SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 18
PAIN
Presented By:
Mr. NANDISH.S
Associate Professor
Mandya Institute of Nursing Sciences
DEFINITION :
• It is an unpleasant experience (both sensory & emotional) associated
with actual or potential tissue damage.
• American Academy of pain : an unpleasant sensation and emotional
response to that sensation.
Nature of Pain :
- It is subjective & highly individual.
- Only the patient knows whether the pain is present and how the
experience feels.
- Its stimulus is physical and mental in nature.
Factors influencing Pain :
Developmental Factors:
- Age
Physiological Factors :
- Fatigue
- Genetics
- Neurologic Function
Social Factors :
- Attention
- Previous Experience
- Family & Social Support
Spiritual Factors
Psychological Factors
- Anxiety
- Coping style
Cultural Factors
TYPES OF PAIN :
I. Based on the Expected recovery / Duration
 Acute pain : it has sudden onset .
 Chronic pain : it is prolonged, usually recurring or persisting over 6
months or longer and interferes with functioning.
It is further divided into chronic non malignant and chronic malignant
pain.
II. Based on Origin of Pain :
Cutaneous pain : it originates in the skin or subcutaneous tissue.
Deep somatic pain : it arises from ligaments, tendons, bones, blood
vessels and nerves. It is diffuse and lasts longer.
Visceral pain : it is resulting from stimulation of pain receptors in the
abdominal cavity, cranium and thorax.
III. Other Classification :
• Radiating pain : it is perceived at the source of pain & extends to nearly
tissues. (Myocardial Infarction)
• Neuropathic pain : it is the result of current or past damage of central /
peripheral nervous system.
• Phantom pain : pain sensation perceived in a body, when a part is
missing or removed.
ASSESSMENT OF PAIN :
PAIN MANAGEMENT :
 Opioid Analgesics are used to relieve pain and provide relaxation.
 Massage is a comfort measure that can help in relaxation, decrease
muscle tension and ease anxiety.
 Hot & Cold Application : a warm bath, Heating pads, Ice bags, Ice
massage, Hot or cold compress, warm or cold sitz bath in general
promote healing of injured tissue.
 Acupressure : the therapist applies finger pressure to points that
compressed to many of the point used in acupuncture.
 Hypnosis : it is a structured technique that enables patients to achieve a
state of heightened awareness and focussed concentration.
 Relaxation : a state that is free from anxiety and muscle tension.
 Exercise : it is a crucial part of treatment plan.
 Distraction : it draws the person’s attention away from the pain.
Pain.pptx
Pain.pptx

More Related Content

Similar to Pain.pptx

Pain from psychiatric point of view
Pain from psychiatric point of viewPain from psychiatric point of view
Pain from psychiatric point of viewIbrahim Talha
 
Chronic pain management
Chronic pain management Chronic pain management
Chronic pain management narasimha reddy
 
assessment and physiotherapy management of pain in elderly
assessment and physiotherapy management of pain in elderly assessment and physiotherapy management of pain in elderly
assessment and physiotherapy management of pain in elderly sunil JMI
 
Theories of pain
Theories of painTheories of pain
Theories of painkondasusan
 
Special Needs of the Patient. Pain
Special Needs of the Patient. PainSpecial Needs of the Patient. Pain
Special Needs of the Patient. PainSathish Rajamani
 
ACT and EMDR for Chronic Pain - FINAL .pptx
ACT and EMDR for Chronic Pain - FINAL .pptxACT and EMDR for Chronic Pain - FINAL .pptx
ACT and EMDR for Chronic Pain - FINAL .pptxssuser4f2ef5
 
The Psychology of Pain: Understanding and Management in Nursing Care
The Psychology of Pain: Understanding and Management in Nursing CareThe Psychology of Pain: Understanding and Management in Nursing Care
The Psychology of Pain: Understanding and Management in Nursing CareShahid Hussain
 
PAIN/CLASSIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PAIN.pdf
PAIN/CLASSIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PAIN.pdfPAIN/CLASSIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PAIN.pdf
PAIN/CLASSIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PAIN.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
Causes of backpain
Causes of backpain Causes of backpain
Causes of backpain issue zor
 
Pain by sunil
Pain by sunilPain by sunil
Pain by sunilsunil JMI
 
Care of patient with pain.pptx
Care of patient with pain.pptxCare of patient with pain.pptx
Care of patient with pain.pptxAbhishek Joshi
 
Pain Management: Physiology of Pain, Pain Management
Pain Management: Physiology of Pain, Pain ManagementPain Management: Physiology of Pain, Pain Management
Pain Management: Physiology of Pain, Pain Managementnabina paneru
 

Similar to Pain.pptx (20)

PAIN.pptx
PAIN.pptxPAIN.pptx
PAIN.pptx
 
Pain from psychiatric point of view
Pain from psychiatric point of viewPain from psychiatric point of view
Pain from psychiatric point of view
 
pain
painpain
pain
 
Chronic pain management
Chronic pain management Chronic pain management
Chronic pain management
 
assessment and physiotherapy management of pain in elderly
assessment and physiotherapy management of pain in elderly assessment and physiotherapy management of pain in elderly
assessment and physiotherapy management of pain in elderly
 
Pain management
Pain managementPain management
Pain management
 
Concept Of Pain
Concept Of PainConcept Of Pain
Concept Of Pain
 
Theories of pain
Theories of painTheories of pain
Theories of pain
 
Special Needs of the Patient. Pain
Special Needs of the Patient. PainSpecial Needs of the Patient. Pain
Special Needs of the Patient. Pain
 
Pain manmagement
Pain manmagementPain manmagement
Pain manmagement
 
ACT and EMDR for Chronic Pain - FINAL .pptx
ACT and EMDR for Chronic Pain - FINAL .pptxACT and EMDR for Chronic Pain - FINAL .pptx
ACT and EMDR for Chronic Pain - FINAL .pptx
 
The Psychology of Pain: Understanding and Management in Nursing Care
The Psychology of Pain: Understanding and Management in Nursing CareThe Psychology of Pain: Understanding and Management in Nursing Care
The Psychology of Pain: Understanding and Management in Nursing Care
 
PAIN/CLASSIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PAIN.pdf
PAIN/CLASSIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PAIN.pdfPAIN/CLASSIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PAIN.pdf
PAIN/CLASSIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF PAIN.pdf
 
Causes of backpain
Causes of backpain Causes of backpain
Causes of backpain
 
Pain by sunil
Pain by sunilPain by sunil
Pain by sunil
 
Pain.pptx
Pain.pptxPain.pptx
Pain.pptx
 
Pain update.pptx
Pain update.pptxPain update.pptx
Pain update.pptx
 
Care of patient with pain.pptx
Care of patient with pain.pptxCare of patient with pain.pptx
Care of patient with pain.pptx
 
Pain Management: Physiology of Pain, Pain Management
Pain Management: Physiology of Pain, Pain ManagementPain Management: Physiology of Pain, Pain Management
Pain Management: Physiology of Pain, Pain Management
 
Pain management
Pain managementPain management
Pain management
 

More from Nandish Sannaiah (20)

Shock .pptx
Shock .pptxShock .pptx
Shock .pptx
 
Oral disorders .pptx
Oral disorders .pptxOral disorders .pptx
Oral disorders .pptx
 
Liver Abcess.pptx
Liver Abcess.pptxLiver Abcess.pptx
Liver Abcess.pptx
 
Gastro Intestinal bleeding.pptx
Gastro Intestinal bleeding.pptxGastro Intestinal bleeding.pptx
Gastro Intestinal bleeding.pptx
 
Malabsorption.pptx
Malabsorption.pptxMalabsorption.pptx
Malabsorption.pptx
 
Fissure.pptx
Fissure.pptxFissure.pptx
Fissure.pptx
 
Excretory System.pptx
Excretory System.pptxExcretory System.pptx
Excretory System.pptx
 
Peritonitis.pptx
Peritonitis.pptxPeritonitis.pptx
Peritonitis.pptx
 
Colon Cancer.pptx
Colon Cancer.pptxColon Cancer.pptx
Colon Cancer.pptx
 
GERD.pptx
GERD.pptxGERD.pptx
GERD.pptx
 
Hemorrhoids.pptx
Hemorrhoids.pptxHemorrhoids.pptx
Hemorrhoids.pptx
 
Ulcerative Colitis.pptx
Ulcerative Colitis.pptxUlcerative Colitis.pptx
Ulcerative Colitis.pptx
 
Hiatal Hernia.pptx
Hiatal Hernia.pptxHiatal Hernia.pptx
Hiatal Hernia.pptx
 
Cardiac Tamponade.pptx
Cardiac Tamponade.pptxCardiac Tamponade.pptx
Cardiac Tamponade.pptx
 
Cholecystitis.pptx
Cholecystitis.pptxCholecystitis.pptx
Cholecystitis.pptx
 
Gastritis.pptx
Gastritis.pptxGastritis.pptx
Gastritis.pptx
 
Cor - Pulmonale.pptx
Cor - Pulmonale.pptxCor - Pulmonale.pptx
Cor - Pulmonale.pptx
 
Anemia.pptx
Anemia.pptxAnemia.pptx
Anemia.pptx
 
Cardiogenic Shock.pptx
Cardiogenic Shock.pptxCardiogenic Shock.pptx
Cardiogenic Shock.pptx
 
Polycythemia.pptx
Polycythemia.pptxPolycythemia.pptx
Polycythemia.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original PhotosBook Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photosnarwatsonia7
 
Kolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call Now
Kolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call NowKolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call Now
Kolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call NowNehru place Escorts
 
Low Rate Call Girls Pune Esha 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call girl...
Low Rate Call Girls Pune Esha 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call girl...Low Rate Call Girls Pune Esha 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call girl...
Low Rate Call Girls Pune Esha 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call girl...Miss joya
 
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdfHemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdfMedicoseAcademics
 
Call Girls Service Chennai Jiya 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Chennai
Call Girls Service Chennai Jiya 7001305949 Independent Escort Service ChennaiCall Girls Service Chennai Jiya 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Chennai
Call Girls Service Chennai Jiya 7001305949 Independent Escort Service ChennaiNehru place Escorts
 
Glomerular Filtration and determinants of glomerular filtration .pptx
Glomerular Filtration and  determinants of glomerular filtration .pptxGlomerular Filtration and  determinants of glomerular filtration .pptx
Glomerular Filtration and determinants of glomerular filtration .pptxDr.Nusrat Tariq
 
Russian Call Girls in Pune Riya 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call gi...
Russian Call Girls in Pune Riya 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call gi...Russian Call Girls in Pune Riya 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call gi...
Russian Call Girls in Pune Riya 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call gi...Miss joya
 
Asthma Review - GINA guidelines summary 2024
Asthma Review - GINA guidelines summary 2024Asthma Review - GINA guidelines summary 2024
Asthma Review - GINA guidelines summary 2024Gabriel Guevara MD
 
Call Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Availablenarwatsonia7
 
VIP Call Girls Lucknow Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Lucknow
VIP Call Girls Lucknow Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service LucknowVIP Call Girls Lucknow Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Lucknow
VIP Call Girls Lucknow Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Lucknownarwatsonia7
 
Call Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Availablenarwatsonia7
 
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls ServiceCall Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Servicesonalikaur4
 
Russian Call Girl Brookfield - 7001305949 Escorts Service 50% Off with Cash O...
Russian Call Girl Brookfield - 7001305949 Escorts Service 50% Off with Cash O...Russian Call Girl Brookfield - 7001305949 Escorts Service 50% Off with Cash O...
Russian Call Girl Brookfield - 7001305949 Escorts Service 50% Off with Cash O...narwatsonia7
 
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Availablenarwatsonia7
 
Call Girls Jp Nagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Jp Nagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Jp Nagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Jp Nagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Availablenarwatsonia7
 
Call Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Availablenarwatsonia7
 
Call Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Bangalore
Call Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service BangaloreCall Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Bangalore
Call Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Bangalorenarwatsonia7
 
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service NoidaCall Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service NoidaPooja Gupta
 
Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...
Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...
Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...narwatsonia7
 
Call Girl Service Bidadi - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Call Girl Service Bidadi - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original PhotosCall Girl Service Bidadi - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Call Girl Service Bidadi - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photosnarwatsonia7
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original PhotosBook Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Book Call Girls in Yelahanka - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
 
Kolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call Now
Kolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call NowKolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call Now
Kolkata Call Girls Services 9907093804 @24x7 High Class Babes Here Call Now
 
Low Rate Call Girls Pune Esha 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call girl...
Low Rate Call Girls Pune Esha 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call girl...Low Rate Call Girls Pune Esha 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call girl...
Low Rate Call Girls Pune Esha 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call girl...
 
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdfHemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
Hemostasis Physiology and Clinical correlations by Dr Faiza.pdf
 
Call Girls Service Chennai Jiya 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Chennai
Call Girls Service Chennai Jiya 7001305949 Independent Escort Service ChennaiCall Girls Service Chennai Jiya 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Chennai
Call Girls Service Chennai Jiya 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Chennai
 
Glomerular Filtration and determinants of glomerular filtration .pptx
Glomerular Filtration and  determinants of glomerular filtration .pptxGlomerular Filtration and  determinants of glomerular filtration .pptx
Glomerular Filtration and determinants of glomerular filtration .pptx
 
Russian Call Girls in Pune Riya 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call gi...
Russian Call Girls in Pune Riya 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call gi...Russian Call Girls in Pune Riya 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call gi...
Russian Call Girls in Pune Riya 9907093804 Short 1500 Night 6000 Best call gi...
 
Asthma Review - GINA guidelines summary 2024
Asthma Review - GINA guidelines summary 2024Asthma Review - GINA guidelines summary 2024
Asthma Review - GINA guidelines summary 2024
 
Call Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hsr Layout Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
 
VIP Call Girls Lucknow Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Lucknow
VIP Call Girls Lucknow Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service LucknowVIP Call Girls Lucknow Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Lucknow
VIP Call Girls Lucknow Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Lucknow
 
Call Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Whitefield Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
 
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls ServiceCall Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
Call Girls Thane Just Call 9910780858 Get High Class Call Girls Service
 
Russian Call Girl Brookfield - 7001305949 Escorts Service 50% Off with Cash O...
Russian Call Girl Brookfield - 7001305949 Escorts Service 50% Off with Cash O...Russian Call Girl Brookfield - 7001305949 Escorts Service 50% Off with Cash O...
Russian Call Girl Brookfield - 7001305949 Escorts Service 50% Off with Cash O...
 
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hosur Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
 
Call Girls Jp Nagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Jp Nagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Jp Nagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Jp Nagar Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
 
Call Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service AvailableCall Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
Call Girls Hebbal Just Call 7001305949 Top Class Call Girl Service Available
 
Call Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Bangalore
Call Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service BangaloreCall Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Bangalore
Call Girl Bangalore Nandini 7001305949 Independent Escort Service Bangalore
 
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service NoidaCall Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
Call Girls Service Noida Maya 9711199012 Independent Escort Service Noida
 
Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...
Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...
Housewife Call Girls Hsr Layout - Call 7001305949 Rs-3500 with A/C Room Cash ...
 
Call Girl Service Bidadi - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Call Girl Service Bidadi - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original PhotosCall Girl Service Bidadi - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
Call Girl Service Bidadi - For 7001305949 Cheap & Best with original Photos
 

Pain.pptx

  • 1. PAIN Presented By: Mr. NANDISH.S Associate Professor Mandya Institute of Nursing Sciences
  • 2.
  • 3. DEFINITION : • It is an unpleasant experience (both sensory & emotional) associated with actual or potential tissue damage. • American Academy of pain : an unpleasant sensation and emotional response to that sensation.
  • 4. Nature of Pain : - It is subjective & highly individual. - Only the patient knows whether the pain is present and how the experience feels. - Its stimulus is physical and mental in nature.
  • 5. Factors influencing Pain : Developmental Factors: - Age Physiological Factors : - Fatigue - Genetics - Neurologic Function Social Factors : - Attention - Previous Experience - Family & Social Support Spiritual Factors Psychological Factors - Anxiety - Coping style Cultural Factors
  • 6. TYPES OF PAIN : I. Based on the Expected recovery / Duration  Acute pain : it has sudden onset .  Chronic pain : it is prolonged, usually recurring or persisting over 6 months or longer and interferes with functioning. It is further divided into chronic non malignant and chronic malignant pain.
  • 7. II. Based on Origin of Pain : Cutaneous pain : it originates in the skin or subcutaneous tissue. Deep somatic pain : it arises from ligaments, tendons, bones, blood vessels and nerves. It is diffuse and lasts longer. Visceral pain : it is resulting from stimulation of pain receptors in the abdominal cavity, cranium and thorax.
  • 8. III. Other Classification : • Radiating pain : it is perceived at the source of pain & extends to nearly tissues. (Myocardial Infarction) • Neuropathic pain : it is the result of current or past damage of central / peripheral nervous system. • Phantom pain : pain sensation perceived in a body, when a part is missing or removed.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 13.  Opioid Analgesics are used to relieve pain and provide relaxation.  Massage is a comfort measure that can help in relaxation, decrease muscle tension and ease anxiety.  Hot & Cold Application : a warm bath, Heating pads, Ice bags, Ice massage, Hot or cold compress, warm or cold sitz bath in general promote healing of injured tissue.  Acupressure : the therapist applies finger pressure to points that compressed to many of the point used in acupuncture.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.  Hypnosis : it is a structured technique that enables patients to achieve a state of heightened awareness and focussed concentration.  Relaxation : a state that is free from anxiety and muscle tension.  Exercise : it is a crucial part of treatment plan.  Distraction : it draws the person’s attention away from the pain.