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PARAPHRASING GUIDELINES
• Use your own words and sentence structure.
• When paraphrasing, avoid using any words from the
original, except technical terms.
• You may not use “quoted material” for this
assignment as it is uncommon in scientific writing.
• For this assignment, use appropriate language for a
report.
WORKING ON PARAPHRASING
Read the next slides and try to identify what’s wrong or right about the
paraphrase attempt. Each attempt is marked on following slides to show
you hits and/or misses.
PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT #1
Original Text
"Chromosomal abnormalities describe
changes in the normal number of
chromosomes or structural problems
within the chromosomes themselves.
These abnormalities occur when an
egg or sperm with an incorrect
number of chromosomes, or a
structurally faulty chromosome, unites
with a normal egg or sperm during
conception. Some chromosome
abnormalities occur shortly after
conception. In this case, the zygote,
the cell formed during conception that
eventually develops into an embryo,
divides incorrectly."
Fundukian LJ. 2010. Chromosomal abnormalities. In: The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders.
Detroit: Gale; [accessed 2014 Oct 10]. Vol. 1, p. 310-316. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference
Library; http://go.galegroup.com.
Paraphrase Attempt
Chromosomal abnormalities are
changes in the number of
chromosomes within the chromosome
themselves. Abnormalities happen
when an egg or sperm with the wrong
number of chromosomes merge with a
normal egg or sperm. Sometimes
chromosomal abnormalities happen
right after conception, when the cells
divide incorrectly (Fundukian 2010).
PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT #1
Original Text
"Chromosomal abnormalities describe
changes in the normal number of
chromosomes or structural problems
within the chromosomes themselves.
These abnormalities occur when an
egg or sperm with an incorrect
number of chromosomes, or a
structurally faulty chromosome, unites
with a normal egg or sperm during
conception. Some chromosome
abnormalities occur shortly after
conception. In this case, the zygote,
the cell formed during conception that
eventually develops into an embryo,
divides incorrectly."
Fundukian LJ. 2010. Chromosomal abnormalities. In: The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders.
Detroit:: Gale; [accessed 2014 Oct 10]. Vol. 1, p. 310-316. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference
Library; http://go.galegroup.com.
Paraphrase Attempt
Chromosomal abnormalities are
changes in the number of
chromosomes within the
chromosome themselves.
Abnormalities happen when an egg or
sperm with the wrong number of
chromosomes merge with a normal
egg or sperm. Sometimes
chromosomal abnormalities happen
right after conception, when the cells
divide incorrectly (Fundukian 2010).
PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT #1
Original Text
"Chromosomal abnormalities describe
changes in the normal number of
chromosomes or structural problems
within the chromosomes themselves.
These abnormalities occur when an
egg or sperm with an incorrect
number of chromosomes, or a
structurally faulty chromosome,
unites with a normal egg or sperm
during conception. Some chromosome
abnormalities occur shortly after
conception. In this case, the zygote,
the cell formed during conception that
eventually develops into an embryo,
divides incorrectly."
Fundukian LJ. 2010. Chromosomal abnormalities. In: The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders.
Detroit:: Gale; [accessed 2014 Oct 10]. Vol. 1, p. 310-316. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference
Library; http://go.galegroup.com.
Paraphrase Attempt
Chromosomal abnormalities are
changes in the number of
chromosomes within the chromosome
themselves. Abnormalities happen
when an egg or sperm with the wrong
number of chromosomes merge with
a normal egg or sperm. Sometimes
chromosomal abnormalities happen
right after conception, when the cells
divide incorrectly (Fundukian 2010).
PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT #2
Original Text
"Chromosomal abnormalities describe
changes in the normal number of
chromosomes or structural problems
within the chromosomes themselves.
These abnormalities occur when an
egg or sperm with an incorrect
number of chromosomes, or a
structurally faulty chromosome, unites
with a normal egg or sperm during
conception. Some chromosome
abnormalities occur shortly after
conception. In this case, the zygote,
the cell formed during conception that
eventually develops into an embryo,
divides incorrectly."
Fundukian LJ. 2010. Chromosomal abnormalities. In: The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders.
Detroit:: Gale; [accessed 2014 Oct 10]. Vol. 1, p. 310-316. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference
Library; http://go.galegroup.com.
Paraphrase Attempt
Changes in the number of
chromosomes within the chromosome
themselves are referred to as
chromosomal abnormalities. When an
egg or sperm with the wrong number
of chromosomes merge with a normal
egg or sperm these abnormalities can
happen. Sometimes chromosomal
abnormalities happen right after
conception when the cells divide
incorrectly.
PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT #2
Original Text
"Chromosomal abnormalities describe
changes in the normal number of
chromosomes or structural problems
within the chromosomes themselves.
These abnormalities occur when an
egg or sperm with an incorrect
number of chromosomes, or a
structurally faulty chromosome, unites
with a normal egg or sperm during
conception. Some chromosome
abnormalities occur shortly after
conception. In this case, the zygote,
the cell formed during conception that
eventually develops into an embryo,
divides incorrectly."
Fundukian LJ. 2010. Chromosomal abnormalities. In: The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders.
Detroit:: Gale; [accessed 2014 Oct 10]. Vol. 1, p. 310-316. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference
Library; http://go.galegroup.com.
Paraphrase Attempt
Changes in the number of
chromosomes within the chromosome
themselves are referred to as
chromosomal abnormalities. When an
egg or sperm with the wrong number
of chromosomes merge with a normal
egg or sperm these abnormalities can
happen. Sometimes chromosomal
abnormalities happen right after
conception when the cells divide
incorrectly (need in text citation!).
PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT #3
Original Text
"Chromosomal abnormalities describe
changes in the normal number of
chromosomes or structural problems
within the chromosomes themselves.
These abnormalities occur when an
egg or sperm with an incorrect
number of chromosomes, or a
structurally faulty chromosome, unites
with a normal egg or sperm during
conception. Some chromosome
abnormalities occur shortly after
conception. In this case, the zygote,
the cell formed during conception that
eventually develops into an embryo,
divides incorrectly."
Fundukian LJ. 2010. Chromosomal abnormalities. In: The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders.
Detroit:: Gale; [accessed 2014 Oct 10]. Vol. 1, p. 310-316. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference
Library; http://go.galegroup.com.
Paraphrase Attempt
Chromosomal abnormalities are
problems that exist within either the
structure or number of chromosomes.
Egg or sperm cells that have structural
problems or that have united and then
divide incorrectly are often the cause
of the abnormalities (Fundukian 2010).
Looks good!!!
TIPS TO HELP WITH PARAPHRASING
• Pretend you’re calling a friend who missed class to
explain what you just read; how would you tell her
about it?
• After reading, write bullet points of main ideas then
begin writing your sentences (without looking again
at original reading!)

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Paraphrasing tips & Attempts

  • 1. PARAPHRASING GUIDELINES • Use your own words and sentence structure. • When paraphrasing, avoid using any words from the original, except technical terms. • You may not use “quoted material” for this assignment as it is uncommon in scientific writing. • For this assignment, use appropriate language for a report.
  • 2. WORKING ON PARAPHRASING Read the next slides and try to identify what’s wrong or right about the paraphrase attempt. Each attempt is marked on following slides to show you hits and/or misses.
  • 3. PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT #1 Original Text "Chromosomal abnormalities describe changes in the normal number of chromosomes or structural problems within the chromosomes themselves. These abnormalities occur when an egg or sperm with an incorrect number of chromosomes, or a structurally faulty chromosome, unites with a normal egg or sperm during conception. Some chromosome abnormalities occur shortly after conception. In this case, the zygote, the cell formed during conception that eventually develops into an embryo, divides incorrectly." Fundukian LJ. 2010. Chromosomal abnormalities. In: The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders. Detroit: Gale; [accessed 2014 Oct 10]. Vol. 1, p. 310-316. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference Library; http://go.galegroup.com. Paraphrase Attempt Chromosomal abnormalities are changes in the number of chromosomes within the chromosome themselves. Abnormalities happen when an egg or sperm with the wrong number of chromosomes merge with a normal egg or sperm. Sometimes chromosomal abnormalities happen right after conception, when the cells divide incorrectly (Fundukian 2010).
  • 4. PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT #1 Original Text "Chromosomal abnormalities describe changes in the normal number of chromosomes or structural problems within the chromosomes themselves. These abnormalities occur when an egg or sperm with an incorrect number of chromosomes, or a structurally faulty chromosome, unites with a normal egg or sperm during conception. Some chromosome abnormalities occur shortly after conception. In this case, the zygote, the cell formed during conception that eventually develops into an embryo, divides incorrectly." Fundukian LJ. 2010. Chromosomal abnormalities. In: The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders. Detroit:: Gale; [accessed 2014 Oct 10]. Vol. 1, p. 310-316. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference Library; http://go.galegroup.com. Paraphrase Attempt Chromosomal abnormalities are changes in the number of chromosomes within the chromosome themselves. Abnormalities happen when an egg or sperm with the wrong number of chromosomes merge with a normal egg or sperm. Sometimes chromosomal abnormalities happen right after conception, when the cells divide incorrectly (Fundukian 2010).
  • 5. PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT #1 Original Text "Chromosomal abnormalities describe changes in the normal number of chromosomes or structural problems within the chromosomes themselves. These abnormalities occur when an egg or sperm with an incorrect number of chromosomes, or a structurally faulty chromosome, unites with a normal egg or sperm during conception. Some chromosome abnormalities occur shortly after conception. In this case, the zygote, the cell formed during conception that eventually develops into an embryo, divides incorrectly." Fundukian LJ. 2010. Chromosomal abnormalities. In: The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders. Detroit:: Gale; [accessed 2014 Oct 10]. Vol. 1, p. 310-316. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference Library; http://go.galegroup.com. Paraphrase Attempt Chromosomal abnormalities are changes in the number of chromosomes within the chromosome themselves. Abnormalities happen when an egg or sperm with the wrong number of chromosomes merge with a normal egg or sperm. Sometimes chromosomal abnormalities happen right after conception, when the cells divide incorrectly (Fundukian 2010).
  • 6. PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT #2 Original Text "Chromosomal abnormalities describe changes in the normal number of chromosomes or structural problems within the chromosomes themselves. These abnormalities occur when an egg or sperm with an incorrect number of chromosomes, or a structurally faulty chromosome, unites with a normal egg or sperm during conception. Some chromosome abnormalities occur shortly after conception. In this case, the zygote, the cell formed during conception that eventually develops into an embryo, divides incorrectly." Fundukian LJ. 2010. Chromosomal abnormalities. In: The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders. Detroit:: Gale; [accessed 2014 Oct 10]. Vol. 1, p. 310-316. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference Library; http://go.galegroup.com. Paraphrase Attempt Changes in the number of chromosomes within the chromosome themselves are referred to as chromosomal abnormalities. When an egg or sperm with the wrong number of chromosomes merge with a normal egg or sperm these abnormalities can happen. Sometimes chromosomal abnormalities happen right after conception when the cells divide incorrectly.
  • 7. PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT #2 Original Text "Chromosomal abnormalities describe changes in the normal number of chromosomes or structural problems within the chromosomes themselves. These abnormalities occur when an egg or sperm with an incorrect number of chromosomes, or a structurally faulty chromosome, unites with a normal egg or sperm during conception. Some chromosome abnormalities occur shortly after conception. In this case, the zygote, the cell formed during conception that eventually develops into an embryo, divides incorrectly." Fundukian LJ. 2010. Chromosomal abnormalities. In: The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders. Detroit:: Gale; [accessed 2014 Oct 10]. Vol. 1, p. 310-316. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference Library; http://go.galegroup.com. Paraphrase Attempt Changes in the number of chromosomes within the chromosome themselves are referred to as chromosomal abnormalities. When an egg or sperm with the wrong number of chromosomes merge with a normal egg or sperm these abnormalities can happen. Sometimes chromosomal abnormalities happen right after conception when the cells divide incorrectly (need in text citation!).
  • 8. PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT #3 Original Text "Chromosomal abnormalities describe changes in the normal number of chromosomes or structural problems within the chromosomes themselves. These abnormalities occur when an egg or sperm with an incorrect number of chromosomes, or a structurally faulty chromosome, unites with a normal egg or sperm during conception. Some chromosome abnormalities occur shortly after conception. In this case, the zygote, the cell formed during conception that eventually develops into an embryo, divides incorrectly." Fundukian LJ. 2010. Chromosomal abnormalities. In: The Gale encyclopedia of genetic disorders. Detroit:: Gale; [accessed 2014 Oct 10]. Vol. 1, p. 310-316. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference Library; http://go.galegroup.com. Paraphrase Attempt Chromosomal abnormalities are problems that exist within either the structure or number of chromosomes. Egg or sperm cells that have structural problems or that have united and then divide incorrectly are often the cause of the abnormalities (Fundukian 2010). Looks good!!!
  • 9. TIPS TO HELP WITH PARAPHRASING • Pretend you’re calling a friend who missed class to explain what you just read; how would you tell her about it? • After reading, write bullet points of main ideas then begin writing your sentences (without looking again at original reading!)