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DIVYA CHOUDHARY
S.B GARDI DEPARTMENT
OF ENGLISH
MAHARAJA
KRISHNAKUMAR SINHJI
BHAVNAGAR
UNIVERSITY
Literature And Multiculturalism
Introduction
 India’s culture is among the worlds oldest; civilization in
India began about 4,500 years ago.
 The culture of South Africa is known for its ethnic and
cultural diversity. The South African majority still has a
substantial number of rural inhabitants who lead largely
impoverished lives
Objective
 The objective of this research was to ascertain the difference
between the cultures of Africa and India.
 Another objective was to know their perspective towards the
culture of each other.
 How Indians look towards the culture of Africans and how
Africans look towards the culture of Indians.
 How they find difficulty to accept each other’s culture.
What problems they face while they are interacting with
each other.
African Culture
 The vast continent of Africa is so rich and diverse in
its culture with it not only changing from one
country to another but within an individual country
many different cultures can be found.
 The governments of most African nations cultivate
national dance and music groups, museums, and to a
lesser degree, artists and writers.
 Art, music, and oral literature serve to reinforce
existing religious and social patterns.
Images of African Culture
Wole Soyinka
 Wole Soyinka is a Nigerian playwright, poet, author,
teacher and political activist who received the Nobel
Prize for Literature in 1986.
“A tiger doesn't proclaim his tigritude, he
pounces.”—Wole Soyinka
 Wole Soyinka was born on July 13, 1934, in Nigeria
and educated in England.
 He was the first African to receive the Nobel Prize for
Literature.
Picture of Wole Soyinka and the cover page of his
work “Telephonic Conversation”
His work (Telephonic Conversation)
 In this poem, the poet describes a telephone conversation
between a black man and a white woman.
 The black man is searching for an apartment to live in
and is inquiring the lady for any availability.
 At the beginning of the poem, the man “confesses” that
he is an African. He confesses the color of his skin as if he
had done a crime.
 He feels that he must let her know that he is black:
Nothing remained
But self-confession. "Madam," I warned,
"I hate a wasted journey—I am African."
Ngugi wa Thiongo
 Ngugi wa Thiong’o is a writer of Kenyan descent.
 Ngugi wa Thiong’o was born James Thiong’o Ngugi
in Limuru, Kenya in 1938.
 He studied at Makerere University in Uganda; as a
student there, he published his first short stories.
 As an adult, he dropped his Western first name and
adopted his current name to emphasize his cultural
pride. This is why some editions of his early books –
including Weep Not Child and The River Between –
are published under the name "James Ngugi."
Picture of Ngugi Wa Thiongo and the cover page of
his work “Decolonizing the Mind”
His work (Decolonizing the Mind)
 Ngugi begins his essay by telling the reader about his
life growing up in Kenya.
 He states they all spoke “Gikuyu”, and all told many
stories about animals or humans.
 Ngugi describes language as the carrier of culture.
Written, spoken, and “real life” or body-language is
all used in harmony to define different cultures.
 . Language conveys a culture’s standards and values,
something that can’t be picked up by someone who
doesn’t understand the language.
Indian Culture
 “I am proud of this noble heritage which was and still is
ours, and I am aware that I too, like all of us, am a link in
that uninterrupted chain which finds its origin in the dawn
of history, in India’s immemorial past.”
- Jawaharlal Nehru
 Respect and worship for elders is a key stone of
Indian culture.
 In respect, we touch the feet of all elders, holy men
and women in recognition of their great humility and
attainment.
Indian Literature
 Indian literature is generally believed to be the oldest
in the world. With vast cultural diversities, there are
around two dozen officially recognized languages in
India. Over thousands of years, huge literature has
been produced in various languages in India. It is to
be noted that a large part of Indian literature
revolves around devotion, drama, poetry and songs.
Sanskrit language dominated the early Indian
literary scene.
To be Continued…
It is interesting to note that the Hindu literary
traditions have dominated a large part of Indian
culture. These traditions are well reflected in great
works like Vedas and epics such as Ramayana and
Mahabharata. Treatises like Vaastu Shastra
(architecture), Arthashastra (political
science) and Kamsutra are true reflection of
the Indian literary excellence.
Images of Indian Literature
Raja Rao
 He was born on November 8, 1908 in Hassan, in
the princely state of Mysore (now in Karnataka in South
India), into a Smartha Brahmin family of the Hoysala
Karnataka caste.
 His father, H.V. Krishnaswamy, taught Kannada at
Nizam College in Hyderabad.
 His mother, Gauramma, was a homemaker who died
when Raja Rao was 4 years old.
 His native language was Kannada, but his post-graduate
education was in France, and most of his writings, apart
from newspaper articles written in Kannada, have been
in English.
Picture of Raja Rao and the cover page of his work
“Kanthapura”
His work (Kanthapura)
 “Kanthapura tells the story of villagers fighting
British colonialism in India. In the first couple of
pages of the book, the narrator introduces us to the
villagers and Kenchamma, their totally awesome
goddess”.
 One Hari-Katha man, Jayaramachar, narrated a Hari
Katha based on Gandhi and his ideals. The narrator
was arrested because of the political propaganda
instilled in the story.
 This novel is based on Gandhian Literature.
Gandhian Literature in Kanthapura
 Raja Rao does not introduce Gandhi directly as a
character in the novel.
 Gandhism in Kanthapura addresses an exclusively
Hindu community and is dysfunctional in, let alone
an irreligious environment, a multireligious culture
which India has been.
 The central myth of Kanthapura is analyzed through
the mythical analogy of lord Rama and Mahatma
Gandhi.
 Since everybody in India is familiar with the story
of Ramayana.
To be Continued…
 “Moorthy is not man of modern novel. He is a ‘very
Prince’, ‘our Rama’ and ‘small mountain’…..
 He follows the principle of Gandhiji.
 He burnt foreign clothes and started using Khadi.
 Moorthy as The Gandhi of Kanthapura.
To be Continued…
 Charkhas as a Symbol of Gandhian idea.
 Moorthy sticks to above Gandhian Ideas and reforms the
position of village including Social, Religious, Political
background.
 Shankar is reflection of Gandhi ji.
 Ratna was also follower of Gandhian ideas. She becomes the
leader of the freedom fighters in the Kanthapura in absence of
Moorthy.
 The novel has a Gandhian ideology and freedom struggle.
Kanthapura
Moorthy
Follower Reformer
Gandhi ji
Ideas
Gandhi
Satyagra
ha
Peace
Non-
Violence
Truth
How Literature Connects with Multiculturalism
 “Racism can be defined as: a way of thinking that
considers a group’s unchangeable physical
characteristics to be linked in a direct, casual way to
psychological or intellectual characteristics, and
which on this basis distinguishes between ‘superior’
and ‘inferior’ racial groups.”
 The reduction of human beings to the simple
opposition of Rich/Poor or
Black/Brown/Yellow/White is in fact a strategy to
establish “binarism” between ‘Superior’ Vs.
‘Inferior’, which asserts a relation of dominance.
To be Continued…
 We got independence from Britisher’s around 60 years
ago but still we can say that we are in cage of racism,
casticism and untouchables etc.
 we got independence but still we are not independent
from these social issues.
 Gandhi ji was the one who was also Indian; he fought
with Britisher’s for Africa but still they dislike Indians.
 We act like we are modern people and we accepted
western civilization. But when we will talk about Africa
and Africans there is only one thing which came in our
mind is that they are bad, they are uncivilized.
To be Continued…
 In Africa also people believe in racism, they are also
racist for proving this right I would like to give an
example of “Telephonic Conversation” which
was written by “Wole Soyinka” shows that they
also believe in racism.
 In the reference of “Decolonizing the mind”
Slavery existed in Africa, but it was not the same type
of slavery that the Europeans introduced.
 Slavery within Africa was different. A slave might be
enslaved in order to pay off a liability or pay for a
crime.
To be Continued…
 The caste system in India is a system of social
stratification which has pre-modern origins, was
transformed by the British Raj, and is today the basis
of educational and job reservations in India.
 It consists of two different concepts, Varna and jati,
which may be regarded as different levels of analysis
of this system.
 Recent examples of caste system is, Jatt reservation
Moment in Haryana, Patel reservation moment in
Gujarat.
To be Continued…
 Caste System in Africa Countries in Africa that
have societies with caste systems within their
borders include Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Ivory
Coast, Niger, Cameroon, Liberia, Sierra
Leone, Algeria, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Somalia and
others.
Perception of each other’s racial attitudes
 Respondents in the survey were asked what they
thought most Indians think about Africans and what
they thought most Africans think about Indians.
More than four-fifths of the African and Indian
respondents thought that most Indians had negative
attitudes towards Africans.
Another examples of Racial Attitudes
Conclusion
 We are not ready to accept co-existence in the
society. In India we go only with the references of
caste, race and colors but who thinks about
humanity and culture. If we support our culture then
why we want reservation not changes in our society
and what about minority who will think about them?
We all can only talk about all these issues but cannot
do anything practically about this, and this is the
only problem. And whenever we got chance to
highlight these issues then we took only benefits of
those policies, and didn’t saw from that point of view
that these are the very big issues of our society.
Literature and multiculturalism

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Literature and multiculturalism

  • 1. DIVYA CHOUDHARY S.B GARDI DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH MAHARAJA KRISHNAKUMAR SINHJI BHAVNAGAR UNIVERSITY Literature And Multiculturalism
  • 2. Introduction  India’s culture is among the worlds oldest; civilization in India began about 4,500 years ago.  The culture of South Africa is known for its ethnic and cultural diversity. The South African majority still has a substantial number of rural inhabitants who lead largely impoverished lives
  • 3. Objective  The objective of this research was to ascertain the difference between the cultures of Africa and India.  Another objective was to know their perspective towards the culture of each other.  How Indians look towards the culture of Africans and how Africans look towards the culture of Indians.  How they find difficulty to accept each other’s culture. What problems they face while they are interacting with each other.
  • 4. African Culture  The vast continent of Africa is so rich and diverse in its culture with it not only changing from one country to another but within an individual country many different cultures can be found.  The governments of most African nations cultivate national dance and music groups, museums, and to a lesser degree, artists and writers.  Art, music, and oral literature serve to reinforce existing religious and social patterns.
  • 6. Wole Soyinka  Wole Soyinka is a Nigerian playwright, poet, author, teacher and political activist who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1986. “A tiger doesn't proclaim his tigritude, he pounces.”—Wole Soyinka  Wole Soyinka was born on July 13, 1934, in Nigeria and educated in England.  He was the first African to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature.
  • 7. Picture of Wole Soyinka and the cover page of his work “Telephonic Conversation”
  • 8. His work (Telephonic Conversation)  In this poem, the poet describes a telephone conversation between a black man and a white woman.  The black man is searching for an apartment to live in and is inquiring the lady for any availability.  At the beginning of the poem, the man “confesses” that he is an African. He confesses the color of his skin as if he had done a crime.  He feels that he must let her know that he is black: Nothing remained But self-confession. "Madam," I warned, "I hate a wasted journey—I am African."
  • 9. Ngugi wa Thiongo  Ngugi wa Thiong’o is a writer of Kenyan descent.  Ngugi wa Thiong’o was born James Thiong’o Ngugi in Limuru, Kenya in 1938.  He studied at Makerere University in Uganda; as a student there, he published his first short stories.  As an adult, he dropped his Western first name and adopted his current name to emphasize his cultural pride. This is why some editions of his early books – including Weep Not Child and The River Between – are published under the name "James Ngugi."
  • 10. Picture of Ngugi Wa Thiongo and the cover page of his work “Decolonizing the Mind”
  • 11. His work (Decolonizing the Mind)  Ngugi begins his essay by telling the reader about his life growing up in Kenya.  He states they all spoke “Gikuyu”, and all told many stories about animals or humans.  Ngugi describes language as the carrier of culture. Written, spoken, and “real life” or body-language is all used in harmony to define different cultures.  . Language conveys a culture’s standards and values, something that can’t be picked up by someone who doesn’t understand the language.
  • 12. Indian Culture  “I am proud of this noble heritage which was and still is ours, and I am aware that I too, like all of us, am a link in that uninterrupted chain which finds its origin in the dawn of history, in India’s immemorial past.” - Jawaharlal Nehru  Respect and worship for elders is a key stone of Indian culture.  In respect, we touch the feet of all elders, holy men and women in recognition of their great humility and attainment.
  • 13. Indian Literature  Indian literature is generally believed to be the oldest in the world. With vast cultural diversities, there are around two dozen officially recognized languages in India. Over thousands of years, huge literature has been produced in various languages in India. It is to be noted that a large part of Indian literature revolves around devotion, drama, poetry and songs. Sanskrit language dominated the early Indian literary scene.
  • 14. To be Continued… It is interesting to note that the Hindu literary traditions have dominated a large part of Indian culture. These traditions are well reflected in great works like Vedas and epics such as Ramayana and Mahabharata. Treatises like Vaastu Shastra (architecture), Arthashastra (political science) and Kamsutra are true reflection of the Indian literary excellence.
  • 15. Images of Indian Literature
  • 16. Raja Rao  He was born on November 8, 1908 in Hassan, in the princely state of Mysore (now in Karnataka in South India), into a Smartha Brahmin family of the Hoysala Karnataka caste.  His father, H.V. Krishnaswamy, taught Kannada at Nizam College in Hyderabad.  His mother, Gauramma, was a homemaker who died when Raja Rao was 4 years old.  His native language was Kannada, but his post-graduate education was in France, and most of his writings, apart from newspaper articles written in Kannada, have been in English.
  • 17. Picture of Raja Rao and the cover page of his work “Kanthapura”
  • 18. His work (Kanthapura)  “Kanthapura tells the story of villagers fighting British colonialism in India. In the first couple of pages of the book, the narrator introduces us to the villagers and Kenchamma, their totally awesome goddess”.  One Hari-Katha man, Jayaramachar, narrated a Hari Katha based on Gandhi and his ideals. The narrator was arrested because of the political propaganda instilled in the story.  This novel is based on Gandhian Literature.
  • 19. Gandhian Literature in Kanthapura  Raja Rao does not introduce Gandhi directly as a character in the novel.  Gandhism in Kanthapura addresses an exclusively Hindu community and is dysfunctional in, let alone an irreligious environment, a multireligious culture which India has been.  The central myth of Kanthapura is analyzed through the mythical analogy of lord Rama and Mahatma Gandhi.  Since everybody in India is familiar with the story of Ramayana.
  • 20. To be Continued…  “Moorthy is not man of modern novel. He is a ‘very Prince’, ‘our Rama’ and ‘small mountain’…..  He follows the principle of Gandhiji.  He burnt foreign clothes and started using Khadi.  Moorthy as The Gandhi of Kanthapura.
  • 21. To be Continued…  Charkhas as a Symbol of Gandhian idea.  Moorthy sticks to above Gandhian Ideas and reforms the position of village including Social, Religious, Political background.  Shankar is reflection of Gandhi ji.  Ratna was also follower of Gandhian ideas. She becomes the leader of the freedom fighters in the Kanthapura in absence of Moorthy.  The novel has a Gandhian ideology and freedom struggle.
  • 24. How Literature Connects with Multiculturalism  “Racism can be defined as: a way of thinking that considers a group’s unchangeable physical characteristics to be linked in a direct, casual way to psychological or intellectual characteristics, and which on this basis distinguishes between ‘superior’ and ‘inferior’ racial groups.”  The reduction of human beings to the simple opposition of Rich/Poor or Black/Brown/Yellow/White is in fact a strategy to establish “binarism” between ‘Superior’ Vs. ‘Inferior’, which asserts a relation of dominance.
  • 25. To be Continued…  We got independence from Britisher’s around 60 years ago but still we can say that we are in cage of racism, casticism and untouchables etc.  we got independence but still we are not independent from these social issues.  Gandhi ji was the one who was also Indian; he fought with Britisher’s for Africa but still they dislike Indians.  We act like we are modern people and we accepted western civilization. But when we will talk about Africa and Africans there is only one thing which came in our mind is that they are bad, they are uncivilized.
  • 26. To be Continued…  In Africa also people believe in racism, they are also racist for proving this right I would like to give an example of “Telephonic Conversation” which was written by “Wole Soyinka” shows that they also believe in racism.  In the reference of “Decolonizing the mind” Slavery existed in Africa, but it was not the same type of slavery that the Europeans introduced.  Slavery within Africa was different. A slave might be enslaved in order to pay off a liability or pay for a crime.
  • 27. To be Continued…  The caste system in India is a system of social stratification which has pre-modern origins, was transformed by the British Raj, and is today the basis of educational and job reservations in India.  It consists of two different concepts, Varna and jati, which may be regarded as different levels of analysis of this system.  Recent examples of caste system is, Jatt reservation Moment in Haryana, Patel reservation moment in Gujarat.
  • 28. To be Continued…  Caste System in Africa Countries in Africa that have societies with caste systems within their borders include Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Niger, Cameroon, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Algeria, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Somalia and others.
  • 29. Perception of each other’s racial attitudes  Respondents in the survey were asked what they thought most Indians think about Africans and what they thought most Africans think about Indians. More than four-fifths of the African and Indian respondents thought that most Indians had negative attitudes towards Africans.
  • 30. Another examples of Racial Attitudes
  • 31. Conclusion  We are not ready to accept co-existence in the society. In India we go only with the references of caste, race and colors but who thinks about humanity and culture. If we support our culture then why we want reservation not changes in our society and what about minority who will think about them? We all can only talk about all these issues but cannot do anything practically about this, and this is the only problem. And whenever we got chance to highlight these issues then we took only benefits of those policies, and didn’t saw from that point of view that these are the very big issues of our society.