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Para/Intertextuality with a focus on Video Games
The TextIt is commonly thought of within media theory that everything is a text…Text = A series of coherent sentencesText = A cultural object or media artefact that meaning can be extracted from.…because of this shift we can deconstruct and study any medium or object as a series of signs which meaning can be extracted from.
Intertextuality“An intertext is one or more texts which the reader must know in order to  understand a work of literature in terms of its overall significance (as opposed to the discrete meanings of its successive words, phrases and sentences)”Riffaterre, M. Compulsory Reader Response: The Intertextual Drive in Worton, M. And Still J. [ed], (1990). Intertextuality: Theories and Practices, Manchester University Press  The Simpsons., Dog of Death (2003).  United States Fox, 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment,  
IntertextsIntertexts are works which inform or help construct a text. They can be from any medium but the main text relies on them to help construct meaning.Intertextality was first coined by the post-structuralist Julia Kristeva  in the late 1960’sAn intertext connects the studied text to media as a whole and stops the text from being an island.
Intertextuality and Videogames
“Seeing games as ‘intertextual’ reminds us that no game or instance of gameplay is an island; like literary texts, every game extends outward from itself in many directions. The relationship of text to context and intertext has after all been at the center of modern literary theory for decades”Jones, S.E., 2008. The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Strategies 1st ed., Routledge.  Jones’ book works as a series of case studies, using specific instances or examples of  video games intertextuality. It traces video games permeation into culture and cultures symbiotic relationship with video games.
“[video games are] ...hybrid, extra-linguistic, open-ended, configurative and procedural systems”Jones, S.E., 2008. The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Strategies 1st ed., Routledge.  Jones’ draws on Gerard Genette’s theories of paratexts to examine video games and their place within the divergent systems of culture.The theory of paratext works with ideas of the “threshold of the text”. It looks at what constructs the text, and when working with literature would encompass the preface, epigraph, cover, advertising, distribution, intertexts... Paratextual studies expands what is included in the term text. The text grows is ever increasing spirals into society.
Peritext/EpitextPeritext – refers to all the text encompassed in the volume, for example the game itself, the disc art, the manual and its layout and the cover artEpitext – refers to all the related texts, interviews with the various members of the design team, the console, the publicity
Peritext/Epitext“Paratext = Peritext + Epitext”Paratexts create a area of “transition” or “transaction” in the texts reception. It is closley linked to areas of “social texts”Genette, G., 1997. Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation, Cambridge University Press. Paratextual Studies creates a THRESHOLD of the text. 
THE FOLLOWING LISTS ARE NOT COMPLETE OR EXHAUSTIVETHEY ARE MERELY FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSESTHEY ADDRESS AN EVER EXPANDING FIELD OF STUDY SO AIM TO SKETCH AN AREA OF STUDY OR PRACTICE NOT TO BE ALL ENCOMPASSINGTHESE SLIDES ARE HEAVILY SUBSIDISED WITH ILLUSTATIVE VIDEOS
Paratextual and Intertextual Studies
Core Games
Pokemon Evolution CapsuleNovelsGraphic Novels
Films and TV Program
Trading Cards and Characters
Trading Cards
Transmediality“...a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience. Ideally, each medium makes it own unique contribution to the unfolding of the story.”Confessions of an Aca/Fan: Archives: Transmedia Storytelling 101. Available at: http://www.henryjenkins.org/2007/03/transmedia_storytelling_101.html [Accessed October 19, 2009].
Transmediality‘are stories told across multiple media. At the present time, the most significant stories tend to flow across multiple media platforms’ (Jenkins et al., 2006).Transmedia refers to narratives which cross media, this creates a networked universe of media which can be viewed through many medium.cross media (Bechmann Petersen, 2006) hybrid media (Boumans, 2004)intertextual commodity (Marshall, 2004)transmedialinteractions (Bardzell et al., 2007)multimodality (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001) intermedia (Higgins, 1966).
Transmediaand
The Core Games (and mods)
Iconic Characters
The Promotion Models
The Movie
The ComicsPre-Teen RaiderThe Interactive DVDThe Animated Series
User and Commercial erotica and pornography
Fanfic (Fan Fiction)
Reading
SporeTo The Power of Ten
Transmediaand
The Core GamesThe Box Art and Packaging (including limited edition releases)
The AdditionalGames
The Game Soundtracks
The Creation of the ProsumerPoducer+Consumer = ProsumerWe have seen a dramatic shift in media to the creation of the prosumer who doesn’t just consume media but plays an active role in it’s production.
Flash Halo CTF16-bit HaloHalo 2 arcadeThe Unofficial Flash Games
The Unofficial Flash Gameshttp://www.invalidmob.com/Flash_Games/Halo.html
The Novels
The Graphic Novels and Comics
The Guide BooksThe Art of BooksMod Books
Paratextual and Intertextual Studies
The MovieAdverts and TV SpotsShort Films
Alternative Reality Games
LARP (Live Action Role play)Forum Based Roleplay/Fanfic
Table Top Role Playing Games
Red Vs. BlueThis Spartain LifeWarthog JumpMachinima
User produced  Pornography and Erotica (Porn Stars play strip Halo 3)
Paratextual and Intertextual Studies
Paratextual and Intertextual Studies
Paratextual and Intertextual Studies
Paratextual and Intertextual Studies

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Paratextual and Intertextual Studies

  • 1. Para/Intertextuality with a focus on Video Games
  • 2. The TextIt is commonly thought of within media theory that everything is a text…Text = A series of coherent sentencesText = A cultural object or media artefact that meaning can be extracted from.…because of this shift we can deconstruct and study any medium or object as a series of signs which meaning can be extracted from.
  • 3. Intertextuality“An intertext is one or more texts which the reader must know in order to understand a work of literature in terms of its overall significance (as opposed to the discrete meanings of its successive words, phrases and sentences)”Riffaterre, M. Compulsory Reader Response: The Intertextual Drive in Worton, M. And Still J. [ed], (1990). Intertextuality: Theories and Practices, Manchester University Press  The Simpsons., Dog of Death (2003). United States Fox, 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment,  
  • 4. IntertextsIntertexts are works which inform or help construct a text. They can be from any medium but the main text relies on them to help construct meaning.Intertextality was first coined by the post-structuralist Julia Kristeva in the late 1960’sAn intertext connects the studied text to media as a whole and stops the text from being an island.
  • 6. “Seeing games as ‘intertextual’ reminds us that no game or instance of gameplay is an island; like literary texts, every game extends outward from itself in many directions. The relationship of text to context and intertext has after all been at the center of modern literary theory for decades”Jones, S.E., 2008. The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Strategies 1st ed., Routledge.  Jones’ book works as a series of case studies, using specific instances or examples of video games intertextuality. It traces video games permeation into culture and cultures symbiotic relationship with video games.
  • 7. “[video games are] ...hybrid, extra-linguistic, open-ended, configurative and procedural systems”Jones, S.E., 2008. The Meaning of Video Games: Gaming and Textual Strategies 1st ed., Routledge.  Jones’ draws on Gerard Genette’s theories of paratexts to examine video games and their place within the divergent systems of culture.The theory of paratext works with ideas of the “threshold of the text”. It looks at what constructs the text, and when working with literature would encompass the preface, epigraph, cover, advertising, distribution, intertexts... Paratextual studies expands what is included in the term text. The text grows is ever increasing spirals into society.
  • 8. Peritext/EpitextPeritext – refers to all the text encompassed in the volume, for example the game itself, the disc art, the manual and its layout and the cover artEpitext – refers to all the related texts, interviews with the various members of the design team, the console, the publicity
  • 9. Peritext/Epitext“Paratext = Peritext + Epitext”Paratexts create a area of “transition” or “transaction” in the texts reception. It is closley linked to areas of “social texts”Genette, G., 1997. Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation, Cambridge University Press. Paratextual Studies creates a THRESHOLD of the text. 
  • 10. THE FOLLOWING LISTS ARE NOT COMPLETE OR EXHAUSTIVETHEY ARE MERELY FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSESTHEY ADDRESS AN EVER EXPANDING FIELD OF STUDY SO AIM TO SKETCH AN AREA OF STUDY OR PRACTICE NOT TO BE ALL ENCOMPASSINGTHESE SLIDES ARE HEAVILY SUBSIDISED WITH ILLUSTATIVE VIDEOS
  • 14. Films and TV Program
  • 15. Trading Cards and Characters
  • 17. Transmediality“...a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience. Ideally, each medium makes it own unique contribution to the unfolding of the story.”Confessions of an Aca/Fan: Archives: Transmedia Storytelling 101. Available at: http://www.henryjenkins.org/2007/03/transmedia_storytelling_101.html [Accessed October 19, 2009].
  • 18. Transmediality‘are stories told across multiple media. At the present time, the most significant stories tend to flow across multiple media platforms’ (Jenkins et al., 2006).Transmedia refers to narratives which cross media, this creates a networked universe of media which can be viewed through many medium.cross media (Bechmann Petersen, 2006) hybrid media (Boumans, 2004)intertextual commodity (Marshall, 2004)transmedialinteractions (Bardzell et al., 2007)multimodality (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001) intermedia (Higgins, 1966).
  • 20. The Core Games (and mods)
  • 24. The ComicsPre-Teen RaiderThe Interactive DVDThe Animated Series
  • 25. User and Commercial erotica and pornography
  • 30. The Core GamesThe Box Art and Packaging (including limited edition releases)
  • 33. The Creation of the ProsumerPoducer+Consumer = ProsumerWe have seen a dramatic shift in media to the creation of the prosumer who doesn’t just consume media but plays an active role in it’s production.
  • 34. Flash Halo CTF16-bit HaloHalo 2 arcadeThe Unofficial Flash Games
  • 35. The Unofficial Flash Gameshttp://www.invalidmob.com/Flash_Games/Halo.html
  • 37. The Graphic Novels and Comics
  • 38. The Guide BooksThe Art of BooksMod Books
  • 40. The MovieAdverts and TV SpotsShort Films
  • 42. LARP (Live Action Role play)Forum Based Roleplay/Fanfic
  • 43. Table Top Role Playing Games
  • 44. Red Vs. BlueThis Spartain LifeWarthog JumpMachinima
  • 45. User produced Pornography and Erotica (Porn Stars play strip Halo 3)