "mommy", a
child might say "mimmy".According to
experts, this is fine. However, there
may be a problem if he/ she
continuously does it.
EDUC 103
Treating this disorder includes
teaching the child to make sounds
correctly, practicing sounds of
different words, and practicing
longer and more difficult sounds to
make.
EDUC 103
STUTTERING
STUTTERING
EDUC 103
Any person cannot speak smoothly
without "uh", "ohm", "; or "you know".
Sometimes we may also repeat the
words or sentences we say. Medical
experts call these disfluencies. However,
people who have more disfluencies
stutter.
EDUC 103
They may repeat, prolong, or block
the words out. In other words, stuttering
is a worse kind of disfluencies.
A child's stuttering may have been
inherited because some of his/ her
family members stutter or may have
brain problems that affect their speech.
EDUC 103
When someone stutters, he may do the
following:
Part-word repetitions:
"She w-w-will eat."
One word répetition:
"This is a bow-bow-bow."
'Prolonged sounds:
"ANNNNAA is my friend."
Blocks or stops:
“I want to eat (long pause) fries."
EDUC 103
A child who, stutters can be treated
through direct and indirect. strategies.
The direct strategy includes several
exercises for a child to improve the way
he/she speaks. Meanwhile, the indirect
strategy is someone's adjustment to the
child's pace. An adult slows down when
he/she speaks to the child who stutters.
Language
Language
Disorders
Disorders
EDUC 103
PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER
PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER
EDUC 103
A child between 3 to 5 years old may
have difficulty following instructions and
understanding questions. He/she may
have difficulty learning new words and
sentences or he/she may experience
both. These are some examples of
preschool language disorders.
EDUC 103
THE FOLLOWING ARE SIGNS OF
PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER:
The child has difficulty understanding.
receptive language which includes
understanding gestures, following
instructions, answering questions,
pointing to objects and pictures, and
knowing to take turns when others are
talking.
EDUC 103
THE FOLLOWING ARE SIGNS OF
PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER:
The child has difficulty with expressive
language which includes asking
questions, naming things, using
gestures, learning songs and rhymes,
and knowing how to make a
conversation.
EDUC 103
THE FOLLOWING ARE SIGNS OF
PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER:
The child may also experience some
early problems in reading and writing
which include naming letters, numbers,
and learning the alphabet.
EDUC 103
THE POSSIBLE CAUSES of a
preschool language disorder may be:
hereditary,
early birth,
low birth weight,
hearing loss, autism,
Down syndrome,
stroke, brain injury,
cerebral palsy,
poor nutrition, and
failure to thrive.
EDUC 103
TEACHERS AND ADULTS MAY HELP A CHILD
WITH PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER
THROUGH THE FOLLOWING:
Talk to the child as often as possible.
Read books or stories to the child.
Familiarize the child with signs,
gestures, and other landmark places.
Speak to the child using the Mother
Tongue.
EDUC 103
TEACHERS AND ADULTS MAY HELP A CHILD
WITH PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER
THROUGH THE FOLLOWING:
Ask the child questions and give
him/her enough time to answer.
Minimize the child's use of gadgets.
LEARNING DISABILITIES
LEARNING DISABILITIES
EDUC 103
A child may experience problems in
writing, reading, and spelling. One of the
most common disabilities that may affect
a child is dyslexia (a reading problem). It
is important to note that most children
with reading problems have other
language problems.
EDUC 103
THE FOLLOWING ARE THE SIGNS OF
LEARNING DISABILITIES:
The child has difficulty expressing
his/her ideas.
The child cannot easily learn new
words that he/she hears or reads.
The child has difficulty understanding
questions and instructions.
EDUC 103
THE FOLLOWING ARE THE SIGNS OF
LEARNING DISABILITIES:
The child cannot understand what
he/she reads.
The child has trouble distinguishing
left and right.
The child has difficulty learning letters
and numbers.
EDUC 103
THE FOLLOWING ARE THE SIGNS OF
LEARNING DISABILITIES:
The child cannot match the letters with
their sounds.
The child mixes up orders of letters in a
word.
The child has difficulty spelling simple
words.
The child is not doing well with math.
EDUC 103
SELECTIVE MUTISM
SELECTIVE MUTISM
EDUC 103
A child with selective mutism
selectively talks at selected times and
places. For instance, a child talks at
home but never talks at all when at
school or vice versa even how hard
someone tries to talk to him/her.
EDUC 103
THE FOLLOWING ARE SYMPTOMS AND
CAUSES OF SELECTIVE MUTISM:
EDUC 103
THE FOLLOWING ARE SYMPTOMS AND
CAUSES OF SELECTIVE MUTISM:
EDUC 103
THE FOLLOWING ARE SYMPTOMS AND
CAUSES OF SELECTIVE MUTISM:
EDUC 103
TEACHERS AND ADULTS MAY HELP A
CHILD WITH SELECTIVE MUTISM BY
USING THE GIVEN TECHNIQUES:
Stimulus Fading- The child is slowly
introduced to persons whom he/she
trusts to talk with.
Shaping- The child is rewarded every
time he/she communicates or talks to
friends, teachers, or relatives.
Self-Modeling- The child may watch
his/her own videos talking in a
comfortable situation.
EDUC 103
LAULE (2017) SUGGESTED SOME WAYS FOR
ADULTS TO SUPPORT CHILDREN'S SPEECH AND
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AS FOLLOWS:
Talk to the child at birth.
Respond to the child's coos and
babbling.
Play simple games with the child.
Have a habit of talking with the child
Read books to the child.
Sing songs to the child.
Use gestures along with words when
communicating with the child.
EDUC 103
LAULE (2017) SUGGESTED SOME WAYS FOR
ADULTS TO SUPPORT CHILDREN'S SPEECH AND
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AS FOLLOWS:
Never force the child to speak.
Expand or elaborate on what the child
tries to say.
Describe what; the child does, feels,
and hears.
Listen attentively to the child. Make,
sure that you get close to him/her when
he/she talks and always have eye
contact with him/her.
EDUC 103
LAULE (2017) SUGGESTED SOME WAYS FOR
ADULTS TO SUPPORT CHILDREN'S SPEECH AND
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AS FOLLOWS:
Encourage the child to tell a story and
share information.
Ask the child questions.
Model good ways of speaking.
EDUC 103
REFERENCE:
Boholano, D. B., Tizza Marie , D. M., Dr. Bernard Evangelicom
, J. V., & Cortes, D. M. (2024). Inclusive Education in Early
Childhood Settings. 10B Boston Street, Brgy. Kaunlaran,
Cubao Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines 1111: LORIMAR
PUBLISHING INC.
Activity #4
EDUC 103
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS MAP: FILL & FIND
QUESTIONS?
THANK
YOU FOR
LISTENING
SPENE 100

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(Part 1) CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES.pdf

  • 1. Michaelson Jasper P. Duyan, LPT FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION (EDUC 103) FOUNDATION OF SPECIAL AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION (EDUC 103) ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO ECOLAND DRIVE, MATINA, DAVAO CITY ECOLAND DRIVE, MATINA, DAVAO CITY
  • 2. BE PREPARED CELL PHONE POLICY HOUSE RULES : BE ON TIME Be on class at least 10 minutes before class. All your things must be prepared before joining the class. Kindly place your cell phone on silent mode or vibrate mode. ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO
  • 3. HOUSE RULES : DRESS APPROPRIATELY RAISE YOUR HAND LISTEN ATTENTIVELY Wear something comfortable but presentable. Raise your hand when you have questions and/or clarifications. Especially when the Teacher is discussing. ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO
  • 4. ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO
  • 5. CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES Lesson Outcomes: Define and distinguish the differences between speech and language impairments, autism spectrum disorder, visual impairments, hearing impairments, physical, intellectual, and learning disabilities, ADHD, and exceptional brightness. EDUC 103
  • 6. CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES Lesson Outcomes: Understand the impact of these conditions on individuals' communication, social interactions, learning, and daily functioning. Explore various strategies and accommodations to support individuals with these conditions in educational and social settings. Reflect on the importance of inclusive practices and empathy towards individuals with diverse needs. EDUC 103
  • 7. CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES Lesson Outcomes: Demonstrate awareness and sensitivity towards individuals with speech and language impairments, autism spectrum disorder, visual impairments, hearing impairments, physical, intellectual, and learning disabilities, ADHD, and exceptional brightness in their interactions and academic environments. EDUC 103
  • 8. CHILDREN'S DISABILITIES AND EXCEPTIONALITIES Part 1: SPEECH AND LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENTS AND DISORDERS LESSON OUTLINE EDUC 103 Part 2: AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER, VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS, AND HEARING IMPAIRMENTS Part 3: PHYSICAL, INTELLECTUAL, AND LEARNING DISABILITIES, ADHD, AND EXCEPTIONALLY BRIGHT
  • 9. P A R T 1 : SPEECH & LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENTS AND DISORDERS EDUC 103
  • 11. Speech and Language Impairments EDUC 103 Children's early years in school are an important and challenging stage of their development. Those who suffer from speech and language disorders face a more important and more challenging journey. Children with language impairments have difficulty processing language, communicating with others, and formulating responses appropriately (Harris et al., 2009).
  • 12. EDUC 103 Speech and language impairments are generally defined as disorders that greatly affect the child's ability to read, write, speak, and understand. From a broader perspective, children with speech and language impairments have difficulties with the following: SPELLING, READING COMPREHENSION; READING ACCURACY, PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS AND WRITING.
  • 13. EDUC 103 In school, children with language and speech impairments have common problems such as: COMMUNICATING WITH CLASSMATES AND TEACHERS; UNDERSTANDING WHAT THE CLASSMATES AND TEACHERS SAY; GIVING ORAL PRESENTATIONS AND RECITATIONS; AND. PARTICIPATING IN CLASS DISCUSSIONS.
  • 14. EDUC 103 Several studies as cited in Harris et al., (2009) revealed that speech and language impairments do not just affect the way children speak, read, comprehend, and write, but also have an impact on their numeracy skills. Another study found that language impairments affect 7%-14% of 4-5-year-old children (Justice et al., 2005). Speech and Language Impairments
  • 15. EDUC 103 Parents and teachers can notice and diagnose if such problems occur by assessing and evaluating children's reading achievement. Speech Impairments can be articulation, fluency, and voice disorders. Meanwhile, Language Impairments include phonological (sound), morphological (words), semantic (word meaning), syntactical (sentence), and pragmatic (the meaning of language in a social context) difficulties (Projectideal, 2013). Speech and Language Impairments
  • 16. The normal pattern of speech development adapted from Laule (2017) is illustrated in the Table below: E D U C 1 0 3 | S J P 2 C D Age Language Level 0-1 Month The baby cries. 2-3 Months The baby makes a cooing sound and smiles. 6 Months The baby babbles and learns new sounds. 8 Months The baby learns to respond to names.
  • 17. The normal pattern of speech development adapted from Laule (2017) is illustrated in the Table below: E D U C 1 0 3 | S J P 2 C D Age Language Level 10 Month The baby learns to shout to attract attention. He/she also learns to utter syllables repeatedly. 12 Months The baby can say 1-2 words. He/she also starts to recognize names, imitate familiar sounds, and points to objects. 12-17 Months The child starts to understand simple instructions.
  • 18. The normal pattern of speech development adapted from Laule (2017) is illustrated in the Table below: E D U C 1 0 3 | S J P 2 C D Age Language Level 18 Month The child uses 10-20 words. He/she also starts to combine two words. 2 Years The child can say 2-3 word sentences. He/she can identify colors, pictures, numbers, and other simple words. 2 ½ Years The child has already acquired approximately 450 vocabulary words.
  • 19. The normal pattern of speech development adapted from Laule (2017) is illustrated in the Table below: E D U C 1 0 3 | S J P 2 C D Age Language Level 3 Years The child already tells a story. He/she can also say 3- to-4-word sentences. The child has already a vocabulary of approximately 1,00 words. He/She can now identify names, songs, and stories 4 Years The child starts to say the 4-to-5-word sentence. He/she can also pronounce letters and basic sight words correctly.
  • 20. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) classified and explained the different children's speech and language impairments. The following are its classifications and explanations. SPEECH DISORDERS LANGUAGE DISORDERS Preschool Language Disorder Learning Disabilities Selective Mutism EDUC 103 Apraxia Dysarthria Orofacial Myofunctional Disorder (OMD) Speech Sound Disorder Stuttering
  • 22. APRAXIA APRAXIA EDUC 103 A child with this disorder has difficulty moving his/her lips and tongue, even if his/her facial muscles are not weak. Sometimes, a child might not speak at all. The problem with this disorder is that the child might have something in his brain that he could say, but cannot utter a word because the brain also prevents the muscles in the mouth from moving.
  • 23. EDUC 103 A CHILD WITH APRAXIA MANIFESTS THE FOLLOWING SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: The child inconsistently pronounces words. The child cannot put the correct stress on a syllable or a word. The child may change the sound of the word. The child can say only short words.
  • 24. EDUC 103 To help a child with Apraxia, practice the child's "Touch cues", like putting the fingers on their ear when saying the word ear. Another strategy is the use of "Visual cues" like looking at the mirror when pronouncing words or making sounds. Finally, "Listening cues" may also help like recording the sounds produced and letting the child listen if he/she pronounced the word correctly.
  • 28. DYSARTHRIA DYSARTHRIA EDUC 103 This disorder happens if the face, lips, tongue, throat, and other muscles for breathing are weak. This occurs when the muscles weaken due to brain damage.
  • 29. EDUC 103 A CHILD WITH DYSARTHRIA HAS THE FOLLOWING SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: The child has mumbled speech that is difficult to understand. The child speaks slowly or too fast. The child speaks softly. The child cannot move the jaw, tongue, or lips very well.
  • 30. EDUC 103 A CHILD WITH DYSARTHRIA HAS THE FOLLOWING SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: The child sounds like a robot or choppy. The child may sound hoarse or breathy.
  • 31. EDUC 103 THE FOLLOWING ARE SOME TIPS TO HELP A CHILD WITH DYSARTHRIA. Constantly talk to the child. Watch and pay attention while the child talks. Let the child know if you have difficulty understanding him/her/. Ask the child "yes" or "no" questions if you understand what he/she says.
  • 32. OROFACIAL MYOFUNCTIONAL OROFACIAL MYOFUNCTIONAL DISORDER (OMD) DISORDER (OMD) EDUC 103 This disorder affects the growth and development of the muscles in the mouth. A child with OMD has difficulty with swallowing, talking, and, breathing through the nose. A child who suffers from this disorder pushes his/her tongue when he/she eats, talks, or drinks.
  • 33. EDUC 103 A CHILD WHO SUFFERS FROM OMD MAY SHOW THE FOLLOWING SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS. The child has limited tongue movement. The child has difficulty saying some sounds like "s" in "soap", "sh" in "shore", or "j' in "just". The child has difficulty closing the lips to swallow.
  • 34. EDUC 103 This disorder affects the growth and development of the muscles in the mouth. A child with OMD has difficulty with swallowing, talking, and, breathing through the nose. A child who suffers from this disorder pushes his/her tongue when he/she eats, talks, or drinks.
  • 35. SPEECH SOUND DISORDER SPEECH SOUND DISORDER EDUC 103 This disorder can be detected if the child already reaches the age of 4 because a child may have difficulty learning x, z; V, or th. A child who cannot still utter or say sounds expected of his/her age may be suffering from Speech Sounds Disorder.
  • 36. EDUC 103 It is common for a child to substitute one sound with another, leave, add, or change a sound. For example, instead of saying "ako" in Filipino, the child might say "ato". Or instead of saying, "road", and child might say "woad".
  • 37. EDUC 103 Or instead of saying "mommy", a child might say "mimmy".According to experts, this is fine. However, there may be a problem if he/ she continuously does it.
  • 38. EDUC 103 Treating this disorder includes teaching the child to make sounds correctly, practicing sounds of different words, and practicing longer and more difficult sounds to make.
  • 40. STUTTERING STUTTERING EDUC 103 Any person cannot speak smoothly without "uh", "ohm", "; or "you know". Sometimes we may also repeat the words or sentences we say. Medical experts call these disfluencies. However, people who have more disfluencies stutter.
  • 41. EDUC 103 They may repeat, prolong, or block the words out. In other words, stuttering is a worse kind of disfluencies. A child's stuttering may have been inherited because some of his/ her family members stutter or may have brain problems that affect their speech.
  • 42. EDUC 103 When someone stutters, he may do the following: Part-word repetitions: "She w-w-will eat." One word répetition: "This is a bow-bow-bow." 'Prolonged sounds: "ANNNNAA is my friend." Blocks or stops: “I want to eat (long pause) fries."
  • 43. EDUC 103 A child who, stutters can be treated through direct and indirect. strategies. The direct strategy includes several exercises for a child to improve the way he/she speaks. Meanwhile, the indirect strategy is someone's adjustment to the child's pace. An adult slows down when he/she speaks to the child who stutters.
  • 45. PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER EDUC 103 A child between 3 to 5 years old may have difficulty following instructions and understanding questions. He/she may have difficulty learning new words and sentences or he/she may experience both. These are some examples of preschool language disorders.
  • 46. EDUC 103 THE FOLLOWING ARE SIGNS OF PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER: The child has difficulty understanding. receptive language which includes understanding gestures, following instructions, answering questions, pointing to objects and pictures, and knowing to take turns when others are talking.
  • 47. EDUC 103 THE FOLLOWING ARE SIGNS OF PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER: The child has difficulty with expressive language which includes asking questions, naming things, using gestures, learning songs and rhymes, and knowing how to make a conversation.
  • 48. EDUC 103 THE FOLLOWING ARE SIGNS OF PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER: The child may also experience some early problems in reading and writing which include naming letters, numbers, and learning the alphabet.
  • 49. EDUC 103 THE POSSIBLE CAUSES of a preschool language disorder may be: hereditary, early birth, low birth weight, hearing loss, autism, Down syndrome, stroke, brain injury, cerebral palsy, poor nutrition, and failure to thrive.
  • 50. EDUC 103 TEACHERS AND ADULTS MAY HELP A CHILD WITH PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER THROUGH THE FOLLOWING: Talk to the child as often as possible. Read books or stories to the child. Familiarize the child with signs, gestures, and other landmark places. Speak to the child using the Mother Tongue.
  • 51. EDUC 103 TEACHERS AND ADULTS MAY HELP A CHILD WITH PRESCHOOL LANGUAGE DISORDER THROUGH THE FOLLOWING: Ask the child questions and give him/her enough time to answer. Minimize the child's use of gadgets.
  • 52. LEARNING DISABILITIES LEARNING DISABILITIES EDUC 103 A child may experience problems in writing, reading, and spelling. One of the most common disabilities that may affect a child is dyslexia (a reading problem). It is important to note that most children with reading problems have other language problems.
  • 53. EDUC 103 THE FOLLOWING ARE THE SIGNS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES: The child has difficulty expressing his/her ideas. The child cannot easily learn new words that he/she hears or reads. The child has difficulty understanding questions and instructions.
  • 54. EDUC 103 THE FOLLOWING ARE THE SIGNS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES: The child cannot understand what he/she reads. The child has trouble distinguishing left and right. The child has difficulty learning letters and numbers.
  • 55. EDUC 103 THE FOLLOWING ARE THE SIGNS OF LEARNING DISABILITIES: The child cannot match the letters with their sounds. The child mixes up orders of letters in a word. The child has difficulty spelling simple words. The child is not doing well with math.
  • 57. SELECTIVE MUTISM SELECTIVE MUTISM EDUC 103 A child with selective mutism selectively talks at selected times and places. For instance, a child talks at home but never talks at all when at school or vice versa even how hard someone tries to talk to him/her.
  • 58. EDUC 103 THE FOLLOWING ARE SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES OF SELECTIVE MUTISM:
  • 59. EDUC 103 THE FOLLOWING ARE SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES OF SELECTIVE MUTISM:
  • 60. EDUC 103 THE FOLLOWING ARE SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES OF SELECTIVE MUTISM:
  • 61. EDUC 103 TEACHERS AND ADULTS MAY HELP A CHILD WITH SELECTIVE MUTISM BY USING THE GIVEN TECHNIQUES: Stimulus Fading- The child is slowly introduced to persons whom he/she trusts to talk with. Shaping- The child is rewarded every time he/she communicates or talks to friends, teachers, or relatives. Self-Modeling- The child may watch his/her own videos talking in a comfortable situation.
  • 62. EDUC 103 LAULE (2017) SUGGESTED SOME WAYS FOR ADULTS TO SUPPORT CHILDREN'S SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AS FOLLOWS: Talk to the child at birth. Respond to the child's coos and babbling. Play simple games with the child. Have a habit of talking with the child Read books to the child. Sing songs to the child. Use gestures along with words when communicating with the child.
  • 63. EDUC 103 LAULE (2017) SUGGESTED SOME WAYS FOR ADULTS TO SUPPORT CHILDREN'S SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AS FOLLOWS: Never force the child to speak. Expand or elaborate on what the child tries to say. Describe what; the child does, feels, and hears. Listen attentively to the child. Make, sure that you get close to him/her when he/she talks and always have eye contact with him/her.
  • 64. EDUC 103 LAULE (2017) SUGGESTED SOME WAYS FOR ADULTS TO SUPPORT CHILDREN'S SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AS FOLLOWS: Encourage the child to tell a story and share information. Ask the child questions. Model good ways of speaking.
  • 65. EDUC 103 REFERENCE: Boholano, D. B., Tizza Marie , D. M., Dr. Bernard Evangelicom , J. V., & Cortes, D. M. (2024). Inclusive Education in Early Childhood Settings. 10B Boston Street, Brgy. Kaunlaran, Cubao Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines 1111: LORIMAR PUBLISHING INC.
  • 66. Activity #4 EDUC 103 SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS MAP: FILL & FIND