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REVIEW
OF
NERVOUS
SYSTEM
PRESENTED BY
M.VELVEENA
MSC (N) 1ST YEAR
INTRODUCTION
• The nervous system are to detect, analyse and convey information.
• Raw information is collected by sensory organs before being relayed to
the brain for processing. A variety of brain centers then initiate signals
along motor and autonomic pathways to control physical movement
and regulate internal physiology.
• These actions are primarily mediated by neurons that carry
electrochemical signals termed action potentials (nerve impulses)as
well as neurons.
• The nervous system contains neuroglial cells, which are responsible for
a variety of immunologic and support functions and facilitate the
activity of neurons.
• The cells of the nervous system are conveniently split into two major
categories
- neurons
- neuroglial cells, which are often called glia.
NEURON
• Neurons are the basic functional units of the nervous system. Their main function
is to receive, integrate and transmit information to other cells
• Each neuron consists of three major regions: a cell body, axon and several
dendrites.
• The cell body contains the nucleus, prominent regions of granular rough
endoplasmic reticulum termed Nissl bodies, and organelles, such as mitochondria
and Golgi complexes, which are common to other cells in the body.
• Dendrites – from the Greek word for ‘tree’ – are small, shorter
cytoplasmic branches that extend from the cell body. These branches
receive information from the environment or from other neurons via
connections termed synapses.
• The axon is usually the longest portion of the neuron and extends
away from the cell body, where it functions much like an electric cable
to convey action potentials away from the cell body.
Neurons are classified according to their structure and function.
Structurally, there are three types
1. Unipolar
2. Bipolar
3. Multipolar
Functionally ,there are three types
1. Efferent (motor) neurons
2. Afferent (sensory )neurons
3. Interneurons (association neurons)
NEUROGLIAL CELLS
• Neuroglial cells were once thought of as basic support cells for neurons, but they
are now recognised as playing multiple roles in neurophysiological processes.
1. Astrocytes
2. Microglial cells
3. Ependymal cells
4. Satellite cells
5. Myelin containing neuroglial cells
- oligodendrocyte
- schwann cells
The Nervous System is divided into two main
divisions.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The CNS has two parts:
- Brain
- Spinal Cord
The brain is divided into
1. Forebrain
A. Cerebrum
B. Diencephalon
2. Midbrain
A. Mesencephalon
3. Hindbrain
A. Pons
B. Medulla
C. Cerebellum
• Forebrain, also called prosencephalon, region of the developing vertebrate brain; it
includes the telencephalon, which contains the cerebral hemispheres, and, under
these, the diencephalon, which contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus,
and subthalamus.
• The forebrain plays a central role in the processing of information related to
complex cognitive activities, sensory and associative functions, and voluntary motor
activities. It represents one of the three major developmental divisions of the brain;
the other two are the midbrain and hindbrain.
1.FOREBRAIN
A. CEREBRUM
• The cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemispheres, the right and left
hemisphere.
• They are connected by the corpus callosum which facilitates communication
between both sides of the brain .
• The outer shell is called the cortex
• The left hemisphere appears to deal with logic and solving problems.
• The right hemisphere may be called the “creative” brain and is associated
with affect, behaviour, and spatial-perceptual functions.
The hemispheres are then further divided into four lobes
Occipital
lobe
Temporal
lobe
Parietal
lobe
Frontal
lobe
B. DIENCEPHALON
The second part of the forebrain is the diencephalon, which connects the cerebrum
with lower structures of the brain. The major components of the diencephalon
include
1. the thalamus
2. the hypothalamus and
3. the limbic system.
1.Thalamus
 The thalamus integrates all sensory input (except smell) on its way to the cortex.
This helps the cerebral cortex interpret the whole picture very rapidly, rather than
experiencing each sensation individually.
 The thalamus is also involved in temporarily blocking minor sensations, so that an
individual can concentrate on one important event when necessary. For example,
an individual who is studying for an examination may be unaware of the clock
ticking in the room, or even of another person walking into the room, because the
thalamus has temporarily blocked these incoming sensations from the cortex .
2.Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is located just below the thalamus and just above the
pituitary gland and has a number of diverse functions.
1. Regulation of the Pituitary Gland - The pituitary gland consists of two lobes: the
posterior lobe and the anterior lobe.
• a. The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is actually extended tissue from the
hypothalamus. The posterior lobe stores antidiuretic hormone (which helps to maintain
blood pressure through regulation of water retention) and oxytocin (the hormone
responsible for stimulation of the uterus during labour, and the release of milk from the
mammary glands). Both of these hormones are produced in the hypothalamus. When the
hypothalamus detects the body’s need for these hormones, it sends nerve impulses to the
posterior pituitary for their release.
• b. The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland consists of glandular tissue that produces a
number of hormones used by the body. These hormones are regulated by “releasing
factors” from the hypothalamus. When the hormones are required by the body, the
releasing factors stimulate the release of the hormone from the anterior pituitary and the
hormone in turn stimulates its target organ to carry out its specific functions.
2. Direct Neural Control over the Actions of the Autonomic Nervous System -The
hypothalamus regulates the appropriate visceral responses during various emotional
states.
3. Regulation of Appetite - Appetite is regulated through response to blood nutrient
levels.
4. Regulation of Temperature - The hypothalamus senses internal temperature
changes in the blood that flows through the brain. It receives information through
sensory input from the skin about external temperature changes. The hypothalamus
then uses this information to promote certain types of responses (e.g., sweating or
shivering) that help to maintain body temperature within the normal range .
3.Limbic System.
 The part of the brain known as the limbic system consists of portions of the
cerebrum and the diencephalon.
 The major components include the medially placed cortical and subcortical
structures and the fibre tracts connecting them with one another and with the
hypothalamus.
 The system is composed of the amygdala, mammillary body, olfactory tract,
hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, septum pellucidum, thalamus, hippocampus,
and neuronal connecting pathways, such as the fornix and others.
 This system has been called “the emotional brain” and is associated with
feelings of fear and anxiety; anger, rage, and aggression; love, joy, and hope;
and with sexuality and social behaviour.
2.MIDBRAIN
• The midbrain functions as a relay system, transmitting information necessary for
vision and hearing. It also plays an important role in motor movement, pain, and
the sleep/wake cycle.
• The midbrain, also called the mesencephalon, is a part of the central nervous
system. It is located below your cerebral cortex and at the top of your brainstem.
A. Mesencephalon
• Structures of major importance in the mesencephalon, or midbrain, include nuclei
and fibre tracts.
• It extends from the pons to the hypothalamus
• It is responsible for integration of various reflexes, including visual reflexes (e.g.,
automatically turning away from a dangerous object when it comes into view),
auditory reflexes (e.g., automatically turning toward a sound that is heard), and
righting reflexes (e.g., automatically keeping the head upright and maintaining
balance)
3.HINDBRAIN
• Hindbrain, also called rhombencephalon, region of the developing vertebrate
brain that is composed of the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the cerebellum.
• The hindbrain coordinates functions that are fundamental to survival, including
respiratory rhythm, motor activity, sleep, and wakefulness.
A. Pons
 The pons is a bulbous structure that lies between the midbrain and the medulla .
 It is composed of large bundles of fibres and forms a major connection between
the cerebellum and the brainstem.
 It also contains the central connections of cranial nerves V through VIII and
centres for respiration and skeletal muscle tone.
B. Medulla
• The medulla is the connecting structure between the spinal cord and the
pons and all of the ascending and descending fibre tracts pass through it.
• The vital centres are contained in the medulla, and it is responsible for
regulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration.
• Also in the medulla are reflex centres for swallowing, sneezing, coughing,
and vomiting . It also contains nuclei for cranial nerves IX through XII.
• The medulla, pons, and midbrain form the structure known as the
brainstem
C. Cerebellum
• The cerebellum is separated from the
brainstem by the fourth ventricle but has
connections to the brainstem through
bundles of fibre tracts.
• It is situated just below the occipital
lobes of the cerebrum .
• The functions of the cerebellum are
concerned with involuntary movement,
such as muscular tone and coordination
and the maintenance of posture and
equilibrium
(A–E) Superior (A), inferior (B), lateral (C), anterior (D), and posterior (E) views of the
whole brain used.(F) coronal view
THE SPINAL CORD
• The spinal cord is part of the central nervous system and consists of a tightly
packed column of nerve tissue that extends downwards from the brainstem
through the central column of the spine.
• It is a relatively small bundle of tissue (weighing 35g and just about 1cm in
diameter) but is crucial in facilitating our daily activities.
• The spinal cord carries nerve signals from the brain to other parts of the body
(importantly the muscles we use to move) and receives sensory input from the
body, partially processes it, and then transmits that information to the brain.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves and ganglia that are outside of the
central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is made up of two divisions:
1. The autonomic system.
2. The somatic nervous system
• Each part of this system plays a vital role in how information is communicated
throughout the body.
1.AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
• The autonomic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that's
responsible for regulating involuntary body functions. Functions of the ANS
include the regulation of circulation, respiration, metabolism, secretion, body
temperature, and reproduction.
• The ANS is divided into two Divisions:
• Sympathetic: Preganglionic neurons found in lateral horn of spinal cord from upper
thoracic to mid-lumbar cord (T1-L3). Postganglionic cell bodies found in vertebral
and prevertebral ganglia. Uses Noradrenalin as postganglionic transmitter.
• Parasympathetic: Preganglionic neurons have cell bodies in the brainstem and
sacrum. Postganglionic cell bodies are found adjacent to or within the walls of the
organ they supply. Uses acetylcholine (Ach) as postganglionic transmitter.
2.SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
The somatic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for carrying
sensory and motor information to and from the central nervous system. The somatic
nervous system derives its name from the Greek word soma, which means "body."[7]
 Cranial and spinal nerves contribute to the somatic nervous system.
 Cranial nerves provide voluntary motor control and sensation to the head and face.
 Spinal nerves supply the trunk and limbs.
 The posterior rami travel backwards to supply the vertebral column, vertebral muscles
and skin of the back whilst the anterior rami supply the limbs and anterior trunk.
 The majority of anterior rami combine to form nerve plexuses from which many major
peripheral nerves stem.
Nervous plexuses are as follows:
• C1-C4 form the cervical plexus
• C5-T1 combine into the brachial plexus
• T12-L4 form the lumbar plexus
• L4 - S4 combine into the sacral plexus
SENSORY SYSTEM
• The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing
sensory information being where information is transmitted to the spinal cord and brain
from peripheral sensory receptors. The sensory receptors are specialised neurons or
nerve endings.
• There are five main sensory systems in mammals.
1. touch/pressure
2. vision
3. hearing
4. balance
5. taste
CONCLUSION
• The nervous system helps all the parts of the body to communicate with each
other. It also reacts to changes both outside and inside the body. The nervous
system uses both electrical and chemical means to send and receive messages.
• The nervous system is a very important asset to the body because of the role it
plays in our normal functioning. The brain is the control tower of the body and the
spinal cord is the body’s main message carrier so it is important that they are taken
care of in an appropriate manner so as to prevent us from suffering losses or
reductions of neurotransmitters that might bring about disorders that might limit
our lifespans
REFERENCES
1. Lewis. Medical Surgical Nursing Assessment and Management of
clinicalproblems.2015. New Delhi. Elsevier. 2nd Edition. Volume II. Pg. no.1391-
1400
2. B.D Chaurasia, HUMAN ANATOMY Regional and applied dissection andclinical.
2010. New Delhi, CBS Publishers, 5th edition. Volume 3. Pg. no. 315-449.
3. KP. Neerja "a textbook of essential of psychiatric nursing" published by jaypee
brothers.
4. Marry C. Townsend "a textbook of psychiatric mental health nursing" 6th edition.
5. http://www.wikipedia.org.
6. http://www.psychiatricnursing slideshare
Overview of nervous system,mental health

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Overview of nervous system,mental health

  • 2. INTRODUCTION • The nervous system are to detect, analyse and convey information. • Raw information is collected by sensory organs before being relayed to the brain for processing. A variety of brain centers then initiate signals along motor and autonomic pathways to control physical movement and regulate internal physiology. • These actions are primarily mediated by neurons that carry electrochemical signals termed action potentials (nerve impulses)as well as neurons. • The nervous system contains neuroglial cells, which are responsible for a variety of immunologic and support functions and facilitate the activity of neurons.
  • 3. • The cells of the nervous system are conveniently split into two major categories - neurons - neuroglial cells, which are often called glia.
  • 4. NEURON • Neurons are the basic functional units of the nervous system. Their main function is to receive, integrate and transmit information to other cells • Each neuron consists of three major regions: a cell body, axon and several dendrites. • The cell body contains the nucleus, prominent regions of granular rough endoplasmic reticulum termed Nissl bodies, and organelles, such as mitochondria and Golgi complexes, which are common to other cells in the body.
  • 5. • Dendrites – from the Greek word for ‘tree’ – are small, shorter cytoplasmic branches that extend from the cell body. These branches receive information from the environment or from other neurons via connections termed synapses. • The axon is usually the longest portion of the neuron and extends away from the cell body, where it functions much like an electric cable to convey action potentials away from the cell body.
  • 6. Neurons are classified according to their structure and function. Structurally, there are three types 1. Unipolar 2. Bipolar 3. Multipolar Functionally ,there are three types 1. Efferent (motor) neurons 2. Afferent (sensory )neurons 3. Interneurons (association neurons)
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  • 9. NEUROGLIAL CELLS • Neuroglial cells were once thought of as basic support cells for neurons, but they are now recognised as playing multiple roles in neurophysiological processes. 1. Astrocytes 2. Microglial cells 3. Ependymal cells 4. Satellite cells 5. Myelin containing neuroglial cells - oligodendrocyte - schwann cells
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  • 11. The Nervous System is divided into two main divisions. Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
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  • 13. The CNS has two parts: - Brain - Spinal Cord
  • 14. The brain is divided into 1. Forebrain A. Cerebrum B. Diencephalon 2. Midbrain A. Mesencephalon 3. Hindbrain A. Pons B. Medulla C. Cerebellum
  • 15. • Forebrain, also called prosencephalon, region of the developing vertebrate brain; it includes the telencephalon, which contains the cerebral hemispheres, and, under these, the diencephalon, which contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus. • The forebrain plays a central role in the processing of information related to complex cognitive activities, sensory and associative functions, and voluntary motor activities. It represents one of the three major developmental divisions of the brain; the other two are the midbrain and hindbrain. 1.FOREBRAIN
  • 16. A. CEREBRUM • The cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemispheres, the right and left hemisphere. • They are connected by the corpus callosum which facilitates communication between both sides of the brain . • The outer shell is called the cortex • The left hemisphere appears to deal with logic and solving problems. • The right hemisphere may be called the “creative” brain and is associated with affect, behaviour, and spatial-perceptual functions.
  • 17. The hemispheres are then further divided into four lobes Occipital lobe Temporal lobe Parietal lobe Frontal lobe
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  • 20. B. DIENCEPHALON The second part of the forebrain is the diencephalon, which connects the cerebrum with lower structures of the brain. The major components of the diencephalon include 1. the thalamus 2. the hypothalamus and 3. the limbic system.
  • 21. 1.Thalamus  The thalamus integrates all sensory input (except smell) on its way to the cortex. This helps the cerebral cortex interpret the whole picture very rapidly, rather than experiencing each sensation individually.  The thalamus is also involved in temporarily blocking minor sensations, so that an individual can concentrate on one important event when necessary. For example, an individual who is studying for an examination may be unaware of the clock ticking in the room, or even of another person walking into the room, because the thalamus has temporarily blocked these incoming sensations from the cortex .
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  • 23. 2.Hypothalamus The hypothalamus is located just below the thalamus and just above the pituitary gland and has a number of diverse functions.
  • 24. 1. Regulation of the Pituitary Gland - The pituitary gland consists of two lobes: the posterior lobe and the anterior lobe. • a. The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is actually extended tissue from the hypothalamus. The posterior lobe stores antidiuretic hormone (which helps to maintain blood pressure through regulation of water retention) and oxytocin (the hormone responsible for stimulation of the uterus during labour, and the release of milk from the mammary glands). Both of these hormones are produced in the hypothalamus. When the hypothalamus detects the body’s need for these hormones, it sends nerve impulses to the posterior pituitary for their release. • b. The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland consists of glandular tissue that produces a number of hormones used by the body. These hormones are regulated by “releasing factors” from the hypothalamus. When the hormones are required by the body, the releasing factors stimulate the release of the hormone from the anterior pituitary and the hormone in turn stimulates its target organ to carry out its specific functions.
  • 25. 2. Direct Neural Control over the Actions of the Autonomic Nervous System -The hypothalamus regulates the appropriate visceral responses during various emotional states. 3. Regulation of Appetite - Appetite is regulated through response to blood nutrient levels. 4. Regulation of Temperature - The hypothalamus senses internal temperature changes in the blood that flows through the brain. It receives information through sensory input from the skin about external temperature changes. The hypothalamus then uses this information to promote certain types of responses (e.g., sweating or shivering) that help to maintain body temperature within the normal range .
  • 26. 3.Limbic System.  The part of the brain known as the limbic system consists of portions of the cerebrum and the diencephalon.  The major components include the medially placed cortical and subcortical structures and the fibre tracts connecting them with one another and with the hypothalamus.  The system is composed of the amygdala, mammillary body, olfactory tract, hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, septum pellucidum, thalamus, hippocampus, and neuronal connecting pathways, such as the fornix and others.  This system has been called “the emotional brain” and is associated with feelings of fear and anxiety; anger, rage, and aggression; love, joy, and hope; and with sexuality and social behaviour.
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  • 28. 2.MIDBRAIN • The midbrain functions as a relay system, transmitting information necessary for vision and hearing. It also plays an important role in motor movement, pain, and the sleep/wake cycle. • The midbrain, also called the mesencephalon, is a part of the central nervous system. It is located below your cerebral cortex and at the top of your brainstem.
  • 29. A. Mesencephalon • Structures of major importance in the mesencephalon, or midbrain, include nuclei and fibre tracts. • It extends from the pons to the hypothalamus • It is responsible for integration of various reflexes, including visual reflexes (e.g., automatically turning away from a dangerous object when it comes into view), auditory reflexes (e.g., automatically turning toward a sound that is heard), and righting reflexes (e.g., automatically keeping the head upright and maintaining balance)
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  • 31. 3.HINDBRAIN • Hindbrain, also called rhombencephalon, region of the developing vertebrate brain that is composed of the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the cerebellum. • The hindbrain coordinates functions that are fundamental to survival, including respiratory rhythm, motor activity, sleep, and wakefulness.
  • 32. A. Pons  The pons is a bulbous structure that lies between the midbrain and the medulla .  It is composed of large bundles of fibres and forms a major connection between the cerebellum and the brainstem.  It also contains the central connections of cranial nerves V through VIII and centres for respiration and skeletal muscle tone.
  • 33. B. Medulla • The medulla is the connecting structure between the spinal cord and the pons and all of the ascending and descending fibre tracts pass through it. • The vital centres are contained in the medulla, and it is responsible for regulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. • Also in the medulla are reflex centres for swallowing, sneezing, coughing, and vomiting . It also contains nuclei for cranial nerves IX through XII. • The medulla, pons, and midbrain form the structure known as the brainstem
  • 34. C. Cerebellum • The cerebellum is separated from the brainstem by the fourth ventricle but has connections to the brainstem through bundles of fibre tracts. • It is situated just below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum . • The functions of the cerebellum are concerned with involuntary movement, such as muscular tone and coordination and the maintenance of posture and equilibrium
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  • 36. (A–E) Superior (A), inferior (B), lateral (C), anterior (D), and posterior (E) views of the whole brain used.(F) coronal view
  • 37. THE SPINAL CORD • The spinal cord is part of the central nervous system and consists of a tightly packed column of nerve tissue that extends downwards from the brainstem through the central column of the spine. • It is a relatively small bundle of tissue (weighing 35g and just about 1cm in diameter) but is crucial in facilitating our daily activities. • The spinal cord carries nerve signals from the brain to other parts of the body (importantly the muscles we use to move) and receives sensory input from the body, partially processes it, and then transmits that information to the brain.
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  • 39. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves and ganglia that are outside of the central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is made up of two divisions: 1. The autonomic system. 2. The somatic nervous system • Each part of this system plays a vital role in how information is communicated throughout the body.
  • 40. 1.AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM • The autonomic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that's responsible for regulating involuntary body functions. Functions of the ANS include the regulation of circulation, respiration, metabolism, secretion, body temperature, and reproduction.
  • 41. • The ANS is divided into two Divisions: • Sympathetic: Preganglionic neurons found in lateral horn of spinal cord from upper thoracic to mid-lumbar cord (T1-L3). Postganglionic cell bodies found in vertebral and prevertebral ganglia. Uses Noradrenalin as postganglionic transmitter. • Parasympathetic: Preganglionic neurons have cell bodies in the brainstem and sacrum. Postganglionic cell bodies are found adjacent to or within the walls of the organ they supply. Uses acetylcholine (Ach) as postganglionic transmitter.
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  • 43. 2.SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM The somatic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for carrying sensory and motor information to and from the central nervous system. The somatic nervous system derives its name from the Greek word soma, which means "body."[7]  Cranial and spinal nerves contribute to the somatic nervous system.  Cranial nerves provide voluntary motor control and sensation to the head and face.  Spinal nerves supply the trunk and limbs.  The posterior rami travel backwards to supply the vertebral column, vertebral muscles and skin of the back whilst the anterior rami supply the limbs and anterior trunk.  The majority of anterior rami combine to form nerve plexuses from which many major peripheral nerves stem.
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  • 45. Nervous plexuses are as follows: • C1-C4 form the cervical plexus • C5-T1 combine into the brachial plexus • T12-L4 form the lumbar plexus • L4 - S4 combine into the sacral plexus
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  • 49. SENSORY SYSTEM • The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information being where information is transmitted to the spinal cord and brain from peripheral sensory receptors. The sensory receptors are specialised neurons or nerve endings. • There are five main sensory systems in mammals. 1. touch/pressure 2. vision 3. hearing 4. balance 5. taste
  • 50. CONCLUSION • The nervous system helps all the parts of the body to communicate with each other. It also reacts to changes both outside and inside the body. The nervous system uses both electrical and chemical means to send and receive messages. • The nervous system is a very important asset to the body because of the role it plays in our normal functioning. The brain is the control tower of the body and the spinal cord is the body’s main message carrier so it is important that they are taken care of in an appropriate manner so as to prevent us from suffering losses or reductions of neurotransmitters that might bring about disorders that might limit our lifespans
  • 51. REFERENCES 1. Lewis. Medical Surgical Nursing Assessment and Management of clinicalproblems.2015. New Delhi. Elsevier. 2nd Edition. Volume II. Pg. no.1391- 1400 2. B.D Chaurasia, HUMAN ANATOMY Regional and applied dissection andclinical. 2010. New Delhi, CBS Publishers, 5th edition. Volume 3. Pg. no. 315-449. 3. KP. Neerja "a textbook of essential of psychiatric nursing" published by jaypee brothers. 4. Marry C. Townsend "a textbook of psychiatric mental health nursing" 6th edition. 5. http://www.wikipedia.org. 6. http://www.psychiatricnursing slideshare