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OWL 2.0 Primer
Classes, Properties, and Individuals
 Contents
• Basic Notions
• Classes, Properties, Individuals & basic
modeling with them

OWL 2.0

2
 Basic Notions
• OWL2 is a knowledge representation language.
Axioms: the basic statements that an OWL ontology expresses.

Entities: elements used to refer to real-world objects.

Expressions: combinations of entities to form complex descriptions
from basic ones

OWL 2.0

3
1. Mary and John are married.
2. Mary is female.

Axioms

individuals

properties

married

classes

Entities

Mary, John

female

Female professor

Expressions

Entity

+

Entity

female

OWL 2.0

+

professor

4
 Classes and Instances(Individuals)
An individual named Mary and states this
individual is a person

Functional-Style Syntax

RDF-XML Syntax
<owl:Class rdf:ID=“Person”/>

ClassAssertion( :Person :Mary)

1.<owl:Thing rdf:ID=“Mary”/>
<owl:Thing rdf:about=“Mary”>
<rdf:type rdf:resource=“#Person”>
</owl:Thing>
2.<Person rdf:ID=“Mary”/>

OWL 2.0

5
 Class Hierarchies
Every individual which is specified as an instance
of the class Woman is also an instance of the
class Person as well.

Functional-Style Syntax

RDF-XML Syntax
<owl:Class rdf:ID=“Woman”/>

SubClassOf( :Mother :Woman)

<owl:Class rdf:ID=“Mother”>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=“#Woman”/>
</owl:Class>

OWL 2.0

6
 Class Hierarchies
Every instance of the class Person is also an
instance of class Human, and vice versa.

Functional-Style Syntax

RDF-XML Syntax
<owl:Class rdf:ID=“Human”/>

EquivalentClasses( :Person :Human )

<owl:Class rdf:ID=“Person”>
<owl:equivalentClass rdf:resource=“#Human”/>
</owl:Class>

OWL 2.0

7
 Class Disjointness
Incompatibility relationship between class of
Woman and Man.

Functional-Style Syntax

RDF-XML Syntax
<owl:Class rdf:ID=“Man”/>

DisjointClasses( :Woman :Man)

<owl:Class rdf:ID=“Woman”>
<owl:disjointWith rdf:resource=“#Man”/>
</owl:Class>

OWL 2.0

8
 Object Properties
John

hasWife

Mary

Mary is John’s wife

Functional-Style Syntax

RDF-XML Syntax
<Person rdf:ID=“Mary”/>

ObjectPropertyAssertion( :hasWife :John :Mary)

<Person rdf:ID=“John”>
<hasWife rdf:resource=“#Mary”/>
</Person>

OWL 2.0

9
 Property Hierarchies
Whenever B is known to be A’s wife, it is also
known to be A’s spouse.

Functional-Style Syntax

SubObjectPropertyOf( :hasWife :hasSpouse )

RDF-XML Syntax
<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“hasWife”>
<rdfs:subPropertyOf rdf:resource=“#hasSpouse”/>
…
…
</owl:ObjectProperty>

OWL 2.0

10
 Domain and Range Restrictions
B is the wife of A obviously implies that B is a
woman and A is a man.

Functional-Style Syntax

RDF-XML Syntax
<owl:Class rdf:ID=“Man”/>
<owl:Class rdf:ID=“Woman”/>

ObjectPropertyDomain( :hasWife :Man )
ObjectPropertyRange( :hasWife :Woman )

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“hasWife”>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource=“#Man”/>
<rdfs:range rdf:resource=“#Woman”/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>

OWL 2.0

11
 Equality and Inequality of Individuals
John and Bill are not the same individuals.
James and Jim are the same individuals.

Functional-Style Syntax

RDF-XML Syntax

1.DifferentIndividuals( :John :Bill )

<Man rdf:ID=“John”>
<owl:differentFrom rdf:resource=“#Bill”/>
</Man>

2.SameIndividual( :James :Jim )

<Man rdf:ID=“James”>
<owl:sameAs rdf:resource=“#Jim”/>
</Man>

OWL 2.0

12
 Datatypes
John’s age is 51

Functional-Style Syntax

RDF-XML Syntax
<Man rdf:ID=“John”>
<hasAge rdf:datatype=“&xsd;integer”>51</hasAge>
</Man>

DataPropertyAssertion( :hasAge :John “51”^^xsd:integer )

OWL 2.0

13
 Domain and range of Datatypes
Domain and range of datatypeproperty

Functional-Style Syntax

RDF-XML Syntax

DataPropertyDomain( :hasAge :Person )
DataPropertyRange( :hasAge xsd:nonNegativeInteger )

OWL 2.0

<owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:ID=“hasAge”>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource=“Person”/>
<rdfs:range
rdf:resource=“&xsd;nonNegativeInteger”/>
</owl:DatatypeProperty>

14
Protégé 3.4.4

Protégé 4.1 beta

OWL 2.0

15
Q&A
OWL 2.0

16

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OWL 2.0 Primer Part01

  • 1. OWL 2.0 Primer Classes, Properties, and Individuals
  • 2.  Contents • Basic Notions • Classes, Properties, Individuals & basic modeling with them OWL 2.0 2
  • 3.  Basic Notions • OWL2 is a knowledge representation language. Axioms: the basic statements that an OWL ontology expresses. Entities: elements used to refer to real-world objects. Expressions: combinations of entities to form complex descriptions from basic ones OWL 2.0 3
  • 4. 1. Mary and John are married. 2. Mary is female. Axioms individuals properties married classes Entities Mary, John female Female professor Expressions Entity + Entity female OWL 2.0 + professor 4
  • 5.  Classes and Instances(Individuals) An individual named Mary and states this individual is a person Functional-Style Syntax RDF-XML Syntax <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Person”/> ClassAssertion( :Person :Mary) 1.<owl:Thing rdf:ID=“Mary”/> <owl:Thing rdf:about=“Mary”> <rdf:type rdf:resource=“#Person”> </owl:Thing> 2.<Person rdf:ID=“Mary”/> OWL 2.0 5
  • 6.  Class Hierarchies Every individual which is specified as an instance of the class Woman is also an instance of the class Person as well. Functional-Style Syntax RDF-XML Syntax <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Woman”/> SubClassOf( :Mother :Woman) <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Mother”> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=“#Woman”/> </owl:Class> OWL 2.0 6
  • 7.  Class Hierarchies Every instance of the class Person is also an instance of class Human, and vice versa. Functional-Style Syntax RDF-XML Syntax <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Human”/> EquivalentClasses( :Person :Human ) <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Person”> <owl:equivalentClass rdf:resource=“#Human”/> </owl:Class> OWL 2.0 7
  • 8.  Class Disjointness Incompatibility relationship between class of Woman and Man. Functional-Style Syntax RDF-XML Syntax <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Man”/> DisjointClasses( :Woman :Man) <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Woman”> <owl:disjointWith rdf:resource=“#Man”/> </owl:Class> OWL 2.0 8
  • 9.  Object Properties John hasWife Mary Mary is John’s wife Functional-Style Syntax RDF-XML Syntax <Person rdf:ID=“Mary”/> ObjectPropertyAssertion( :hasWife :John :Mary) <Person rdf:ID=“John”> <hasWife rdf:resource=“#Mary”/> </Person> OWL 2.0 9
  • 10.  Property Hierarchies Whenever B is known to be A’s wife, it is also known to be A’s spouse. Functional-Style Syntax SubObjectPropertyOf( :hasWife :hasSpouse ) RDF-XML Syntax <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“hasWife”> <rdfs:subPropertyOf rdf:resource=“#hasSpouse”/> … … </owl:ObjectProperty> OWL 2.0 10
  • 11.  Domain and Range Restrictions B is the wife of A obviously implies that B is a woman and A is a man. Functional-Style Syntax RDF-XML Syntax <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Man”/> <owl:Class rdf:ID=“Woman”/> ObjectPropertyDomain( :hasWife :Man ) ObjectPropertyRange( :hasWife :Woman ) <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=“hasWife”> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=“#Man”/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=“#Woman”/> </owl:ObjectProperty> OWL 2.0 11
  • 12.  Equality and Inequality of Individuals John and Bill are not the same individuals. James and Jim are the same individuals. Functional-Style Syntax RDF-XML Syntax 1.DifferentIndividuals( :John :Bill ) <Man rdf:ID=“John”> <owl:differentFrom rdf:resource=“#Bill”/> </Man> 2.SameIndividual( :James :Jim ) <Man rdf:ID=“James”> <owl:sameAs rdf:resource=“#Jim”/> </Man> OWL 2.0 12
  • 13.  Datatypes John’s age is 51 Functional-Style Syntax RDF-XML Syntax <Man rdf:ID=“John”> <hasAge rdf:datatype=“&xsd;integer”>51</hasAge> </Man> DataPropertyAssertion( :hasAge :John “51”^^xsd:integer ) OWL 2.0 13
  • 14.  Domain and range of Datatypes Domain and range of datatypeproperty Functional-Style Syntax RDF-XML Syntax DataPropertyDomain( :hasAge :Person ) DataPropertyRange( :hasAge xsd:nonNegativeInteger ) OWL 2.0 <owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:ID=“hasAge”> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=“Person”/> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=“&xsd;nonNegativeInteger”/> </owl:DatatypeProperty> 14
  • 15. Protégé 3.4.4 Protégé 4.1 beta OWL 2.0 15