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Overview of
                        Functional
                        Behavior
Cynthia Anderson, PhD
University of Oregon
                        Assessment
                        1
Comprehensive Supports
 Function-based Support

   Group Interventions w/function-based modifications

      Group Interventions
      •Teach problem solving skills
      •Teach social skills
      •Teach self monitoring skills
      •Increase structure and feedback



            Tier I/universal interventions
            •In all settings, for all students
            •Prevent development of problem behavior
            •Enhance pro-social behavior




                                           C. M. Anderson
                                           University of Oregon
Purpose of an FBA…What an
FBA is NOT
A  step to determining eligibility for SpEd
 Only for students with a SpEd label
 A specific form
 An outcome or goal
 An intervention




                                               C. M. Anderson
                                               University of Oregon
Purpose of FBA
 Define   what the student is doing/not
 doing
    What is the problem?
    What should the student be doing instead?
 Develop
        hypothesis useful for intervention
 development
    Events that evoke problem behavior
    Events that follow and maintain the
     response



                                             4   C. M. Anderson
                                                 University of Oregon
From FBA to BSP
1.   Schedule Meetings
     1.   FBA meetings
     2.   Support plan meeting
     3.   Follow-up meeting(s)
2.   Do prep work and conduct FBA
3.   Develop support plan
4.   Implement plan and collect data
5.   Follow-up: Evaluation and next steps


                                            5   C. M. Anderson
                                                University of Oregon
Begin with a Routines Analysis




                             6   C. M. Anderson
                                 University of Oregon
7   C. M. Anderson
    University of Oregon
Routines Analysis
 Routines    to identify
     Context in which the problem behavior
      does and does not occur
 Identifying   routines
     Obtain student schedule and rating of
      frequency of problem behavior
     Look for similarities in context across similar
      activities



                                                        8   C. M. Anderson
                                                            University of Oregon
9   C. M. Anderson
    University of Oregon
10 C. M. Anderson
    University of Oregon
11




Key Features of an FBA
1.   Obtain background Information relevant
     to current problem
2.   Operational definition of the problem
        Observable—what the student says or
         does
        Objective—avoid labels
3.   Consider examples and non-examples




                                               C. M. Anderson
                                               University of Oregon
12




Key Features of an FBA
1.   Background Information relevant to
     current problem
2.   Operational definition of target behavior
3.   Events that precede and follow target
     behavior
     1.   Consequences
     2.   Antecedents




                                                 C. M. Anderson
                                                 University of Oregon
13




Antecedents
 Target behavior occurs more often in
  presence of antecedent—why?
 Types of antecedent stimuli
    Discriminative stimuli (triggers)
    Setting events




                                         C. M. Anderson
                                         University of Oregon
Identifying Environmental Events
 Focus on events outside the person
 Look for the simple explanation first
     Proximal versus distal events
     Look outside the person
     Key questions to pin-point events
       Antecedents
       Consequences




                                          14   C. M. Anderson
                                               University of Oregon
Identify Antecedents
 What happens immediately before the behavior?
 Be very specific
    Who
    What tasks or activities
 Probe   questions
    If you were going to do one thing to make it REALLY
     likely the problem happened, what would it be?
    If I did _____________ ten times, how many times
     would problem behavior occur?
    Does ____ever happen when [this event] does not
     occur?


                                                   15   C. M. Anderson
                                                        University of Oregon
Sample
 Brandi’s teacher says, “swearing always occurs when
   she is asked to work on multi-digit math problems by
   herself.”
1. What do you think the trigger is?
2. Are there other possibilities and if so, what?
3. What “test” questions could you ask?
 1.        What is the one thing I could do to make it virtually
           ensured that Brandi will swear?
 2.        What would happen if
      1.     you only gave her 1- or 2-digit math problems?
      2.     You let her work with her peers?
      3.     You sat beside her while she worked?

                                                              C. M. Anderson
                                                              University of Oregon
Check for Understanding &
      Fluency
 Seva reportedly makes faces whenever the teacher’s
   back is turned
1. What do you think the trigger is?
2. Are there other possibilities and if so, what?
3. What “test” questions could you ask?
 1.        What is the one thing I could do to make it virtually
           ensured that Satish makes faces?
 2.        What would happen if
      1.     There were no other students around?
      2.     You kept your eyes on the class the entire class period?
      3.     You worked at the board most of the class period?
      4.     Students worked in groups while you were at the board?

                                                                C. M. Anderson
                                                                University of Oregon
Antecedents: Enough to Move
on?
 Do you clearly understand what does and
  does not evoke the problem behavior?
 Can you identify events you could
  change that would prevent the problem?




                                       18   C. M. Anderson
                                            University of Oregon
Identify the Consequence and
Function
 What happens immediately after the
 problem behavior?
    How do adults respond?
    How do peers respond?
    What does the student start or stop doing?
 Probes:
    Think of the last 10 times this behavior
     happened; how many times did X follow?
    Set up a test case



                                                19   C. M. Anderson
                                                     University of Oregon
Example
  Brandi’s teacher says, “swearing during
    multi-digit math is maintained by peer
    attention”
         **What role plays could you set up to test this?
         1. Manipulate peer attention
         Would Brandi still swear if no peers were around?

   If   disconfirmed then test other hypotheses




                                                        20   C. M. Anderson
                                                             University of Oregon
Identify the Function
 Why   is this behavior occurring?
    What is the student getting or avoiding?
 Whatpayoff do you think is most
 important to the student?




                                                21   C. M. Anderson
                                                     University of Oregon
Consequences: Enough to
Move on?
 Do I understand how the behavior is
  paying off/why the student is doing this?
 When considering antecedents AND
  consequences, does it make sense?




                                              22   C. M. Anderson
                                                   University of Oregon
Check for Understanding &
      Fluency
 Brandi’s teacher says, “swearing always occurs when
   asked to work on 3 or more digit math problems by
   herself. Her peers often giggle or laugh. Sometimes I
   ignore it and other times I tell her to stop. If it
   happens more than once in a class period she goes
   to the office.”
1. What do you think the reinforcer is?
2. Are there other possibilities and if so, what?
3. What “test” questions could you ask?
 1.    Would she swear if no one else was around?
 2.    Would she swear if you were not in the room—if not
       what would she do?
 3.    Does she keep working after she swears?
 4.    What happens when she is sent to the office?
                                                       C. M. Anderson
                                                       University of Oregon
Check for Understanding &
      Fluency
 Seva’s teacher says, “He makes fun of me whenever I
   am writing on the board. Of course the other kids
   think this is great and laugh a lot. Obviously he wants
   their attention but what can I do about that—they
   won’t stop just because I tell them to. “
1. What do you think the reinforcer is?
2. Are there other possibilities and if so, what?
3. What “test” questions could you ask?
 1.    Would Seva make faces if no other students were
       around and you were writing on the board?
 2.    Would Seva make faces if all the other students
       ignored him?
 3.    What do YOU do when Seva makes faces?

                                                     C. M. Anderson
                                                     University of Oregon
Check for Understanding &
      Fluency
 Reece often doodles instead of completing his writing
  assignment. He sometimes shares his doodles with
  peers—he is a pretty good artist. Sometimes his
  teacher prompts him back to work and other times
  she just ignores him.
1. What do you think the reinforcer is?
2. Are there other possibilities and if so, what?
3. What “test” questions could you ask?
 1.    Would Reece doodle if he was by himself in the room
       with his work?
 2.    Would Reece doodle if he had a task he really liked to
       do—say an art assignment?
 3.    What does Reece do when you tell him to get back to
       work? For how long will he return to his assignments?
 4.    What do peers do when he shows his drawings?
                                                        C. M. Anderson
                                                        University of Oregon
Are Setting Events Involved?
 Tips
     Typically not present just before the behavior
     Often difficult to identify/be careful of
      speculation
     If event doesn’t come and go it isn’t a setting
      event
 Probes
     If this (setting event) didn’t occur, is it possible
      the behavior will occur anyway?



                                                        26   C. M. Anderson
                                                             University of Oregon
27




     C. M. Anderson
     University of Oregon
28




Consideration of Person &
Contextual Variables is Important
  Not about behavioral function
  Factors may influence intervention choices




                                                C. M. Anderson
                                                University of Oregon
Last Step: Summary Statement
 Testablehypothesis
 Must be clear enough to inform:
    Events that reliably evoke behavior
    Function of behavior
    What interventions can be used to prevent
     and reduce problem behavior?




                                             29   C. M. Anderson
                                                  University of Oregon
Hypothesis about Functional Relation
     Antecedents
         Setting events
         Immediate triggers
     Consequences
         Immediate consequences
         Distal consequences




                                   30   C. M. Anderson
                                        University of Oregon
G&C

      31 C. M. Anderson
          University of Oregon
32




Problem-Solving
 Insmall groups, identify your biggest
  challenges around FBA and write them
  down
 Identify potential solutions
 Unsolved problems: send up a group
  member to share with Cindy/Terry
 Group problem solving




                                          C. M. Anderson
                                          University of Oregon
33
http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~spsy/        canders@uoregon.edu




                                                      C. M. Anderson
                                                      University of Oregon

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Overview of FBA (Implementer's Forum 2011)

  • 1. Overview of Functional Behavior Cynthia Anderson, PhD University of Oregon Assessment 1
  • 2. Comprehensive Supports Function-based Support Group Interventions w/function-based modifications Group Interventions •Teach problem solving skills •Teach social skills •Teach self monitoring skills •Increase structure and feedback Tier I/universal interventions •In all settings, for all students •Prevent development of problem behavior •Enhance pro-social behavior C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 3. Purpose of an FBA…What an FBA is NOT A step to determining eligibility for SpEd  Only for students with a SpEd label  A specific form  An outcome or goal  An intervention C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 4. Purpose of FBA  Define what the student is doing/not doing  What is the problem?  What should the student be doing instead?  Develop hypothesis useful for intervention development  Events that evoke problem behavior  Events that follow and maintain the response 4 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 5. From FBA to BSP 1. Schedule Meetings 1. FBA meetings 2. Support plan meeting 3. Follow-up meeting(s) 2. Do prep work and conduct FBA 3. Develop support plan 4. Implement plan and collect data 5. Follow-up: Evaluation and next steps 5 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 6. Begin with a Routines Analysis 6 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 7. 7 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 8. Routines Analysis  Routines to identify  Context in which the problem behavior does and does not occur  Identifying routines  Obtain student schedule and rating of frequency of problem behavior  Look for similarities in context across similar activities 8 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 9. 9 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 10. 10 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 11. 11 Key Features of an FBA 1. Obtain background Information relevant to current problem 2. Operational definition of the problem  Observable—what the student says or does  Objective—avoid labels 3. Consider examples and non-examples C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 12. 12 Key Features of an FBA 1. Background Information relevant to current problem 2. Operational definition of target behavior 3. Events that precede and follow target behavior 1. Consequences 2. Antecedents C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 13. 13 Antecedents  Target behavior occurs more often in presence of antecedent—why?  Types of antecedent stimuli  Discriminative stimuli (triggers)  Setting events C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 14. Identifying Environmental Events  Focus on events outside the person  Look for the simple explanation first  Proximal versus distal events  Look outside the person  Key questions to pin-point events  Antecedents  Consequences 14 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 15. Identify Antecedents  What happens immediately before the behavior?  Be very specific  Who  What tasks or activities  Probe questions  If you were going to do one thing to make it REALLY likely the problem happened, what would it be?  If I did _____________ ten times, how many times would problem behavior occur?  Does ____ever happen when [this event] does not occur? 15 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 16. Sample Brandi’s teacher says, “swearing always occurs when she is asked to work on multi-digit math problems by herself.” 1. What do you think the trigger is? 2. Are there other possibilities and if so, what? 3. What “test” questions could you ask? 1. What is the one thing I could do to make it virtually ensured that Brandi will swear? 2. What would happen if 1. you only gave her 1- or 2-digit math problems? 2. You let her work with her peers? 3. You sat beside her while she worked? C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 17. Check for Understanding & Fluency Seva reportedly makes faces whenever the teacher’s back is turned 1. What do you think the trigger is? 2. Are there other possibilities and if so, what? 3. What “test” questions could you ask? 1. What is the one thing I could do to make it virtually ensured that Satish makes faces? 2. What would happen if 1. There were no other students around? 2. You kept your eyes on the class the entire class period? 3. You worked at the board most of the class period? 4. Students worked in groups while you were at the board? C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 18. Antecedents: Enough to Move on?  Do you clearly understand what does and does not evoke the problem behavior?  Can you identify events you could change that would prevent the problem? 18 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 19. Identify the Consequence and Function  What happens immediately after the problem behavior?  How do adults respond?  How do peers respond?  What does the student start or stop doing?  Probes:  Think of the last 10 times this behavior happened; how many times did X follow?  Set up a test case 19 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 20. Example Brandi’s teacher says, “swearing during multi-digit math is maintained by peer attention” **What role plays could you set up to test this? 1. Manipulate peer attention Would Brandi still swear if no peers were around?  If disconfirmed then test other hypotheses 20 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 21. Identify the Function  Why is this behavior occurring?  What is the student getting or avoiding?  Whatpayoff do you think is most important to the student? 21 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 22. Consequences: Enough to Move on?  Do I understand how the behavior is paying off/why the student is doing this?  When considering antecedents AND consequences, does it make sense? 22 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 23. Check for Understanding & Fluency Brandi’s teacher says, “swearing always occurs when asked to work on 3 or more digit math problems by herself. Her peers often giggle or laugh. Sometimes I ignore it and other times I tell her to stop. If it happens more than once in a class period she goes to the office.” 1. What do you think the reinforcer is? 2. Are there other possibilities and if so, what? 3. What “test” questions could you ask? 1. Would she swear if no one else was around? 2. Would she swear if you were not in the room—if not what would she do? 3. Does she keep working after she swears? 4. What happens when she is sent to the office? C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 24. Check for Understanding & Fluency Seva’s teacher says, “He makes fun of me whenever I am writing on the board. Of course the other kids think this is great and laugh a lot. Obviously he wants their attention but what can I do about that—they won’t stop just because I tell them to. “ 1. What do you think the reinforcer is? 2. Are there other possibilities and if so, what? 3. What “test” questions could you ask? 1. Would Seva make faces if no other students were around and you were writing on the board? 2. Would Seva make faces if all the other students ignored him? 3. What do YOU do when Seva makes faces? C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 25. Check for Understanding & Fluency Reece often doodles instead of completing his writing assignment. He sometimes shares his doodles with peers—he is a pretty good artist. Sometimes his teacher prompts him back to work and other times she just ignores him. 1. What do you think the reinforcer is? 2. Are there other possibilities and if so, what? 3. What “test” questions could you ask? 1. Would Reece doodle if he was by himself in the room with his work? 2. Would Reece doodle if he had a task he really liked to do—say an art assignment? 3. What does Reece do when you tell him to get back to work? For how long will he return to his assignments? 4. What do peers do when he shows his drawings? C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 26. Are Setting Events Involved?  Tips  Typically not present just before the behavior  Often difficult to identify/be careful of speculation  If event doesn’t come and go it isn’t a setting event  Probes  If this (setting event) didn’t occur, is it possible the behavior will occur anyway? 26 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 27. 27 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 28. 28 Consideration of Person & Contextual Variables is Important  Not about behavioral function  Factors may influence intervention choices C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 29. Last Step: Summary Statement  Testablehypothesis  Must be clear enough to inform:  Events that reliably evoke behavior  Function of behavior  What interventions can be used to prevent and reduce problem behavior? 29 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 30. Hypothesis about Functional Relation  Antecedents  Setting events  Immediate triggers  Consequences  Immediate consequences  Distal consequences 30 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 31. G&C 31 C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 32. 32 Problem-Solving  Insmall groups, identify your biggest challenges around FBA and write them down  Identify potential solutions  Unsolved problems: send up a group member to share with Cindy/Terry  Group problem solving C. M. Anderson University of Oregon
  • 33. 33 http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~spsy/ canders@uoregon.edu C. M. Anderson University of Oregon