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OVARIAN CANCER
CHIDIEBERE JOHN UMA
Anatomy and physiology
2
female organs (glands producing sex hormones and the
ova)
size: One ovary is long, 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick
Shape: almond shape.
Location: on each side of the uterus in pelvice.
Introduction
 Ovarian cancer accounts for 3–4% of cancer in women
 And is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer-related death in females
in the United States
 In the year 2005, an estimated 22,000 new ovarian cancer cases were
diagnosed in the United States and 16,000 patients succumbed to the
disease.
 Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecologic malignancy,
endometrial cancer being the most common, but is the most common
cause of death among women who develop a gynecologic malignancy.
 In general, ovarian cancer is a disease of the postmenopausal woman, with
the highest incidence among patients ages 65–74 year .
Risk Factors
Family
History
Ethnicity
Reproductio
n
others
Family History
 The strongest risk factor
 A women with a single first-degree relative with ov.Ca has a relative
risk (RR) of approximately 3.6 for developing ov.ca compared with
general population
 Her life time risk approx. 5%
 5-10% of ov.ca are linked to identifiable, inherited mutations in
certain genes
 Families in which three or more first-degree relatives have ovarian
or ovarian plus breast cancer are likley to have a cancer-
susceptibility genetic mutation that is transmitted in an autosomal-
dominant inheritance pattern
Family History
 Three familial ovarian cancer syndromes:-
1- The site specific ovarian ov.ca syndrome
# only ov.ca is seen
# account for 10-15% of hereditary ov.ca.
2- The hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndrome
#associated with 65-75% of hereditary ov.ca.
3- the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (HNPCC),
affected individuals may have colon, endometrial, breast, ovarian or
other cancers
Ethnicity
 Higher in white women
 Higher in north America and northern Europe than Japan
 Difference related to genetics, diet, or environmental exposure or a
combination
 BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are more common among white women
of Ashkenazi descent
 Incidence of ov.ca is higher in countries with higher in countries
with higher per capita consumption of animal fat
Reproduction factors
 Nulliparous
 First childbirth after age 35 years
 Involuntary infertility
 Late menopause and early menarche
 Pts. With prolonged period or uninterrupted ovulation
Others
 Exogenous hormones :- HRT
 Dietary factors , Diets high in saturated animal fats seem to confer
an increased risk by unknown mechanisms … Japanese women who
move to the United States have an increased ovarian cancer risk.
# Japanese women who move to the United States have an
increased ovarian cancer risk.
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
Protective Factors
 Multiparity: First pregnancy before age 30
 Oral contraceptives: 5 years of use cuts risk nearly in half
 Tubal ligation
 Hysterectomy
 Bilateral oopherectomy
 Lactation
 Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence suggest a potential role for
retinoids , vitamin D, NSAIDs as preventive agents for ovarian
cancer
Pathology
 Ovarian cancer can be divided into three major categories based on
the cell type of origin .
 The ovary may also be the site of metastatic disease by primary
cancer from another organ site.
 Unlike carcinomas of the cervix and endometrium, precursor lesions
of ovarian carcinoma have not been defined.
Pathology
 Major Histopathologic Categories of Ovarian Cancer
1- Epithelial
Serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, transitional cell (Brenner),
undifferentiated
2- Germ Cell
Dysgerminoma, endodermal sinus tumor, teratoma (immature,
mature, specialized), embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma,
gonadoblastoma, mixed germ cell, polyembryona
3- Sex Cord and Stromal
Granulosa cell tumor, bibroma, thecoma Sertoli-Leydig cell,
gynandroblastoma
Pathology
 Major Histopathologic Categories of Ovarian Cancer
4- Neoplasms Metastatic to the Ovary
Breast, colon, stomach, endometrium, lymphoma
Pathogenesis
 Ovarian carcinogenesis can be divided into two broad phases:
1- malignant transformation
Benign borderline  malignant ovarian tumors.
2- peritoneal dissemination
** Now do not appear to be valid for the majority of
ovarian cancers
Pathogenesis
New model of ovarian carcinogenesis :-
Surface epithelial tumors divides into two broad categories: Type I and
Type II
based on their clinico-pathologic features and characteristic molecular
genetic changes
Pathogenesis
Type 2Type 1
High gradeLow grade
Arise “de novo”Arise from precursor lesion in a stepwise
fashion
- Cystadenoma
- Borderline tumor
Typically present in advanced stageTypically present in stage I
Rapid growing, aggressiveSlow growing, indolent
Often remains low grade
E.g.
High grade serous
E.g.
Low grade micropapillary
Mucinous
Clear cell
endometroid
Types of ovarian cancer
The ovaries contain 3 main kinds of cells:
1. Epithelial
2. Germ cells
3. Stromal cells
Each of these cells can develop into different
type of tumors.
Subsequently there are 3 main types of ovarian tumours:
1. Epithelial tumours
2. Germ cell tumours
3. Stromal tumours
17
Epithelial ovarian tumours
 Benign epithelial ovarian tumours
 Tumours of low malignant potential
 Malignant epithelial ovarian tumor
18
Germ cell tumors
 Less than 2% of Ovarian Cancers are germ cell tumors.
 9 out of 10 patients surviving at least 5 years after diagnosis.
Types of Germ Cell Tumors
 Teratoma
 Dysgerminoma
 Endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor).
19
Stromal tumours
 About 1% of ovarian cancers are ovarian stromal cell tumors.
 More than half of stromal tumors are found in women older than 50, but about 5% of
stromal tumors occur in young girls.
 The most common symptom of these tumors is abnormal vaginal bleeding.
 sudden, severe, abdominal pain. This occurs if the tumor starts to bleed.
20
Symptoms
Early symptoms of ovarian cancer:
•Pain in the pelvis
•Pain on the lower side of the body
•Back pain
•Indigestion or heartburn
•More frequent and urgent urination
•Pain during sexual intercourse
As ovarian cancer progresses these symptoms are also possible:
•Nausea, Weight loss, Breathlessness, Fatigue (tiredness)
•Loss of appetite
21
Stages
stage:1
22
Stage:223
Stage: 324
Stage:425
 Ovarian cancer typically develops as an insidious disease, with few
warning signs or symptoms. Most neoplastic ovarian tumors
produce few symptoms until the disease is widely disseminated
throughout the abdominal cavity.
 A history of nonspecific gastrointestinal complaints, including :
nausea, dyspepsia, and altered bowel habits, is particularly common
 abdominal distention as a result of ascites are generally signs of
advanced disease.
 A change in bowel habits, such as constipation and decreased stool
caliber, is occasionally noted. Large tumors may cause a sensation
of pelvic weight or pressure.
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Rarely, an ovarian tumor may become incarcerated in the cul-de-
sac and cause severe pain, urinary retention, rectal discomfort,
bowel obstruction.
 Menstrual abnormalities may be noted in as many as 15% of
reproductive-age patients with an ovarian neoplasm
 vaginal bleeding may occur in patients with ovarian cancer in the
presence of a synchronous endometrial carcinoma or as a
consequence of metastatic disease to the lower genital tract.
 Ovarian stromal hyperplasia or hyperthecosis also may be
associated with excess androgen production, which alters the
normal menstrual cycle.
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 On Physical Examination ,,
1. General examination
2. Abdominal examination :- Abdominal distention is one of the more
common findings. The presence of flank fullness and shifting
dullness implies the presence of ascites or a large pelvic-
abdominal mass , Recent eversion of the umbilicus
3. Lymph Node examination :- the supraclavicular and inguinal areas ,
Sister Mary Joseph's nodule refers to a metastatic implant in the
umbilicus.
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 On Physical Examination ,,
4. Pelvic examination :- A careful and thorough pelvic examination
provides many helpful clues regarding the etiology of a pelvic mass.
# Benign mass :- Mobile , smooth , cystic , unilateral
#malignant mass :- fixed , irregular , sold or firm , bilateral.
 If I find a mass …. What could be else !!!!
Endometrioma , Fibroid , Functional cyst , Ectopic pregnancy
, Dermoid tumor (younger women)
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
Tumor Markers :-
an antigenic determinant on a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein
recognized by the murine monoclonal antibody OC-125
 upper limit of normal- 35 U/mL.
 In postmenopausal women :- lower cutoffs, 20 U/mL
 85% of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have >35 U/mL.
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
Tumor Markers :-
 CA125 can be elevated :-
1. less frequently elevated in mucinous, clear cell, and borderline
tumors compared to serous tumors.
2. in other malignancies (pancreas, breast, colon, and lung cancer)
3. in benign conditions and physiological states such as pregnancy,
endometriosis, and menstruation.
Many of these nonmalignant conditions are not found in postmenopausal women,
improving the diagnostic accuracy of elevated CA125 in this population.
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
Tumor Markers :-
 One of the limitations of CA125 is that 15% to 20% of ovarian
cancers do not express the antigen.
 Though FDA approved, NCCN does not recommend use of
biomarkers including CA-125 for estimating risk of cancer in case
pelvic mass.
 LDH (lactate dehydrogenase)— dysgerminoma
 HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)– choriocarcinoma.
 AFP (alpha fetal protein)-- endodermal sinus tumors
 Other routine tests ( CBC , LFT , RFT , CXR )
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
 Initial imaging modality of choice
# for benign vs malignant
 that US detects more stage I ovarian
carcinomas than CA125 levels and
physical examination
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
benign :- smooth, thin walls; few, thin septations;
absence of solid components or mural nodularity.
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
 mural nodules, mural thickening or irregularity,
solid components, thick septations (3 mm) and
associated findings such as ascites, peritoneal
implants, and/or hydronephrosis suggest
malignancy
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
TVS is significantly more accurate
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
Computed Tomography
 Not the study of choice to
evaluate a suspected ovarian lesion.
 the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CT for characterizing
benign versus malignant lesions are reported to be 89%, 96% to
99%, and 92% to 94%, respectively.
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
Computed Tomography
 On CT, ovarian cancer demonstrates varied morphologic patterns,
including a multilocular cyst with thick internal septations and solid
mural or septal components, a partially cystic and solid mass, and
lobulated, papillary solid mass.
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
 Complementary to US in the evaluation of a suspected ovarian
lesion.
 As with CT, disease metastatic to the ovary is often
indistinguishable from primary ovarian cancer on MRI scans
 both the colon and the stomach should be examined as potential
primary tumor sites if an ovarian mass is detected.
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
 Several studies have compared MRI to CT and US for
adnexal masses, with mixed results
 Both TVS and MRI have high sensitivity (97% and 100%,
respectively) in the identification of solid components within an
adnexal mass.
MRI, however, shows higher specificity (98% vs. 46%)
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
 MRI was shown to be the most efficient second test when an
indeterminate ovarian mass was detected at US.
 high cost of MRI precludes its use as a screening modality.
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
 Investigations ,,
Positron Emission Tomography
 little clinical role in the primary detection of a pelvic mass
 Appears to be promising for its potential to detect tumor prior to
significant morphologic changes.
 US, CT, MRI, and FDG-PET all have a role to play in the accurate
staging of ovarian cancer.
 These modalities also play a role in the monitoring of therapy and
detection of recurrent disease.
Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
Staging …
Staging …
Staging …
 Stage IV. Distant metastatic disease
Malignant pleural effusion
Pulmonary parenchymal metastases
Liver or splenic parenchymal metastases (not surface implants)
Metastases to the supraclavicular lymph nodes or skin
Staging …
 Typical spread– omentum, peritoneal surfaces such as undersurface
of diaphragm, paracolic gutters and bowel serosa
 Lymphatics– follows bld supply thru infundibulopelvic lig to nodes
in para aortic region
 Drainage thru broad lig and parametrium– involves ext iliac,
obturator and hypogastric regions
 Along round lig– involves inguinal nodes
 Extra abd mets– pleura, liver , spleen, lung, bone and CNS
Metastasis …
 5-year survival rates for
stage I and stage II ovarian cancer are 80% to 90% and 70%,
respectively ;
for stages III and IV ranges from 5% to 30%.
 Only 25% diagnosed in Stage I
 In 1994, a NIH recommended that screening be offered to women
with ≥ 2 first-degree relatives with ovarian carcinoma.
 In practice, many women with a single first-degree relative are
enrolled in screening programs
Screening …
 Unfortunately, there are no good screening methods for ovarian
cancer at present;
most use a combination of physical exam, CA125 levels, and TVS.
No role of routine screening in general population .
Some follow women with high risk factors (e.g., family history,
BRCA mutation) using CA-125 and TVS.
Screening …
 Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI)
Most valuable clinical tool by combining serum CA125 values with
ultrasound findings and menopausal status to calculate a Risk of
Malignancy Index (RMI).
RMI = U x M x CA125
1. ultrasound result is scored 1 point for each of the following
characteristics: multilocular cysts, solid areas, metastases, ascites
and bilateral lesions.
2. menopausal status is scored as 1 = pre-menopausal and
menopausal
3. Serum CA125 in IU/ml and can vary between 0 and hundreds or
even thousands of units.
Screening …
 Complete surgical staging
 Optimal reductive surgery
 Chemotherapy
 Clinical Trials
Management …
 The treatment of ovarian cancer is based on the stage of the
disease which is a reflection of the extent or spread of the cancer to
other parts of the body.
 There are basically three forms of treatment of ovarian cancer:-
1. The primary one is surgery at which time the cancer is removed
from the ovary and from as many other sites as is possible
2. Chemotherapy is the second important modality.
3. radiation treatment, which is used in only certain instances. It
utilizes high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells.
Management …
 Surgery
 Surgery is the mainstay of both the diagnosis and the treatment of
ovarian cancer.
 A vertical incision is required for an adequate exploration of the
upper abdomen.
 The pelvis and upper abdomen are explored carefully to identify
metastatic disease.
 This is usually possible in the majority of stage I and stage II, but
impossible in advanced cases.
Management …
 Surgery
I. Complete hysterectomy & removal of tubes and ovaries
II. •Lymph node evaluation
III. •Omentectomy
IV. •Intestinal resection
V. •Peritoneal stripping/Tumor debulking
VI. •Conservative management for those desiring to preserve fertility
with early stage disease
Management …
 Chemotherapy
 Women with stage Ia or Ib and well or moderately differentiated
tumours will not require further treatment.
 All other patient with invasive ovarian carcinoma require
chemotherapy (stage II-IV –possibly stage Ic ).
 Drugs used are Carboplatin, cisplatin and taxol.
Management …
Radiation Therapy
 Currently, radiation therapy plays
a limited role in the treatment of
patients with epithelial ovarian cancer
mainly because of radiation damage
to the small bowel, liver, and kidneys.
 radiation therapy has been used successfully in the treatment of
patients with dysgerminoma .
Management …
Alternative Therapies
A number of alternative therapies have been applied for the
of epithelial ovarian cancer.
 Cytokines like interleukin-2 and interferon either alone or in
combination with chemotherapy have shown some promising
effects.
 Monoclonal antibodies directed against ovarian cancer-associated
antigens, including CA-125, HMFG (human milk-fat globulin)
Management …
Alternative Therapies
 Recently, antibodies against vascular epithelial growth factor
have shown efficacy in patients with ovarian cancer. Anti-VEGF
antibodies are currently being tested in combination with
carboplatin and paclitaxel in first-line chemotherapy for ovarian
cancer patients.
 Gene therapy trials have used different antitumor approaches,
including the delivery of tumor suppressor gene p53 via
recombinant adenovirus into the peritoneal cavities.
 The early trials have not shown significant clinical response, mainly
as a result of the inefficiency of intraperitoneal and intratumoral
gene transfer.
Management …
The prognosis for patients with ovarian cancer is primarily related to
the stage of disease.
 germ cell tumors are associated with better 5-year survival rates
than epithelial ovarian neoplasms.
 Patients with dysgerminoma have a 5-year survival rate of 95%.
 Immature teratomas are associated with 5-year survival rates of 70–
80%.
 endodermal sinus tumor is associated with a 5-year survival rate of
60–70%.
Prognosis …
 Embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and polyembryoma are
very rare lesions, and it is difficult to assess 5-year survival
estimates.
 Epithelial ovarian neoplasms of low malignancy potential are
characterized by 5-year survival rates of 95%
Prognosis …
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
dysgerminoma Immature teratomas endodermal sinus tumor Epithelial ovarian neoplasms
Five years survival rates
Conclusion
 Remember that although ovarian cancer is less common cancer it is
not silent and early diagnosis may save lives.
 Ovarian cancer has always been thought of as a symptomless disease,
but research has shown this to be untrue . There are symptoms ,
unfortunately they may be so subtle that they are attributed to other
benign conditions.
 However 81% of the respondents realize in observation that symptoms
existed before diagnosis, with these symptoms being confused with
irritable bowel syndrome, pre-menopause, stress acid-reflex,
endometriosis, gall bladder issues or other ailments.
 It is the time to BREAK THE SILENCE….. educate yourself and the
women you love !!!
63

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Ovarian cancer

  • 2. Anatomy and physiology 2 female organs (glands producing sex hormones and the ova) size: One ovary is long, 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick Shape: almond shape. Location: on each side of the uterus in pelvice.
  • 3. Introduction  Ovarian cancer accounts for 3–4% of cancer in women  And is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer-related death in females in the United States  In the year 2005, an estimated 22,000 new ovarian cancer cases were diagnosed in the United States and 16,000 patients succumbed to the disease.  Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecologic malignancy, endometrial cancer being the most common, but is the most common cause of death among women who develop a gynecologic malignancy.  In general, ovarian cancer is a disease of the postmenopausal woman, with the highest incidence among patients ages 65–74 year .
  • 5. Family History  The strongest risk factor  A women with a single first-degree relative with ov.Ca has a relative risk (RR) of approximately 3.6 for developing ov.ca compared with general population  Her life time risk approx. 5%  5-10% of ov.ca are linked to identifiable, inherited mutations in certain genes  Families in which three or more first-degree relatives have ovarian or ovarian plus breast cancer are likley to have a cancer- susceptibility genetic mutation that is transmitted in an autosomal- dominant inheritance pattern
  • 6. Family History  Three familial ovarian cancer syndromes:- 1- The site specific ovarian ov.ca syndrome # only ov.ca is seen # account for 10-15% of hereditary ov.ca. 2- The hereditary breast/ovarian cancer syndrome #associated with 65-75% of hereditary ov.ca. 3- the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (HNPCC), affected individuals may have colon, endometrial, breast, ovarian or other cancers
  • 7. Ethnicity  Higher in white women  Higher in north America and northern Europe than Japan  Difference related to genetics, diet, or environmental exposure or a combination  BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are more common among white women of Ashkenazi descent  Incidence of ov.ca is higher in countries with higher in countries with higher per capita consumption of animal fat
  • 8. Reproduction factors  Nulliparous  First childbirth after age 35 years  Involuntary infertility  Late menopause and early menarche  Pts. With prolonged period or uninterrupted ovulation
  • 9. Others  Exogenous hormones :- HRT  Dietary factors , Diets high in saturated animal fats seem to confer an increased risk by unknown mechanisms … Japanese women who move to the United States have an increased ovarian cancer risk. # Japanese women who move to the United States have an increased ovarian cancer risk. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
  • 10. Protective Factors  Multiparity: First pregnancy before age 30  Oral contraceptives: 5 years of use cuts risk nearly in half  Tubal ligation  Hysterectomy  Bilateral oopherectomy  Lactation  Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence suggest a potential role for retinoids , vitamin D, NSAIDs as preventive agents for ovarian cancer
  • 11. Pathology  Ovarian cancer can be divided into three major categories based on the cell type of origin .  The ovary may also be the site of metastatic disease by primary cancer from another organ site.  Unlike carcinomas of the cervix and endometrium, precursor lesions of ovarian carcinoma have not been defined.
  • 12. Pathology  Major Histopathologic Categories of Ovarian Cancer 1- Epithelial Serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, transitional cell (Brenner), undifferentiated 2- Germ Cell Dysgerminoma, endodermal sinus tumor, teratoma (immature, mature, specialized), embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, gonadoblastoma, mixed germ cell, polyembryona 3- Sex Cord and Stromal Granulosa cell tumor, bibroma, thecoma Sertoli-Leydig cell, gynandroblastoma
  • 13. Pathology  Major Histopathologic Categories of Ovarian Cancer 4- Neoplasms Metastatic to the Ovary Breast, colon, stomach, endometrium, lymphoma
  • 14. Pathogenesis  Ovarian carcinogenesis can be divided into two broad phases: 1- malignant transformation Benign borderline  malignant ovarian tumors. 2- peritoneal dissemination ** Now do not appear to be valid for the majority of ovarian cancers
  • 15. Pathogenesis New model of ovarian carcinogenesis :- Surface epithelial tumors divides into two broad categories: Type I and Type II based on their clinico-pathologic features and characteristic molecular genetic changes
  • 16. Pathogenesis Type 2Type 1 High gradeLow grade Arise “de novo”Arise from precursor lesion in a stepwise fashion - Cystadenoma - Borderline tumor Typically present in advanced stageTypically present in stage I Rapid growing, aggressiveSlow growing, indolent Often remains low grade E.g. High grade serous E.g. Low grade micropapillary Mucinous Clear cell endometroid
  • 17. Types of ovarian cancer The ovaries contain 3 main kinds of cells: 1. Epithelial 2. Germ cells 3. Stromal cells Each of these cells can develop into different type of tumors. Subsequently there are 3 main types of ovarian tumours: 1. Epithelial tumours 2. Germ cell tumours 3. Stromal tumours 17
  • 18. Epithelial ovarian tumours  Benign epithelial ovarian tumours  Tumours of low malignant potential  Malignant epithelial ovarian tumor 18
  • 19. Germ cell tumors  Less than 2% of Ovarian Cancers are germ cell tumors.  9 out of 10 patients surviving at least 5 years after diagnosis. Types of Germ Cell Tumors  Teratoma  Dysgerminoma  Endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor). 19
  • 20. Stromal tumours  About 1% of ovarian cancers are ovarian stromal cell tumors.  More than half of stromal tumors are found in women older than 50, but about 5% of stromal tumors occur in young girls.  The most common symptom of these tumors is abnormal vaginal bleeding.  sudden, severe, abdominal pain. This occurs if the tumor starts to bleed. 20
  • 21. Symptoms Early symptoms of ovarian cancer: •Pain in the pelvis •Pain on the lower side of the body •Back pain •Indigestion or heartburn •More frequent and urgent urination •Pain during sexual intercourse As ovarian cancer progresses these symptoms are also possible: •Nausea, Weight loss, Breathlessness, Fatigue (tiredness) •Loss of appetite 21
  • 26.  Ovarian cancer typically develops as an insidious disease, with few warning signs or symptoms. Most neoplastic ovarian tumors produce few symptoms until the disease is widely disseminated throughout the abdominal cavity.  A history of nonspecific gastrointestinal complaints, including : nausea, dyspepsia, and altered bowel habits, is particularly common  abdominal distention as a result of ascites are generally signs of advanced disease.  A change in bowel habits, such as constipation and decreased stool caliber, is occasionally noted. Large tumors may cause a sensation of pelvic weight or pressure. Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 27.  Rarely, an ovarian tumor may become incarcerated in the cul-de- sac and cause severe pain, urinary retention, rectal discomfort, bowel obstruction.  Menstrual abnormalities may be noted in as many as 15% of reproductive-age patients with an ovarian neoplasm  vaginal bleeding may occur in patients with ovarian cancer in the presence of a synchronous endometrial carcinoma or as a consequence of metastatic disease to the lower genital tract.  Ovarian stromal hyperplasia or hyperthecosis also may be associated with excess androgen production, which alters the normal menstrual cycle. Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 28.  On Physical Examination ,, 1. General examination 2. Abdominal examination :- Abdominal distention is one of the more common findings. The presence of flank fullness and shifting dullness implies the presence of ascites or a large pelvic- abdominal mass , Recent eversion of the umbilicus 3. Lymph Node examination :- the supraclavicular and inguinal areas , Sister Mary Joseph's nodule refers to a metastatic implant in the umbilicus. Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 29.  On Physical Examination ,, 4. Pelvic examination :- A careful and thorough pelvic examination provides many helpful clues regarding the etiology of a pelvic mass. # Benign mass :- Mobile , smooth , cystic , unilateral #malignant mass :- fixed , irregular , sold or firm , bilateral.  If I find a mass …. What could be else !!!! Endometrioma , Fibroid , Functional cyst , Ectopic pregnancy , Dermoid tumor (younger women) Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 30.  Investigations ,, Tumor Markers :- an antigenic determinant on a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein recognized by the murine monoclonal antibody OC-125  upper limit of normal- 35 U/mL.  In postmenopausal women :- lower cutoffs, 20 U/mL  85% of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have >35 U/mL. Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 31.  Investigations ,, Tumor Markers :-  CA125 can be elevated :- 1. less frequently elevated in mucinous, clear cell, and borderline tumors compared to serous tumors. 2. in other malignancies (pancreas, breast, colon, and lung cancer) 3. in benign conditions and physiological states such as pregnancy, endometriosis, and menstruation. Many of these nonmalignant conditions are not found in postmenopausal women, improving the diagnostic accuracy of elevated CA125 in this population. Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 32.  Investigations ,, Tumor Markers :-  One of the limitations of CA125 is that 15% to 20% of ovarian cancers do not express the antigen.  Though FDA approved, NCCN does not recommend use of biomarkers including CA-125 for estimating risk of cancer in case pelvic mass.  LDH (lactate dehydrogenase)— dysgerminoma  HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)– choriocarcinoma.  AFP (alpha fetal protein)-- endodermal sinus tumors  Other routine tests ( CBC , LFT , RFT , CXR ) Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 33.  Investigations ,,  Initial imaging modality of choice # for benign vs malignant  that US detects more stage I ovarian carcinomas than CA125 levels and physical examination Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 34.  Investigations ,, benign :- smooth, thin walls; few, thin septations; absence of solid components or mural nodularity. Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 35.  Investigations ,,  mural nodules, mural thickening or irregularity, solid components, thick septations (3 mm) and associated findings such as ascites, peritoneal implants, and/or hydronephrosis suggest malignancy Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 36.  Investigations ,, TVS is significantly more accurate Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 37.  Investigations ,, Computed Tomography  Not the study of choice to evaluate a suspected ovarian lesion.  the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CT for characterizing benign versus malignant lesions are reported to be 89%, 96% to 99%, and 92% to 94%, respectively. Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 38.  Investigations ,, Computed Tomography  On CT, ovarian cancer demonstrates varied morphologic patterns, including a multilocular cyst with thick internal septations and solid mural or septal components, a partially cystic and solid mass, and lobulated, papillary solid mass. Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 39.  Investigations ,, Magnetic Resonance Imaging  Complementary to US in the evaluation of a suspected ovarian lesion.  As with CT, disease metastatic to the ovary is often indistinguishable from primary ovarian cancer on MRI scans  both the colon and the stomach should be examined as potential primary tumor sites if an ovarian mass is detected. Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 40.  Investigations ,, Magnetic Resonance Imaging  Several studies have compared MRI to CT and US for adnexal masses, with mixed results  Both TVS and MRI have high sensitivity (97% and 100%, respectively) in the identification of solid components within an adnexal mass. MRI, however, shows higher specificity (98% vs. 46%) Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 41.  Investigations ,, Magnetic Resonance Imaging  MRI was shown to be the most efficient second test when an indeterminate ovarian mass was detected at US.  high cost of MRI precludes its use as a screening modality. Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 42.  Investigations ,, Positron Emission Tomography  little clinical role in the primary detection of a pelvic mass  Appears to be promising for its potential to detect tumor prior to significant morphologic changes.  US, CT, MRI, and FDG-PET all have a role to play in the accurate staging of ovarian cancer.  These modalities also play a role in the monitoring of therapy and detection of recurrent disease. Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation
  • 46.  Stage IV. Distant metastatic disease Malignant pleural effusion Pulmonary parenchymal metastases Liver or splenic parenchymal metastases (not surface implants) Metastases to the supraclavicular lymph nodes or skin Staging …
  • 47.  Typical spread– omentum, peritoneal surfaces such as undersurface of diaphragm, paracolic gutters and bowel serosa  Lymphatics– follows bld supply thru infundibulopelvic lig to nodes in para aortic region  Drainage thru broad lig and parametrium– involves ext iliac, obturator and hypogastric regions  Along round lig– involves inguinal nodes  Extra abd mets– pleura, liver , spleen, lung, bone and CNS Metastasis …
  • 48.  5-year survival rates for stage I and stage II ovarian cancer are 80% to 90% and 70%, respectively ; for stages III and IV ranges from 5% to 30%.  Only 25% diagnosed in Stage I  In 1994, a NIH recommended that screening be offered to women with ≥ 2 first-degree relatives with ovarian carcinoma.  In practice, many women with a single first-degree relative are enrolled in screening programs Screening …
  • 49.  Unfortunately, there are no good screening methods for ovarian cancer at present; most use a combination of physical exam, CA125 levels, and TVS. No role of routine screening in general population . Some follow women with high risk factors (e.g., family history, BRCA mutation) using CA-125 and TVS. Screening …
  • 50.  Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) Most valuable clinical tool by combining serum CA125 values with ultrasound findings and menopausal status to calculate a Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI). RMI = U x M x CA125 1. ultrasound result is scored 1 point for each of the following characteristics: multilocular cysts, solid areas, metastases, ascites and bilateral lesions. 2. menopausal status is scored as 1 = pre-menopausal and menopausal 3. Serum CA125 in IU/ml and can vary between 0 and hundreds or even thousands of units. Screening …
  • 51.  Complete surgical staging  Optimal reductive surgery  Chemotherapy  Clinical Trials Management …
  • 52.  The treatment of ovarian cancer is based on the stage of the disease which is a reflection of the extent or spread of the cancer to other parts of the body.  There are basically three forms of treatment of ovarian cancer:- 1. The primary one is surgery at which time the cancer is removed from the ovary and from as many other sites as is possible 2. Chemotherapy is the second important modality. 3. radiation treatment, which is used in only certain instances. It utilizes high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells. Management …
  • 53.  Surgery  Surgery is the mainstay of both the diagnosis and the treatment of ovarian cancer.  A vertical incision is required for an adequate exploration of the upper abdomen.  The pelvis and upper abdomen are explored carefully to identify metastatic disease.  This is usually possible in the majority of stage I and stage II, but impossible in advanced cases. Management …
  • 54.  Surgery I. Complete hysterectomy & removal of tubes and ovaries II. •Lymph node evaluation III. •Omentectomy IV. •Intestinal resection V. •Peritoneal stripping/Tumor debulking VI. •Conservative management for those desiring to preserve fertility with early stage disease Management …
  • 55.  Chemotherapy  Women with stage Ia or Ib and well or moderately differentiated tumours will not require further treatment.  All other patient with invasive ovarian carcinoma require chemotherapy (stage II-IV –possibly stage Ic ).  Drugs used are Carboplatin, cisplatin and taxol. Management …
  • 56. Radiation Therapy  Currently, radiation therapy plays a limited role in the treatment of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer mainly because of radiation damage to the small bowel, liver, and kidneys.  radiation therapy has been used successfully in the treatment of patients with dysgerminoma . Management …
  • 57. Alternative Therapies A number of alternative therapies have been applied for the of epithelial ovarian cancer.  Cytokines like interleukin-2 and interferon either alone or in combination with chemotherapy have shown some promising effects.  Monoclonal antibodies directed against ovarian cancer-associated antigens, including CA-125, HMFG (human milk-fat globulin) Management …
  • 58. Alternative Therapies  Recently, antibodies against vascular epithelial growth factor have shown efficacy in patients with ovarian cancer. Anti-VEGF antibodies are currently being tested in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel in first-line chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients.  Gene therapy trials have used different antitumor approaches, including the delivery of tumor suppressor gene p53 via recombinant adenovirus into the peritoneal cavities.  The early trials have not shown significant clinical response, mainly as a result of the inefficiency of intraperitoneal and intratumoral gene transfer. Management …
  • 59. The prognosis for patients with ovarian cancer is primarily related to the stage of disease.  germ cell tumors are associated with better 5-year survival rates than epithelial ovarian neoplasms.  Patients with dysgerminoma have a 5-year survival rate of 95%.  Immature teratomas are associated with 5-year survival rates of 70– 80%.  endodermal sinus tumor is associated with a 5-year survival rate of 60–70%. Prognosis …
  • 60.  Embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and polyembryoma are very rare lesions, and it is difficult to assess 5-year survival estimates.  Epithelial ovarian neoplasms of low malignancy potential are characterized by 5-year survival rates of 95% Prognosis …
  • 61. 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 dysgerminoma Immature teratomas endodermal sinus tumor Epithelial ovarian neoplasms Five years survival rates
  • 62.
  • 63. Conclusion  Remember that although ovarian cancer is less common cancer it is not silent and early diagnosis may save lives.  Ovarian cancer has always been thought of as a symptomless disease, but research has shown this to be untrue . There are symptoms , unfortunately they may be so subtle that they are attributed to other benign conditions.  However 81% of the respondents realize in observation that symptoms existed before diagnosis, with these symptoms being confused with irritable bowel syndrome, pre-menopause, stress acid-reflex, endometriosis, gall bladder issues or other ailments.  It is the time to BREAK THE SILENCE….. educate yourself and the women you love !!! 63