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OUŚHAḌHA SEVANA
KĀLA
- AN AYURVEDIC APPROACH
GUIDED BY
DR DEEPA M S
PRESENTED BY
DR MADHUBALA
GOPINATH
CONTENTS
A REFERENCES J.3 MADHYE BHAKTA
B INTRODUCTION (3) J.4 PASCHAT BHAKTA –
• PRATA PASCHAT BHAKTA
• SAYAM PASCHAT BHAKTA
C CLASSIFICATION (3) J.5 ANTARA BHAKTA
D SHAD AVEKSHA KALA (3) J.6 SA BHAKTA
E DEFINITION OF OUSHADHA SEVANA
KALA
J.7 GRASA
F SYNONYMS OF OUSHADHA SEVANA
KALA
J.8 GRASĀNTARA
G SEVANA KALA A/C TO CHARAKA J.9 SAMUDGA
H SEVANA KALA A/C TO SUSRUTA J.10 MUHURMUHU
I SEVANA KALA A/C TO
SHĀRANGADHARA
J.11 NISHI
J.1 NIRANNA (5)
REFERENCES
The general knowledge of Aushadha sevana kala is elaborated in the following
texts.
1. Charaka Samhita Chikitsa – Yoni vyapat chikitsa Adhyaya. (30)
2. Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra – Swasthavritta Adhyaya. (64)
3. Astanga Hridaya Sutrasthana – Doshopkramaniya Adhyaya. (13)
4. Astanga Hridaya Sutrasthana – Bheshaja avacharaneeya Adhyaya. (23)
5. Sharangadhara Samhita Poorvakhanda – Bhaishajyākhyanakam Adhyaya. (2)
Classification of Kala and its importance in disease management as follows.
INTRODUCTION
OUSHADA SEVANA KĀLA - importantprinciple to be considered while
treating a disease.
Still hardly a handful of physicians are seen who account for this.
Bhaiśhajya kāla is explained in relation with roga bala, rogi bala, particular
dosha, dooshya and various other factors.
The main dosha considered in oushadha sevana kala is Vāta.
INTRODUCTION
ꙮWhile treating the disease success can be achieved only when there is proper
combination of desha, kāla, pramana, sātmya, asātmya, pathya and apathya.
देशकालप्रमाणानाां सात्म्यासात्म्यस्य चैव हि।
सम्यग्योगो अन्यथा ह्येषाां पथ्यमप्यन्यथा भवेत्॥
(च.हच.30/293)
ꙮAmong these 7 most important factors, kāla acquires second position, which reflects
the importance of kāla in chikitsa. Here again kāla means,
ꙮहदनातुरौषधव्याहधजीणणहलङ्गर्त्णवेक्षणम्….|| (च.हच.30/294)
a. Shad āveksḥa kāla (six observatory aspects of time)
b. Daśha bheśhaja kāla (ten types of times for the administration of medicine)
CLASSIFICATION
Number of Bhaishajya Kaala
As per various Samhitakara (Authors), Aushadha Sevana Kala (time) have been
classified as below:
Charaka – 10 (Cha Chi 30 /298 )
Sushruta – 10 (Su Utt 64/65 )
Ashtanga Hrudya – 10 (AH su 13/37)
Ashtanga Sangraha – 11 (AS su 23/12)
Sharangdhara – 05 (Poorva 2/2)
Kashyapa – 10 (Ka sam ki 3/43)
युञ्ज्यादनन्नमन्नादौ मध्ये अन्ते कबलान्तरे।
ग्रासे ग्रासे मुहु: सान्नां सामुद्गां हनहश चौषधम्॥
(अ.ह्र.सू.13/37)
भैषयकालो भुक्तादौ मध्ये पश्चान्मुहुमुणहुुः।
सामुद्गां भक्तसांयुक्तां ग्रासग्रासान्तरे दश॥
(च. हच. 30/298)
अत ऊर्ध्वे दशौषधकालान् वक्ष्याम:।
तत्राभक्तां प्राग्भक्तमधोभक्तां मध्येभक्तमन्तराभक्तां सभक्तां सामुद्ग्ां मुहुमुणहुग्राणसां
ग्रासान्तरां चेहत दशौषधकाला: ॥
(सु.उ.64/ 65)
CLASSIFICATION
S.NO CHARAKA SUSRUTA A. HRUDAYA A. SANGRAHA SHARANGADHARA
1 BHUKTADAU -
1
ABHAKTA ANANNA ABHAKTA SOORYODAYE JATE
2 BHUKTADAU -
2
PRAGBHAKTA ANNADAU PRAGBHAKTA DIVASABHOJANE
3 MADHYE
BHAKTA
ADHOBHAKT
A
MADHYE MADHYE
BHAKTA
4 ADHO BHAKTA
-1
MADHYEBHAK
TA
ANTE ADHO BHAKTA SAYANTANA
BHOJANE
5 ADHOBHAKTA
-2
ANTARABHAK
TA
- ANTARA BHAKTA
6 SA BHAKTA SABHAKTA SA ANNAM SA BHAKTA
7 SAMUDGA SAMUDGA SAMUDGAM SAMUDGA
8 MUHURMUHU MUHURMUHU MUHUHU MUHURMUHU MUHU
10 10 10 11 5
SHAD AVEKSHA KAALA (1)
Consists of Dina, Rōgi, Aushadha, Vyādhi, Jeerna Laxana and Ritu
हदनातुरौषधव्याहधजीणणहलङ्गर्त्णवेक्षणम्।
(च.हच.30/296)
Dina (Different parts of the day)
It indicates particular part of the day, for example, Vamana Dravya (emetics) is to be
given in the early morning, that is, Purvahna.
Rōgi (Patient)
After assessing the strength of the patient, time of administration for medicine should
be selected. If the patient is having good strength, then medicine can be given in empty
stomach early in the morning. If the patient is weak, then medicine should be
administered along with wholesome food.
SHAD AVEKSHA KAALA (2)
Aushadha
Based on the Aushadha, ten kāla have been told.
They are Bhukthadau (before meals), Madhye (in the middle of the meals), Pratahapaschat
(after the morning meals), Sayampashchat (after the evening meals), Muhurmuhu (frequently),
Samudga (both before and after meals), Bhakta Samyukta (mixed with food), Grasa (with each
morsel), and Grasantara (between two morsels).
Vyādhi (disease)
Based on the Vyādhi also the Kāla is classified. For example: In Jwara (fever) every 6th day
(shadaha chikitsa)the medicine has to be changed like Peya (liquids), Kashaya (decoctions), Ksheera
(milk preparations), Sarpi (preparations of ghee), Virechana (purgation), respectively, depending on
the condition.
SHAD AVEKSHA KAALA (3)
Jeerna linga (stage of the digestion of the food)
The Jeerna Lakshanas should be assessed before administering the
medicine. Symptoms like hunger, appearance of Vega (natural urges),
expulsion of Mala (waste products), clear belching etc., indicate Jeerna
Lakshana.
Ritu (nature of the season)
Based on the Ritu, Kaala should be assessed by chaya (increase of
Dosha), prakopadi (excessive increase of dosha) lakshanas told for each
dosha.
DEFINITION
Proper time for administration of Aushadha is known as Bhaishajya Kaala.
‘AushadhaKālah – AushadhaSevanasya Samaye’
(vaidyaka shabda sinḍhu)
Tarka Sangraha tells that everything is dependent on Kaala.
The same statement can be extended in the context Bhaishajya Kaala too.
Kaala is the Nimitta Karana (reason) for all types of Kaarya (action), hence Aushadha
employed in a proper Kaala will result in expected kaarya.
SYNONYMS
1. Bhaishajya Kaala (Cha Chi/30)
2. Aushadha Kaala (Su. Utt/ 64 and A.H Su/13)
3. Bhaishajya grahana Kaala (Shar. Sam. P/2)
4. Aushadha Avacharana aala (A.S. Soo/23)
5. Agada Kaala (Cha Chi/30)
6. Aushadhavekshana Kaala (Cha Chi/30)
are the various synonyms used to indicate time of administration.
ACC. TO CHARAKA
S.NO AUSHADHAKALA INDICATION REMARKS
1 BHUKTADAU - 1 APANA VIKRUTI – BALAVAN
RUGNA
2 BHUKTADAU – 2 {NIRANNA - Included
in BHUKTADAU acc to CHAKRAPANI}
APANA VIKRUTI – DURBALA
RUGNA
WITH LAGHU
PATHYAAHARA
3 BHUKTA MADHYE SAMANA VIKRUTI
4- 5 BHUKTAPASCHAT
(a) After breakfast
(b) After dinner
VYANA VIKRUTI
UDANA VIKRUTI
6 MUHURMUHU SHWASA, KASA, TRSHṆA
7 SAMUDGA HIKKA
8 BHAKTASANYUKTA ARUCHI
9 SAGRĀSA PRANAVAYU VIKRUTI
10 GRĀSĀNTARE PRANAVAYU VIKRUTI
Mentions Niranna under bhuktadau. NISHI is
not mentioned in Charaka Samhita
ACC. TO SUSRUTA
S.NO AUSHADHAKALA INDICATION REMARKS
1 ABHAKTA -- C/I IN SUKUMARA, BALA,
VRUDHA
2 PRAGBHAKTA • SHEEGRAPAAKI
• NA VADANAT NIRETI
• SAFELY BE GIVEN IN
SUKUMARA, BALA, VRUDHA
3 ADHOBHAKTA URDHWASHAREERA GATA VYADHI,
BALYA
4 MADHYE
BHAKTA
KOSHTAGATA VYĀDHI, MADHYA
BHAGA ROGAS
5 ANTARA
BHAKTA
HRUDYA, DEEPANA,
MANOBALAVARDHAKA
6 SABHAKTA SHISHU, VRUDHA, BHOJANA DWESHI STREE RUGNA
7 SAMUDGA URDHWAGĀMI & ADHOGAMI DOSHA
8 MUHURMUHU SHWASA, KASA, HIKKA, VAMANA CAN BE SABHAKTA/ ABHAKTA
ACC. TO SHĀRANGADHARA
S.N
O
AUSHADHAKALA INDICATION REMARKS
1 PRATHAMA GRAHAṆA
KĀLA - SURYODAYA
JATAH
• PITTAJA VYĀDHI, KAPHAJA VYĀDHI
• VAMANA, VIRECHANA, LEKHANA
2 DWITEEYA KALA -
DIVASA BHOJANE
a) Bhojana poorva
b) Mishra bhojya
c) Bhojana Madhya
d) Bhojana Paschat
e) Poorvam Ante cha
Bhojanam
(Samudga)
a) APANA VIKRUTI
b) ARUCHI
c) SAMANA VIKRUTI – MANDAGNI etc.
d) VYAANA VIKRUTI
e) HIKKA, AKSHEPAKA, KAMPA
3 TRITEEYA KĀLA -
SAYAM BHOJANA
a) Grasaantare/ Grase
b) Bhojana Paschat
a) UDANA VIKRUTI – SWARABHANGA
etc.
b) PRANA VAYU VIKRUTI
4 CHATURTA KĀLA - TRUSHṆA, CHARDHI, HIKKA, SHWASA, MEDICINE CAN BE GIVEN
NIRANNA (ABHAKTA) – EMPTY STOMACH
pÉÑ£üÉSÉæ:A§É pÉÑ£üÉSÉæ CÌiÉ AlÉålÉ MüÉsɲrÉÇ
EcrÉiÉå rÉjÉÉ mÉëÉiÉUåuÉ ÌlÉU³ÉÇ iÉjÉÉ mÉëÉMç
pÉÉåeÉlÉÇ cÉ| [cÉ¢ümÉÉÍhÉ]
तत्राभक्तां तु यत् क
े वलमेवौषधमुपयुयते |
वीयाणहधक
ां भवहत भेषजमन्निीनां िन्यात्तथाऽऽमयमसांशयमाशु चैव |
तद्बालवृद्धवहनतामृदवस्तु पीर्त्ा ग्लाहनां पराां समुपयान्तन्त बलक्षयां च
||(Su.Ut. 64/)
कफोद्रेक
े गदे अनन्नां बहलनो रोगरोरहगणो:| (A.H.Soo
प्राय: पित्तकफोद्रेक
े हवरेकवमनाथणयो: | लेखनाथं च भैषयां
प्रभाते तत् समािरेत् | एवां स्यात् प्रथम:कालो भेषजग्रिणे नृणाां ||
(Sh.P. 2/2)
NIRANNA (ABHAKTA) – EMPTY STOMACH
Abhakta means administration of Aushadha alone.
Bheshaja is not mixed with food (यत् भक्तेन योगां न याहत) and is given on empty stomach.
Synonyms - Abhakta, Ananna, Nirbhukta, Suryodaye Jate.
(in relation to food) (in relation to Dina.)
Charaka mentions it along with pragbhakta – quoting bhuktadau
Hemadri says, food should be administered only after the medicine is completely digested - Kapha Udreka
Gata Kaala. (Kapha Kaala is one-third part of the day, and later half of this one-third part is Kapha Udreka Gata
Kaala.)
Indu says it should be after one Yaama (3hrs) after sunrise (याममात्रोद्गते रवौ). The medicine is administered in
the empty stomach when the Koshtha is devoid of Kapha Utklesha.
NIRANNA (ABHAKTA) – EMPTY STOMACH
Indications
1. Balavaan rogi and Balavat roga.
2. Pancha Vidha Kashaya Kalpanas (five basic formulations) - They are
heavy and need strong Agni to digest them.
3. Lekhanartha (scraping) and Utklishta Kapha Pitta: Kapha Udreka
Avastha Gata Kaala
NIRANNA (ABHAKTA) – (ON EMPTY
STOMACH)
Contraindications
1. Children
2. Aged
3. Pregnant women
4. Doshakshaya or Dhatukshaya avasta
NIRANNA (ABHAKTA) – (ON EMPTY
STOMACH)
Implications
Since there is no food- drug interaction, the drugs acts maximum effects and shows higher
potency.
Bheshaja veerya remains unchanged
Agni & Bheshaja - Interaction unobstructed due to absence of food.
This Kaala is also known as Rasaayana Kaala
Amashaya and strotasas are rikta of Kapha Bheshaja interacts directly with Agni, viz.
Jatharagni, Bhutagni and Dhatvagni Accomplishment of the Saptadhatu Prashastatva. So useful
for the Rasayana Sevana
e.g. Braahma Rasaayana (C. Chi. 1-1/41-57) should be given at this Kaala in Svaasa.
PRAGBHAKTA (BEFORE FOOD)
अिाने हवगुणे पूवं..| (Cha.Soo.30/)
प्राग्भक्तां नाम यत् प्राग्भक्तस्योपयुयते | शीघ्रां हवपाकमुपयाहत बलां न
PRAGBHAKTA (BEFORE FOOD)
The medicine is administered just before the intake of food.
Hemadricomments that aushadha intake should be immediately (पश्चात् तत्कालमेव) followed by
food.
Synonyms - Prakbhojana, Annadau, Pragbhakta, Bhojanagre, Bhuktadau, Poorvabhaktasya
Indications
Apana Vata Vikruti Gudagata (situated in anus) Vata – eg : Vibandha, Udavarta, diseasesof
Genitourinarytract
Aged, children, Bhiru (those in panic)
For Krisheekarana – eg : in obesity (Medo vikāra)
For strengtheninglower part of the body(Adhakaya Balādhanartam)
Diseasesof lower half of the body
PRAGBHAKTA (BEFORE FOOD)
Implications
Medicine will be digested very quickly without hampering the strength
of the person.
First target of agni is medicine
There will be no regurgitation of medicine/mechanical expulsion as it
is covered by food.
MADHYE BHAKTA (IN BETWEEN THE
FOOD)
समाने मध्यभोजनम्| (Cha.Soo.30/)
मध्येभक्तां नाम- यन्मध्ये भक्तस्य पीयते | मध्ये तु
पीतमपिन्त्यहवसाररभावाद्ये मध्यदेिमहभभूय भवन्तन्त रोगाुः | (Su.
Utt. 64/71)
....समाने मध्य इष्यते|
(A.H. Soo. 13/)
समानवाते हवगुणे मन्दे अग्नावहगनदीपनां| दद्यात् भोजनमध्ये च
भैषयां क
ु शलो हभषक
् |
(Sha.sam. P. )
MADHYE BHAKTA (IN BETWEEN THE
FOOD)
Administration of medicine in between the food.
Synonyms Madhye Bhaktam, Madhye, Madhya Bhaktam,
Madhya Bhojana give the same meaning.
Indications
Samana Vata Vikruti
Koshtagata Vyadhis.
Paittika Vyadhis
Diseases of Madhya shareera
consume
half part of
the food
medicine
remaining
half of food
MADHYE BHAKTA (2)
Implication
Madhya Bhakta Aushadhi due to its quality of not spreading (Avisari Bhava)
subsides the diseases of Madhya Shareera (Su.U.30) (local action)
Samana
Vata
Pachaka
Pitta
All pittas
Koshta
Pittaja vyadhi
Koshtagata
vyadhis
PASCHAT BHAKTA – AFTER FOOD
व्याने तु प्रातरहशतमुदाने भोजनोत्तरम्||२९९||
(Cha.Soo.30/)
अधोभक्तां नाम यदधो भक्तस्येहत|| पीतां यदन्नमुपयुय
तदुर्ध्वणकाये,िन्यात् गदान् बहुहवधाांश्च बलां ददाहत||
(Su.Ut.64/)
व्याने अन्ते प्रातराशस्य,सायमाशस्य तु उत्तरे|
(A.H. Soo. 13/)
व्यानकोपे च भैषयां भोजनान्ते समािरेत्|
(Sh.Sa.Poo.2)
PASCHAT BHAKTA – AFTER FOOD
Administration of medicine immediately after food.
Synonyms - Pratah Ashasya, Pashchat, Adhobhaktam, Ante, Adhaha.
Medicine is administered after food, to subside various diseases related to the
upper part of the body, as well as to give strength. Chakrapani has divided this
kaala into two.
1. Pratah Bhojana Kaala – indicated for Vyana Vata Vikruti
2. Sayam Bhojana Kaala – indicated for Udaan Vata Vikruti
PRATA-PASCHAT BHAKTA – AFTER
BREAKFAST
व्याने तु प्रातरहशतमुदाने भोजनोत्तरम्||२९९||
(Cha.Soo.30/)
व्याने अन्ते प्रातराशस्य,सायमाशस्य तु उत्तरे| (A.H. Soo.
13/)
PRATA- PASCHAT BHOJANA (AFTER
BREAKFAST)
Food is administered after breakfast in the morning.
Indications
1. Vyana Vata Vikruti
2. Poorva kaya balaadaanaartam (For strengthening )
3. Poorva kayasya gadeshu (Diseases of upper half of the body i.e chest, throat,
and head) – eg: Urdhva jatrugata vikaras
4. Dehasya sthoolikaraṇāya – to improve the build
Implications
Its main indication is Vyana Vata Vikruti. The time Pratah may be told because Vyana
is related physical activities (utksepana and apakshepana).
SAYAM-PASCHAT BHOJANA (AFTER
EVENING MEAL)
व्याने तु प्रातरहशतमुदाने भोजनोत्तरम्||२९९|| (Cha.Soo.30/)
व्याने अन्ते प्रातराशस्य, सायमाशस्य तूत्तरे ()॥
(A.H.Soo.13)
SAYAM-PASCHAT BHOJANA (AFTER
EVENING MEAL)
The administration of medicine is immediately after evening meal or dinner.
Indications
1. Udana Vata Vikruti
2. Poorva kaya balaadaanaartam (For strengthening )
3. Poorva kayasya gadeshu (Diseases of upper half of the body i.e chest, throat, and
head) – eg: Urdhva jatrugata vikaras
Implications
During night the Hridaya gets closed. The Vyana Vata becomes inactive, which is
taken over by Udana Vata. Thus the medicine is administered after dinner.
Udana moves in Nasa, Gala and Urah etc., in the diseases of Jatrurdhwa Vikara this
Kaala can be selected
ANTARA BHAKTA
अन्तराभक्तां नाम-यदन्तरा पीयते पुवाणपरयोभणक्तयो: | हृद्यां
मनोबलकरां र्त्थ दीपनां च पथ्यां सदा भवहत चान्तरभक्तक
ां
यत्||
(Su.Ut. 64/)
अन्तराभक्तां यत् पूवाणह्ने भक्ते जीणे मध्याह्ने
भेषजमुपयुयते,तन्तिन् जीणे पुनरपराह्ने भोजनम्|
(A.S. Soo.13 )
ANTARA BHAKTA
The administration of food in betweentwo meals is called Antarabhakta.
Mentioned by Susruta and Ashtanga Sangraha
Synonyms Bhaktayormadhye, Antarabhaktam and Antarbhaktam
This means that after digestion of food taken in morning, oushadha is administered.
Once oushadha is digested, evening meals is taken. Similarly, it is followed in case of
subsequent meals.
In this Kaala Ahaara and Aushadha Jeerna Lakshana play an important role.
The first Antarabhakta is during daytime where as next is one Yama followed by the
digestion of evening food as opined by Indu, which is same as that of Nishi (night)
ANTARA BHAKTA
Indications
Hridya
Manobalakara
Deepana
SA BHAKTA
लघुनाऽन्नेन सांयुतम्| सम्भोयां र्त्ौषधां भोयैहवणहचत्रैररुचौ हितम्|
(Cha.Soo.30/)
योयां सभोयां भैषयां भोयैहश्चत्रैररोचक
े | (A.H.Soo/13)
सभक्तम् यदन्नेन सम्ां साहधतां पश्चाद्वा समालोहितां। तत् बलेषु
सुक
ु मारेषु औषधद्वेहषषु अरुचौ सवाणङ
े षु च रोगेषु॥
(A.San. Soo/23 )
अरुचौ हचत्रभोयैश्च हमश्रां रुहचरमािरेत्। (Sha.Sam.P.2)
सभक्तां नाम - यत् सि भक्तेन | पथ्यां सभक्तमबलाबलयोहिण हनत्यां
तद्द
् वेहषणामहप तथा हशशुवृद्धयोश्च |
(Su.Utt/64)
SA BHAKTA
Sabhaktam means, administration of Aushadha along with food. The mixing is
done either after the preparation of food or during preparation of food.
Synonyms Bhakta Samyuktam, Sannam, Mishra bhojyam (Sha) and
Samabhaktam
Indications
• Aruchi, Mandagni (loss of appetite)
• In children, weak and emaciated, Stree, Vriddha, Sukumara, Ksheena.
• To protect Bala and Sarvaangagata Rogas
SA BHAKTA
Implications
Food is processed with oushadha and given.
Teekshnata, strong odour, bad taste of Aushadha – masked – in
children, aged, persons with less strength, and one who dislikes
oushadha.
Indication for this Kaala is not mentioned for any particular dosha, but
indicated in Sarvanga Rogas and Kshata Ksheena (emaciated).
Aushadha
+ Ahara
Ahara rasa
circulated
by Vyana
towards
Sarva Anga
GRASA
वायौ प्राणे प्रदुष्टे तु ग्रासग्रासान्तररष्यते|
(Cha.Soo.30/)
ग्रासां तु हपण्डव्याहमश्रां | ग्रासेषु चूणणबलाहग्नषु दीपनीयां,
वाजीकराण्यहप तु योजहयतुां यतेत|
(Su.Utt.64/)
उदाने क
ु हपते वाते स्वरभङ्गाहदकाररहण। ग्रासे ग्रासान्तरे देयां
भैषयां सान्ध्यभोजने॥ (Sh.P/2)
ग्रासग्रासान्तयो: प्राणे प्राणे प्रदुष्टे मातरर्वनहन | (A.H. Soo.
13)
GRASA
Grasa means Aushadha mixed along with each bolus of food
Synonyms Sagras and Grase-Grase
Indications
Prana vayu vikaras
Vajeekarana aushadhi
For agni deepana
It can be used where the form of medicine is Churna (powder).
GRASĀNTARE
वायौ प्राणे प्रदुष्टे तु ग्रासग्रासान्तररष्यते|
(Cha.Soo.30/)
ग्रासान्तरां तु यद्ग्रासान्तरेषु || ग्रासान्तरेषु हवतरेद्वमनीयधूमान्
्वनासाहदषु प्रहथतदृष्टगुणाांश्च लेहान् ||
(Su.Utt.64/)
ग्रासग्रासान्तयो: प्राणे प्रदुष्टे मातरर्वनहन | (A.H. Soo/13)
उदाने क
ु हपते वाते स्वरभङ्गाहदकाररहण। ग्रासे ग्रासान्तरे देयां
भैषयां सान्ध्यभोजने॥ (Sh.P/2)
GRASĀNTARE
Grasantara means administration of Aushadha in between each bolus of food
Synonyms Kavalantare (AH).
Indications
Vata Dushti , Agni Sandeepanartha.
Grasantara is also used when one wants to administer the Vamaneeya
Dhumapana.
Drugs should be administered in Lehya (confectionery form)
Annapravesh (deglutition) is the function of Prana Vata. The Aushadha
administered with each Grasa will come in contact with Prana Vata in Mukha
(oral cavity), Kantha (throat), Urah (chest), etc., leading to the continuous
contact with Prana and conditions related to that could be easily treated.
SAMUDGA (BEFORE AND
AFTER MEALS)
सामुद्गां हिन्तिने देयां |
(Cha.Soo.30/)
सामुद्गां नाम-यद्भक्तस्यादावन्ते च पीयते| दोषे हद्वधा प्रहवसृते तु
समुद्गसञ्ज्ञमाद्यन्तयोयणदशनस्य हनषेव्यते तु |
(Su. Ut. 64/)
लघ्वन्नपानयुक्तां िाचनावलेहनचूर्ाापद हिध्मायाां
कम्पाक्षेपयोरुर्ध्वधस्सांश्रये च दोषे |
(A.San. Soo.)
हििाक्षेपककम्पेषु िूवामन्ते च भोजनात् |
(Sh. Sam. P.)
SAMUDGA (BEFORE AND
AFTER MEALS)
Samudga refers to the administrationof Aushadha bothbefore andafterfood.
Indications
Hikka Roga (hiccough),
Kampa (tremors),
Akshepa (convulsions),
Pravisruta (spreaded) Dosha- Urdhwa, and Adha Visruta Dosha.
When the form of medicine Avaleha(confections) or choorna
If it is for Pachana
Aushadha administeredin this Kaala will be having its effect on Apana, Vyana as well as on Udana Vata.
There is the reference of avapeedaka snehapana in divideddoses (before and after) in mutravegarodha
janya vikaras
MUHURMUHU
्वनासकासहपपासासु र्त्वचायं मुहुमुणहुुः|
(Cha.Soo.30/300)
मुहुमुणहुहवणषच्छहदणहिध्मातृट्श््वनासकाहसषु | (A.H. Soo/13)
मुहुमुणहुश्च तृट्श्छहदणहििा्वनासगरेषु च | सान्नं च भेषजां
दद्याहदहत कालश्चतुथणक: || (Sh.P/2)
मुहुमुणहुनाणम - सभक्तमभक्तं वा यदौषधां मुहुमुणहुरुपयुयते
|
्वनासे मुहुमुणहुरहतप्रसृते च कासे हििावमीषु स
वदन्त्युपयोयमेतत्|
MUHURMUHU
The word Muhurmuhu means again and again, Aushadha is repeatedlytaken withor without food.
Acc to Susruta, This Kaala can be broadly divided in two:
1.AbhaktaMuhurmuhu
2. SabhaktaMuhurmuhu
The indicationof with or without food may chosen by considering Bala of the patient.
Indications
Shwasa (dyspnoea), Kasa (cough). Trishna (thirst), Hikka, Chhardi (vomiting), Visha (poison),
Swarabhanga(hoarsenessof voice).
Implications
This Kaala is indicated in Shwasa, Kasa, Trishna, Hikka, Chhardi and Visha where continuous
Vegas are produced. So, oushadha is administered repeatedly so that it can maintain its effect
throughout.
NISHI (BEFORE SLEEP)
ऊर्ध्वणजत्रुहवकारेषु स्वप्नकाले प्रशस्यते |
(A.H Soo/13)
जत्रूर्ध्वणमयेषु हनशायाम् ॥
(A.S.Soo/23)
ऊर्ध्वणजत्रुहवकारेषु लेखने बृांिण तथा | पाचनां शमनां
देयमन्नां भेषजां हनहश ||
(Sh. P/2)
NISHI (BEFORE SLEEP)
Administration of Aushadha at night before sleep is called Nishi.
Charaka and susruta did not mention Nishi.
Synonyms Swapnakale, Ratre
Indications
Urdhwajatrugata Vikara (diseasesabove the neck).
Implications
According to Ayurveda one should go to sleep after the digestionof the eveningfood. Hence
medicine should be administered after the digestionof eveningfood.
Indu specifies the exact Nisha Kala is the time afterthe eveningmealhas digestedand 3 hours
havebeen passed.
Thus this becomes second Antara Bhakta according to Indu, and it is indicated in Urdhwa Jatru
Gata Vikaras.
S.NO OUSHADHA KĀLA INDICATIONS REMARKS
1 NIRANNA HEALTHY PERSON
2 PRAGBHAKTA APĀNA VIKRUTI DISEASES OF
LOWER HALF OF
BODY
APANAVIKRUTI,
OBESITY
3 MADHYE BHAKTA SAMĀNA VIKRUTI SAMANAVIKRUTI,
KOSHTHAGATA
ROGA, PITTAJA
ROGA
4 PASCHAT BHAKTA AFTER BREAKFAST – VYĀNA VIKRUTI
AFTER LUNCH – UDĀNA VIKRUTI
URDHVAJATRUGATA
ROGA
5 ANTARA BHAKTA VYANAVYADHI VYANAVYADHI
S.NO OUSHADHA KĀLA INDICATIONS REMARKS
6 SA BHAKTA ARUCHI SARVANGAVYADHI
7 SAMUDGA HIKKA HIKKA, KAMPA, AKSHEPA,
URDHVA/ADHAH PARSHWA
VYADHIS
8 MUHUR MUHU ŚHWASA KASA
TRUŚHNA
SHWASA, KASA, HIKKA,
TRUSHA, CHHARDI,
VISHAKTATA
9 SA GRASA PRANA VAYU PRANAVAYUVYADHI,
VAJIKARANA
10 GRASANTARE PRANA VAYU PRANAVAYUVYADHI,
HRUDROGA
11 NISHI URDHVAJATRUGATA
VYADHI, VAMANA,
DHUMAPANA
CONCLUSION
The relation between Kaala and Aushadha is well established in our classics by all
the Acharyas. This relation has been neglected now a days, specially while
administering the medicine.
To utilize the Aushadha to its optimum level, Bhaishajya Kaalas have been quoted
depending on the predominance of the Doshas, seat of the disease, frequency of attack,
etc.
The advantages of Bhaishajya Kaala are wide spread, but they are mainly elucidated
in relation with Shamana Aushadhi especially when the medicine is administered into
the GIT, it is given with respect to the intake of food.
Hemadri commenting on the same called these Kaala as Shamana Aushadha Kaala.
CONCLUSION
Hence they are found to be of limited exploit, in case of emergency conditions and if
medicine administered other than oral route. Adhamalla while comenting on
Panchavidha bheshaja kala of Sharangadhara opines that these are not applicable in
emergency conditions.
[LiÉiÉç cÉ AÌiÉmÉÉÌiÉ urÉÉÍkÉwÉÑ lÉ MüÉsÉ ÌlÉrÉqÉ CirÉåMåü
pÉÉwÉliÉå]
The opinions among Acharyas regarding the number of Bheshaja kala is indeed a point
of discussion.
Eg: Charaka S., Susruta S., A.H-10, A.San - 11 where as Sha. Sam -5. and Adhamalla 11.
Sharangadhara’s 5 bheshaja kala have been elaborated again into 11 by Adhamalla,
comentator on Sharangadhara Samhita. However the details mentioned under therein
remains almost the same with very minimal differences.
Inspite of all these abundant references, the commentators are sometimes silent on
the reasons for a particular bheshaja kala to be used in particular conditions.
CONCLUSION
Evaluation of Vaya, Jeernalinga, Ritu, Vyadhi, Dooshya, Desha plays a
pivotal role in deciding Bhaishajya Kaala.
Vata Dosha - prime importance -though Pitta and Kapha are
considered at some places - Sushruta did not mention the Aushadhi
Sevans kala as per the Vata – Dushti.
The bheshaja kaala explained by acharyas seem to be based on the
routine we follow in a day from morning to night along with
predominance of dosha i.e - abhakta to nishi
Majority of Aushadha Sevana Kala are described in relation to food.
This is the conceptual study and has its own limitations.
Yet researches should be conducted to study on the topic Aushadh
Sevana Kala.
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCING
Charaka Samhita –Ayurveda Deepika teeka
Susruta Samhita – nibandha sangraha teeka
Ashtanga Hrudaya – Ayurveda rasayana teeka
Ashtanga Sangraha
Sharangadhara Samhita – Ayurveda Deepika teeka
http/www.researchgate.net/publication/256764731_Critical_review_on_Bhai
shajya_KaaIa_time_of_drug_administration_in_Ayurveda
Junjarwad AV, Savalgi PB, Vyas MK. Critical review on Bhaishajya Kaala (time
of drug administration) in Ayurveda. Ayu. 2013;34(1):6-10.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115436
Critical study to Aushadha sevana kala with srt. Chronotherapeutics.
THANK YOU

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OUŚHAḌHA SEVANA KĀLA.pptx

  • 1. OUŚHAḌHA SEVANA KĀLA - AN AYURVEDIC APPROACH GUIDED BY DR DEEPA M S PRESENTED BY DR MADHUBALA GOPINATH
  • 2. CONTENTS A REFERENCES J.3 MADHYE BHAKTA B INTRODUCTION (3) J.4 PASCHAT BHAKTA – • PRATA PASCHAT BHAKTA • SAYAM PASCHAT BHAKTA C CLASSIFICATION (3) J.5 ANTARA BHAKTA D SHAD AVEKSHA KALA (3) J.6 SA BHAKTA E DEFINITION OF OUSHADHA SEVANA KALA J.7 GRASA F SYNONYMS OF OUSHADHA SEVANA KALA J.8 GRASĀNTARA G SEVANA KALA A/C TO CHARAKA J.9 SAMUDGA H SEVANA KALA A/C TO SUSRUTA J.10 MUHURMUHU I SEVANA KALA A/C TO SHĀRANGADHARA J.11 NISHI J.1 NIRANNA (5)
  • 3. REFERENCES The general knowledge of Aushadha sevana kala is elaborated in the following texts. 1. Charaka Samhita Chikitsa – Yoni vyapat chikitsa Adhyaya. (30) 2. Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra – Swasthavritta Adhyaya. (64) 3. Astanga Hridaya Sutrasthana – Doshopkramaniya Adhyaya. (13) 4. Astanga Hridaya Sutrasthana – Bheshaja avacharaneeya Adhyaya. (23) 5. Sharangadhara Samhita Poorvakhanda – Bhaishajyākhyanakam Adhyaya. (2) Classification of Kala and its importance in disease management as follows.
  • 4. INTRODUCTION OUSHADA SEVANA KĀLA - importantprinciple to be considered while treating a disease. Still hardly a handful of physicians are seen who account for this. Bhaiśhajya kāla is explained in relation with roga bala, rogi bala, particular dosha, dooshya and various other factors. The main dosha considered in oushadha sevana kala is Vāta.
  • 5. INTRODUCTION ꙮWhile treating the disease success can be achieved only when there is proper combination of desha, kāla, pramana, sātmya, asātmya, pathya and apathya. देशकालप्रमाणानाां सात्म्यासात्म्यस्य चैव हि। सम्यग्योगो अन्यथा ह्येषाां पथ्यमप्यन्यथा भवेत्॥ (च.हच.30/293) ꙮAmong these 7 most important factors, kāla acquires second position, which reflects the importance of kāla in chikitsa. Here again kāla means, ꙮहदनातुरौषधव्याहधजीणणहलङ्गर्त्णवेक्षणम्….|| (च.हच.30/294) a. Shad āveksḥa kāla (six observatory aspects of time) b. Daśha bheśhaja kāla (ten types of times for the administration of medicine)
  • 6. CLASSIFICATION Number of Bhaishajya Kaala As per various Samhitakara (Authors), Aushadha Sevana Kala (time) have been classified as below: Charaka – 10 (Cha Chi 30 /298 ) Sushruta – 10 (Su Utt 64/65 ) Ashtanga Hrudya – 10 (AH su 13/37) Ashtanga Sangraha – 11 (AS su 23/12) Sharangdhara – 05 (Poorva 2/2) Kashyapa – 10 (Ka sam ki 3/43)
  • 7. युञ्ज्यादनन्नमन्नादौ मध्ये अन्ते कबलान्तरे। ग्रासे ग्रासे मुहु: सान्नां सामुद्गां हनहश चौषधम्॥ (अ.ह्र.सू.13/37) भैषयकालो भुक्तादौ मध्ये पश्चान्मुहुमुणहुुः। सामुद्गां भक्तसांयुक्तां ग्रासग्रासान्तरे दश॥ (च. हच. 30/298) अत ऊर्ध्वे दशौषधकालान् वक्ष्याम:। तत्राभक्तां प्राग्भक्तमधोभक्तां मध्येभक्तमन्तराभक्तां सभक्तां सामुद्ग्ां मुहुमुणहुग्राणसां ग्रासान्तरां चेहत दशौषधकाला: ॥ (सु.उ.64/ 65)
  • 8. CLASSIFICATION S.NO CHARAKA SUSRUTA A. HRUDAYA A. SANGRAHA SHARANGADHARA 1 BHUKTADAU - 1 ABHAKTA ANANNA ABHAKTA SOORYODAYE JATE 2 BHUKTADAU - 2 PRAGBHAKTA ANNADAU PRAGBHAKTA DIVASABHOJANE 3 MADHYE BHAKTA ADHOBHAKT A MADHYE MADHYE BHAKTA 4 ADHO BHAKTA -1 MADHYEBHAK TA ANTE ADHO BHAKTA SAYANTANA BHOJANE 5 ADHOBHAKTA -2 ANTARABHAK TA - ANTARA BHAKTA 6 SA BHAKTA SABHAKTA SA ANNAM SA BHAKTA 7 SAMUDGA SAMUDGA SAMUDGAM SAMUDGA 8 MUHURMUHU MUHURMUHU MUHUHU MUHURMUHU MUHU 10 10 10 11 5
  • 9. SHAD AVEKSHA KAALA (1) Consists of Dina, Rōgi, Aushadha, Vyādhi, Jeerna Laxana and Ritu हदनातुरौषधव्याहधजीणणहलङ्गर्त्णवेक्षणम्। (च.हच.30/296) Dina (Different parts of the day) It indicates particular part of the day, for example, Vamana Dravya (emetics) is to be given in the early morning, that is, Purvahna. Rōgi (Patient) After assessing the strength of the patient, time of administration for medicine should be selected. If the patient is having good strength, then medicine can be given in empty stomach early in the morning. If the patient is weak, then medicine should be administered along with wholesome food.
  • 10. SHAD AVEKSHA KAALA (2) Aushadha Based on the Aushadha, ten kāla have been told. They are Bhukthadau (before meals), Madhye (in the middle of the meals), Pratahapaschat (after the morning meals), Sayampashchat (after the evening meals), Muhurmuhu (frequently), Samudga (both before and after meals), Bhakta Samyukta (mixed with food), Grasa (with each morsel), and Grasantara (between two morsels). Vyādhi (disease) Based on the Vyādhi also the Kāla is classified. For example: In Jwara (fever) every 6th day (shadaha chikitsa)the medicine has to be changed like Peya (liquids), Kashaya (decoctions), Ksheera (milk preparations), Sarpi (preparations of ghee), Virechana (purgation), respectively, depending on the condition.
  • 11. SHAD AVEKSHA KAALA (3) Jeerna linga (stage of the digestion of the food) The Jeerna Lakshanas should be assessed before administering the medicine. Symptoms like hunger, appearance of Vega (natural urges), expulsion of Mala (waste products), clear belching etc., indicate Jeerna Lakshana. Ritu (nature of the season) Based on the Ritu, Kaala should be assessed by chaya (increase of Dosha), prakopadi (excessive increase of dosha) lakshanas told for each dosha.
  • 12. DEFINITION Proper time for administration of Aushadha is known as Bhaishajya Kaala. ‘AushadhaKālah – AushadhaSevanasya Samaye’ (vaidyaka shabda sinḍhu) Tarka Sangraha tells that everything is dependent on Kaala. The same statement can be extended in the context Bhaishajya Kaala too. Kaala is the Nimitta Karana (reason) for all types of Kaarya (action), hence Aushadha employed in a proper Kaala will result in expected kaarya.
  • 13. SYNONYMS 1. Bhaishajya Kaala (Cha Chi/30) 2. Aushadha Kaala (Su. Utt/ 64 and A.H Su/13) 3. Bhaishajya grahana Kaala (Shar. Sam. P/2) 4. Aushadha Avacharana aala (A.S. Soo/23) 5. Agada Kaala (Cha Chi/30) 6. Aushadhavekshana Kaala (Cha Chi/30) are the various synonyms used to indicate time of administration.
  • 14. ACC. TO CHARAKA S.NO AUSHADHAKALA INDICATION REMARKS 1 BHUKTADAU - 1 APANA VIKRUTI – BALAVAN RUGNA 2 BHUKTADAU – 2 {NIRANNA - Included in BHUKTADAU acc to CHAKRAPANI} APANA VIKRUTI – DURBALA RUGNA WITH LAGHU PATHYAAHARA 3 BHUKTA MADHYE SAMANA VIKRUTI 4- 5 BHUKTAPASCHAT (a) After breakfast (b) After dinner VYANA VIKRUTI UDANA VIKRUTI 6 MUHURMUHU SHWASA, KASA, TRSHṆA 7 SAMUDGA HIKKA 8 BHAKTASANYUKTA ARUCHI 9 SAGRĀSA PRANAVAYU VIKRUTI 10 GRĀSĀNTARE PRANAVAYU VIKRUTI Mentions Niranna under bhuktadau. NISHI is not mentioned in Charaka Samhita
  • 15. ACC. TO SUSRUTA S.NO AUSHADHAKALA INDICATION REMARKS 1 ABHAKTA -- C/I IN SUKUMARA, BALA, VRUDHA 2 PRAGBHAKTA • SHEEGRAPAAKI • NA VADANAT NIRETI • SAFELY BE GIVEN IN SUKUMARA, BALA, VRUDHA 3 ADHOBHAKTA URDHWASHAREERA GATA VYADHI, BALYA 4 MADHYE BHAKTA KOSHTAGATA VYĀDHI, MADHYA BHAGA ROGAS 5 ANTARA BHAKTA HRUDYA, DEEPANA, MANOBALAVARDHAKA 6 SABHAKTA SHISHU, VRUDHA, BHOJANA DWESHI STREE RUGNA 7 SAMUDGA URDHWAGĀMI & ADHOGAMI DOSHA 8 MUHURMUHU SHWASA, KASA, HIKKA, VAMANA CAN BE SABHAKTA/ ABHAKTA
  • 16. ACC. TO SHĀRANGADHARA S.N O AUSHADHAKALA INDICATION REMARKS 1 PRATHAMA GRAHAṆA KĀLA - SURYODAYA JATAH • PITTAJA VYĀDHI, KAPHAJA VYĀDHI • VAMANA, VIRECHANA, LEKHANA 2 DWITEEYA KALA - DIVASA BHOJANE a) Bhojana poorva b) Mishra bhojya c) Bhojana Madhya d) Bhojana Paschat e) Poorvam Ante cha Bhojanam (Samudga) a) APANA VIKRUTI b) ARUCHI c) SAMANA VIKRUTI – MANDAGNI etc. d) VYAANA VIKRUTI e) HIKKA, AKSHEPAKA, KAMPA 3 TRITEEYA KĀLA - SAYAM BHOJANA a) Grasaantare/ Grase b) Bhojana Paschat a) UDANA VIKRUTI – SWARABHANGA etc. b) PRANA VAYU VIKRUTI 4 CHATURTA KĀLA - TRUSHṆA, CHARDHI, HIKKA, SHWASA, MEDICINE CAN BE GIVEN
  • 17. NIRANNA (ABHAKTA) – EMPTY STOMACH pÉÑ£üÉSÉæ:A§É pÉÑ£üÉSÉæ CÌiÉ AlÉålÉ MüÉsɲrÉÇ EcrÉiÉå rÉjÉÉ mÉëÉiÉUåuÉ ÌlÉU³ÉÇ iÉjÉÉ mÉëÉMç pÉÉåeÉlÉÇ cÉ| [cÉ¢ümÉÉÍhÉ] तत्राभक्तां तु यत् क े वलमेवौषधमुपयुयते | वीयाणहधक ां भवहत भेषजमन्निीनां िन्यात्तथाऽऽमयमसांशयमाशु चैव | तद्बालवृद्धवहनतामृदवस्तु पीर्त्ा ग्लाहनां पराां समुपयान्तन्त बलक्षयां च ||(Su.Ut. 64/) कफोद्रेक े गदे अनन्नां बहलनो रोगरोरहगणो:| (A.H.Soo प्राय: पित्तकफोद्रेक े हवरेकवमनाथणयो: | लेखनाथं च भैषयां प्रभाते तत् समािरेत् | एवां स्यात् प्रथम:कालो भेषजग्रिणे नृणाां || (Sh.P. 2/2)
  • 18. NIRANNA (ABHAKTA) – EMPTY STOMACH Abhakta means administration of Aushadha alone. Bheshaja is not mixed with food (यत् भक्तेन योगां न याहत) and is given on empty stomach. Synonyms - Abhakta, Ananna, Nirbhukta, Suryodaye Jate. (in relation to food) (in relation to Dina.) Charaka mentions it along with pragbhakta – quoting bhuktadau Hemadri says, food should be administered only after the medicine is completely digested - Kapha Udreka Gata Kaala. (Kapha Kaala is one-third part of the day, and later half of this one-third part is Kapha Udreka Gata Kaala.) Indu says it should be after one Yaama (3hrs) after sunrise (याममात्रोद्गते रवौ). The medicine is administered in the empty stomach when the Koshtha is devoid of Kapha Utklesha.
  • 19. NIRANNA (ABHAKTA) – EMPTY STOMACH Indications 1. Balavaan rogi and Balavat roga. 2. Pancha Vidha Kashaya Kalpanas (five basic formulations) - They are heavy and need strong Agni to digest them. 3. Lekhanartha (scraping) and Utklishta Kapha Pitta: Kapha Udreka Avastha Gata Kaala
  • 20. NIRANNA (ABHAKTA) – (ON EMPTY STOMACH) Contraindications 1. Children 2. Aged 3. Pregnant women 4. Doshakshaya or Dhatukshaya avasta
  • 21. NIRANNA (ABHAKTA) – (ON EMPTY STOMACH) Implications Since there is no food- drug interaction, the drugs acts maximum effects and shows higher potency. Bheshaja veerya remains unchanged Agni & Bheshaja - Interaction unobstructed due to absence of food. This Kaala is also known as Rasaayana Kaala Amashaya and strotasas are rikta of Kapha Bheshaja interacts directly with Agni, viz. Jatharagni, Bhutagni and Dhatvagni Accomplishment of the Saptadhatu Prashastatva. So useful for the Rasayana Sevana e.g. Braahma Rasaayana (C. Chi. 1-1/41-57) should be given at this Kaala in Svaasa.
  • 22. PRAGBHAKTA (BEFORE FOOD) अिाने हवगुणे पूवं..| (Cha.Soo.30/) प्राग्भक्तां नाम यत् प्राग्भक्तस्योपयुयते | शीघ्रां हवपाकमुपयाहत बलां न
  • 23. PRAGBHAKTA (BEFORE FOOD) The medicine is administered just before the intake of food. Hemadricomments that aushadha intake should be immediately (पश्चात् तत्कालमेव) followed by food. Synonyms - Prakbhojana, Annadau, Pragbhakta, Bhojanagre, Bhuktadau, Poorvabhaktasya Indications Apana Vata Vikruti Gudagata (situated in anus) Vata – eg : Vibandha, Udavarta, diseasesof Genitourinarytract Aged, children, Bhiru (those in panic) For Krisheekarana – eg : in obesity (Medo vikāra) For strengtheninglower part of the body(Adhakaya Balādhanartam) Diseasesof lower half of the body
  • 24. PRAGBHAKTA (BEFORE FOOD) Implications Medicine will be digested very quickly without hampering the strength of the person. First target of agni is medicine There will be no regurgitation of medicine/mechanical expulsion as it is covered by food.
  • 25. MADHYE BHAKTA (IN BETWEEN THE FOOD) समाने मध्यभोजनम्| (Cha.Soo.30/) मध्येभक्तां नाम- यन्मध्ये भक्तस्य पीयते | मध्ये तु पीतमपिन्त्यहवसाररभावाद्ये मध्यदेिमहभभूय भवन्तन्त रोगाुः | (Su. Utt. 64/71) ....समाने मध्य इष्यते| (A.H. Soo. 13/) समानवाते हवगुणे मन्दे अग्नावहगनदीपनां| दद्यात् भोजनमध्ये च भैषयां क ु शलो हभषक ् | (Sha.sam. P. )
  • 26. MADHYE BHAKTA (IN BETWEEN THE FOOD) Administration of medicine in between the food. Synonyms Madhye Bhaktam, Madhye, Madhya Bhaktam, Madhya Bhojana give the same meaning. Indications Samana Vata Vikruti Koshtagata Vyadhis. Paittika Vyadhis Diseases of Madhya shareera consume half part of the food medicine remaining half of food
  • 27. MADHYE BHAKTA (2) Implication Madhya Bhakta Aushadhi due to its quality of not spreading (Avisari Bhava) subsides the diseases of Madhya Shareera (Su.U.30) (local action) Samana Vata Pachaka Pitta All pittas Koshta Pittaja vyadhi Koshtagata vyadhis
  • 28. PASCHAT BHAKTA – AFTER FOOD व्याने तु प्रातरहशतमुदाने भोजनोत्तरम्||२९९|| (Cha.Soo.30/) अधोभक्तां नाम यदधो भक्तस्येहत|| पीतां यदन्नमुपयुय तदुर्ध्वणकाये,िन्यात् गदान् बहुहवधाांश्च बलां ददाहत|| (Su.Ut.64/) व्याने अन्ते प्रातराशस्य,सायमाशस्य तु उत्तरे| (A.H. Soo. 13/) व्यानकोपे च भैषयां भोजनान्ते समािरेत्| (Sh.Sa.Poo.2)
  • 29. PASCHAT BHAKTA – AFTER FOOD Administration of medicine immediately after food. Synonyms - Pratah Ashasya, Pashchat, Adhobhaktam, Ante, Adhaha. Medicine is administered after food, to subside various diseases related to the upper part of the body, as well as to give strength. Chakrapani has divided this kaala into two. 1. Pratah Bhojana Kaala – indicated for Vyana Vata Vikruti 2. Sayam Bhojana Kaala – indicated for Udaan Vata Vikruti
  • 30. PRATA-PASCHAT BHAKTA – AFTER BREAKFAST व्याने तु प्रातरहशतमुदाने भोजनोत्तरम्||२९९|| (Cha.Soo.30/) व्याने अन्ते प्रातराशस्य,सायमाशस्य तु उत्तरे| (A.H. Soo. 13/)
  • 31. PRATA- PASCHAT BHOJANA (AFTER BREAKFAST) Food is administered after breakfast in the morning. Indications 1. Vyana Vata Vikruti 2. Poorva kaya balaadaanaartam (For strengthening ) 3. Poorva kayasya gadeshu (Diseases of upper half of the body i.e chest, throat, and head) – eg: Urdhva jatrugata vikaras 4. Dehasya sthoolikaraṇāya – to improve the build Implications Its main indication is Vyana Vata Vikruti. The time Pratah may be told because Vyana is related physical activities (utksepana and apakshepana).
  • 32. SAYAM-PASCHAT BHOJANA (AFTER EVENING MEAL) व्याने तु प्रातरहशतमुदाने भोजनोत्तरम्||२९९|| (Cha.Soo.30/) व्याने अन्ते प्रातराशस्य, सायमाशस्य तूत्तरे ()॥ (A.H.Soo.13)
  • 33. SAYAM-PASCHAT BHOJANA (AFTER EVENING MEAL) The administration of medicine is immediately after evening meal or dinner. Indications 1. Udana Vata Vikruti 2. Poorva kaya balaadaanaartam (For strengthening ) 3. Poorva kayasya gadeshu (Diseases of upper half of the body i.e chest, throat, and head) – eg: Urdhva jatrugata vikaras Implications During night the Hridaya gets closed. The Vyana Vata becomes inactive, which is taken over by Udana Vata. Thus the medicine is administered after dinner. Udana moves in Nasa, Gala and Urah etc., in the diseases of Jatrurdhwa Vikara this Kaala can be selected
  • 34. ANTARA BHAKTA अन्तराभक्तां नाम-यदन्तरा पीयते पुवाणपरयोभणक्तयो: | हृद्यां मनोबलकरां र्त्थ दीपनां च पथ्यां सदा भवहत चान्तरभक्तक ां यत्|| (Su.Ut. 64/) अन्तराभक्तां यत् पूवाणह्ने भक्ते जीणे मध्याह्ने भेषजमुपयुयते,तन्तिन् जीणे पुनरपराह्ने भोजनम्| (A.S. Soo.13 )
  • 35. ANTARA BHAKTA The administration of food in betweentwo meals is called Antarabhakta. Mentioned by Susruta and Ashtanga Sangraha Synonyms Bhaktayormadhye, Antarabhaktam and Antarbhaktam This means that after digestion of food taken in morning, oushadha is administered. Once oushadha is digested, evening meals is taken. Similarly, it is followed in case of subsequent meals. In this Kaala Ahaara and Aushadha Jeerna Lakshana play an important role. The first Antarabhakta is during daytime where as next is one Yama followed by the digestion of evening food as opined by Indu, which is same as that of Nishi (night)
  • 37. SA BHAKTA लघुनाऽन्नेन सांयुतम्| सम्भोयां र्त्ौषधां भोयैहवणहचत्रैररुचौ हितम्| (Cha.Soo.30/) योयां सभोयां भैषयां भोयैहश्चत्रैररोचक े | (A.H.Soo/13) सभक्तम् यदन्नेन सम्ां साहधतां पश्चाद्वा समालोहितां। तत् बलेषु सुक ु मारेषु औषधद्वेहषषु अरुचौ सवाणङ े षु च रोगेषु॥ (A.San. Soo/23 ) अरुचौ हचत्रभोयैश्च हमश्रां रुहचरमािरेत्। (Sha.Sam.P.2) सभक्तां नाम - यत् सि भक्तेन | पथ्यां सभक्तमबलाबलयोहिण हनत्यां तद्द ् वेहषणामहप तथा हशशुवृद्धयोश्च | (Su.Utt/64)
  • 38. SA BHAKTA Sabhaktam means, administration of Aushadha along with food. The mixing is done either after the preparation of food or during preparation of food. Synonyms Bhakta Samyuktam, Sannam, Mishra bhojyam (Sha) and Samabhaktam Indications • Aruchi, Mandagni (loss of appetite) • In children, weak and emaciated, Stree, Vriddha, Sukumara, Ksheena. • To protect Bala and Sarvaangagata Rogas
  • 39. SA BHAKTA Implications Food is processed with oushadha and given. Teekshnata, strong odour, bad taste of Aushadha – masked – in children, aged, persons with less strength, and one who dislikes oushadha. Indication for this Kaala is not mentioned for any particular dosha, but indicated in Sarvanga Rogas and Kshata Ksheena (emaciated). Aushadha + Ahara Ahara rasa circulated by Vyana towards Sarva Anga
  • 40. GRASA वायौ प्राणे प्रदुष्टे तु ग्रासग्रासान्तररष्यते| (Cha.Soo.30/) ग्रासां तु हपण्डव्याहमश्रां | ग्रासेषु चूणणबलाहग्नषु दीपनीयां, वाजीकराण्यहप तु योजहयतुां यतेत| (Su.Utt.64/) उदाने क ु हपते वाते स्वरभङ्गाहदकाररहण। ग्रासे ग्रासान्तरे देयां भैषयां सान्ध्यभोजने॥ (Sh.P/2) ग्रासग्रासान्तयो: प्राणे प्राणे प्रदुष्टे मातरर्वनहन | (A.H. Soo. 13)
  • 41. GRASA Grasa means Aushadha mixed along with each bolus of food Synonyms Sagras and Grase-Grase Indications Prana vayu vikaras Vajeekarana aushadhi For agni deepana It can be used where the form of medicine is Churna (powder).
  • 42. GRASĀNTARE वायौ प्राणे प्रदुष्टे तु ग्रासग्रासान्तररष्यते| (Cha.Soo.30/) ग्रासान्तरां तु यद्ग्रासान्तरेषु || ग्रासान्तरेषु हवतरेद्वमनीयधूमान् ्वनासाहदषु प्रहथतदृष्टगुणाांश्च लेहान् || (Su.Utt.64/) ग्रासग्रासान्तयो: प्राणे प्रदुष्टे मातरर्वनहन | (A.H. Soo/13) उदाने क ु हपते वाते स्वरभङ्गाहदकाररहण। ग्रासे ग्रासान्तरे देयां भैषयां सान्ध्यभोजने॥ (Sh.P/2)
  • 43. GRASĀNTARE Grasantara means administration of Aushadha in between each bolus of food Synonyms Kavalantare (AH). Indications Vata Dushti , Agni Sandeepanartha. Grasantara is also used when one wants to administer the Vamaneeya Dhumapana. Drugs should be administered in Lehya (confectionery form) Annapravesh (deglutition) is the function of Prana Vata. The Aushadha administered with each Grasa will come in contact with Prana Vata in Mukha (oral cavity), Kantha (throat), Urah (chest), etc., leading to the continuous contact with Prana and conditions related to that could be easily treated.
  • 44. SAMUDGA (BEFORE AND AFTER MEALS) सामुद्गां हिन्तिने देयां | (Cha.Soo.30/) सामुद्गां नाम-यद्भक्तस्यादावन्ते च पीयते| दोषे हद्वधा प्रहवसृते तु समुद्गसञ्ज्ञमाद्यन्तयोयणदशनस्य हनषेव्यते तु | (Su. Ut. 64/) लघ्वन्नपानयुक्तां िाचनावलेहनचूर्ाापद हिध्मायाां कम्पाक्षेपयोरुर्ध्वधस्सांश्रये च दोषे | (A.San. Soo.) हििाक्षेपककम्पेषु िूवामन्ते च भोजनात् | (Sh. Sam. P.)
  • 45. SAMUDGA (BEFORE AND AFTER MEALS) Samudga refers to the administrationof Aushadha bothbefore andafterfood. Indications Hikka Roga (hiccough), Kampa (tremors), Akshepa (convulsions), Pravisruta (spreaded) Dosha- Urdhwa, and Adha Visruta Dosha. When the form of medicine Avaleha(confections) or choorna If it is for Pachana Aushadha administeredin this Kaala will be having its effect on Apana, Vyana as well as on Udana Vata. There is the reference of avapeedaka snehapana in divideddoses (before and after) in mutravegarodha janya vikaras
  • 46. MUHURMUHU ्वनासकासहपपासासु र्त्वचायं मुहुमुणहुुः| (Cha.Soo.30/300) मुहुमुणहुहवणषच्छहदणहिध्मातृट्श््वनासकाहसषु | (A.H. Soo/13) मुहुमुणहुश्च तृट्श्छहदणहििा्वनासगरेषु च | सान्नं च भेषजां दद्याहदहत कालश्चतुथणक: || (Sh.P/2) मुहुमुणहुनाणम - सभक्तमभक्तं वा यदौषधां मुहुमुणहुरुपयुयते | ्वनासे मुहुमुणहुरहतप्रसृते च कासे हििावमीषु स वदन्त्युपयोयमेतत्|
  • 47. MUHURMUHU The word Muhurmuhu means again and again, Aushadha is repeatedlytaken withor without food. Acc to Susruta, This Kaala can be broadly divided in two: 1.AbhaktaMuhurmuhu 2. SabhaktaMuhurmuhu The indicationof with or without food may chosen by considering Bala of the patient. Indications Shwasa (dyspnoea), Kasa (cough). Trishna (thirst), Hikka, Chhardi (vomiting), Visha (poison), Swarabhanga(hoarsenessof voice). Implications This Kaala is indicated in Shwasa, Kasa, Trishna, Hikka, Chhardi and Visha where continuous Vegas are produced. So, oushadha is administered repeatedly so that it can maintain its effect throughout.
  • 48. NISHI (BEFORE SLEEP) ऊर्ध्वणजत्रुहवकारेषु स्वप्नकाले प्रशस्यते | (A.H Soo/13) जत्रूर्ध्वणमयेषु हनशायाम् ॥ (A.S.Soo/23) ऊर्ध्वणजत्रुहवकारेषु लेखने बृांिण तथा | पाचनां शमनां देयमन्नां भेषजां हनहश || (Sh. P/2)
  • 49. NISHI (BEFORE SLEEP) Administration of Aushadha at night before sleep is called Nishi. Charaka and susruta did not mention Nishi. Synonyms Swapnakale, Ratre Indications Urdhwajatrugata Vikara (diseasesabove the neck). Implications According to Ayurveda one should go to sleep after the digestionof the eveningfood. Hence medicine should be administered after the digestionof eveningfood. Indu specifies the exact Nisha Kala is the time afterthe eveningmealhas digestedand 3 hours havebeen passed. Thus this becomes second Antara Bhakta according to Indu, and it is indicated in Urdhwa Jatru Gata Vikaras.
  • 50. S.NO OUSHADHA KĀLA INDICATIONS REMARKS 1 NIRANNA HEALTHY PERSON 2 PRAGBHAKTA APĀNA VIKRUTI DISEASES OF LOWER HALF OF BODY APANAVIKRUTI, OBESITY 3 MADHYE BHAKTA SAMĀNA VIKRUTI SAMANAVIKRUTI, KOSHTHAGATA ROGA, PITTAJA ROGA 4 PASCHAT BHAKTA AFTER BREAKFAST – VYĀNA VIKRUTI AFTER LUNCH – UDĀNA VIKRUTI URDHVAJATRUGATA ROGA 5 ANTARA BHAKTA VYANAVYADHI VYANAVYADHI
  • 51. S.NO OUSHADHA KĀLA INDICATIONS REMARKS 6 SA BHAKTA ARUCHI SARVANGAVYADHI 7 SAMUDGA HIKKA HIKKA, KAMPA, AKSHEPA, URDHVA/ADHAH PARSHWA VYADHIS 8 MUHUR MUHU ŚHWASA KASA TRUŚHNA SHWASA, KASA, HIKKA, TRUSHA, CHHARDI, VISHAKTATA 9 SA GRASA PRANA VAYU PRANAVAYUVYADHI, VAJIKARANA 10 GRASANTARE PRANA VAYU PRANAVAYUVYADHI, HRUDROGA 11 NISHI URDHVAJATRUGATA VYADHI, VAMANA, DHUMAPANA
  • 52. CONCLUSION The relation between Kaala and Aushadha is well established in our classics by all the Acharyas. This relation has been neglected now a days, specially while administering the medicine. To utilize the Aushadha to its optimum level, Bhaishajya Kaalas have been quoted depending on the predominance of the Doshas, seat of the disease, frequency of attack, etc. The advantages of Bhaishajya Kaala are wide spread, but they are mainly elucidated in relation with Shamana Aushadhi especially when the medicine is administered into the GIT, it is given with respect to the intake of food. Hemadri commenting on the same called these Kaala as Shamana Aushadha Kaala.
  • 53. CONCLUSION Hence they are found to be of limited exploit, in case of emergency conditions and if medicine administered other than oral route. Adhamalla while comenting on Panchavidha bheshaja kala of Sharangadhara opines that these are not applicable in emergency conditions. [LiÉiÉç cÉ AÌiÉmÉÉÌiÉ urÉÉÍkÉwÉÑ lÉ MüÉsÉ ÌlÉrÉqÉ CirÉåMåü pÉÉwÉliÉå] The opinions among Acharyas regarding the number of Bheshaja kala is indeed a point of discussion. Eg: Charaka S., Susruta S., A.H-10, A.San - 11 where as Sha. Sam -5. and Adhamalla 11. Sharangadhara’s 5 bheshaja kala have been elaborated again into 11 by Adhamalla, comentator on Sharangadhara Samhita. However the details mentioned under therein remains almost the same with very minimal differences. Inspite of all these abundant references, the commentators are sometimes silent on the reasons for a particular bheshaja kala to be used in particular conditions.
  • 54. CONCLUSION Evaluation of Vaya, Jeernalinga, Ritu, Vyadhi, Dooshya, Desha plays a pivotal role in deciding Bhaishajya Kaala. Vata Dosha - prime importance -though Pitta and Kapha are considered at some places - Sushruta did not mention the Aushadhi Sevans kala as per the Vata – Dushti. The bheshaja kaala explained by acharyas seem to be based on the routine we follow in a day from morning to night along with predominance of dosha i.e - abhakta to nishi Majority of Aushadha Sevana Kala are described in relation to food. This is the conceptual study and has its own limitations. Yet researches should be conducted to study on the topic Aushadh Sevana Kala.
  • 55. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCING Charaka Samhita –Ayurveda Deepika teeka Susruta Samhita – nibandha sangraha teeka Ashtanga Hrudaya – Ayurveda rasayana teeka Ashtanga Sangraha Sharangadhara Samhita – Ayurveda Deepika teeka http/www.researchgate.net/publication/256764731_Critical_review_on_Bhai shajya_KaaIa_time_of_drug_administration_in_Ayurveda Junjarwad AV, Savalgi PB, Vyas MK. Critical review on Bhaishajya Kaala (time of drug administration) in Ayurveda. Ayu. 2013;34(1):6-10. doi:10.4103/0974-8520.115436 Critical study to Aushadha sevana kala with srt. Chronotherapeutics.

Editor's Notes

  1. OUSHADA SEVANA KĀLA is an important principle to be considered while treating a disease. But we see that only a handful of physicians are seen to practise this. Bhaiśhajya kāla is explained in relation with roga bala, rogi bala, particular dosha, dooshya and various other factors. The main dosha considered in oushadha sevana kala is Vāta. We decide the time of administration depending on different types of vāta dosha involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.
  2. While treating the disease success can be achieved only when there is proper combination of desha, kāla, pramana, sātmya, asātmya, pathya and apathya. देशकालप्रमाणानां सात्म्यासात्म्यस्य चैव हि। सम्यग्योगो अन्यथा ह्येषां पथ्यमप्यन्यथा भवेत्॥ (च.चि.30/293) Among these 7 most important factors, kāla acquires second position, which reflects the importance of kāla in chikitsa. Here again Charaka mentions kāla to be of 6 types out of which one among them is oushada kala, दिनातुरौषधव्याधिजीर्णलिङ्गर्त्ववेक्षणम्….|| (च.चि.30/293) Shad āveksḥa kāla (six observatory aspects of time) Daśha bheśhaja kāla (ten types of times for the administration of medicine)
  3. 1. A.H mentions 10 kalas directly – without any scope of confusion 2. On counting the kalas, we get only 8. isn’t it?? So he includes 2 kalas in the text without pronouncedly mentioning it. Charaka quotes that there are dasha bhaishajya kala – he mentions “bhuktadau” – the word represents duality – which means he has included 2 kalas i.e niranna and pragbhakta together. Likewise paschat bhakta represents 2 kalas – prata paschat bhakta and sayam paschat bhakta - This is clarified in chakrapani’s commentary. 3. Susruta also mentions 10 oushada kalas
  4. According to Acharya Chakrapani abhakta refers to, when medicine is administered before food in the morning. One should have food only after the medicine is completely digested. According to Acharya Hemadri medicine should be administered in the kapha udreka gata kala. According to Acharya Indu administration of medicine it should be one yama after sunrise. Abhakta refers to administration of aushadha alone, so that it must not come in contact with food before it gets digested. : in abhakta kaala medicine is administered in empty stomach so that medicine should directly come in contact with agni. As in abhakta kaala stomach is devoid of kapha thus the digestive fire digests the medicine completely and one gets the maximum benefits of the medicine. Precautions Administration of medication in abhakta kaala is contra indicated in children, aged and those who cannot withstand the potency of medicine. If the medication is administered without considering the facts, then one must suffer with complications like glani (loss of power) and even death. Because if there is Kapha Utklesha, the medicine will not come in contact with Agni (digestive fire), and will not be digested properly and effect will be either delayed or reduced. Hence, medicine is administered only after the Kapha Udreka is over.
  5. Abhakta Kaala provides a suitable time for the administration of both. The action of the medicine administered during this Kaala is enhanced due to the empty stomach. Hence, the physician should see the strength of disease and patient. If both are strong this Kaala should be selected. With this idea the following indications are told: The Apatarpana is the line of treatment in both the conditions. LEKHANARTHA – OBESITY, HYPOTHYROIDISM, IN CONDITIONS OF EXCESSIVE MUCOUS SECRETION
  6. etc., who cannot withstand the potency of the medicine, administered in this Kaala. It will kill the person like the weak one is killed by the strong one. Thus the simile indicates if one administered medicine without considering the above fact, will produce complications like Glani and even death.
  7. Medicine administered in this kaaala medicine will get digested without affecting the strength of person. As the medicine will get covered by food, there will be no regurgitation of food. It will help to cure the diseases related with stomach. DISEASES OF KUB, RECTUM, GIT, HYPOGASTRIUM
  8. i.e In this kaala medicine is administered in between the meal where the person is asked to consume half of his meal and then advised to have medicine and then the remaining part of meal is administered Classics have clearly mentioned that medicine should be administered in between food, that is, first person is asked to consume half part of the food. This food initiates the process of digestion. The Pachaka Pitta and Saman Vata are stimulated by this food that is taken, and following by this, the medicine is administered, so that it can act over the Samana Vata, in turn Pachaka Pitta. Then again remaining half of the food is consumed, which covers the medicine and prevents regurgitation of the medicine. Cakrapani and Indu are the ones who specify that after consuming half part of food, Aushadha should be given again followed by next half DISEASES OF DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION – IBS, ANOREXIA
  9. Susruta says Madya bhakta aushadhi due to its quality of not spreading (avisari bhava), subsides the diseases of Madhya sharir, i.e AS IT IS RESTRICTED BY FOOD, it Is forced to act locally. Also the medicine is administered when samana vayu is stimulated by food, which means medicine administered during this kala acts on samana vata. Once this Samana Vata is corrected, Agni is corrected and Pachaka pitta hence starts functioning properly. The Pachaka Pitta nourishes all the Pittas. If Pachaka Pitta is corrected all the other Pittas will also function normally. Hence, it is indicated in Paittika Vyadhis. The main function of the Koshtha is digestion and metabolism. Once the Samana Vata and Pachaka Pitta are functioning normally, the function of Koshtha gets corrected. Hence it is indicated in Koshta Gata Vyadhis.
  10. Charaka, A.H mentions it in 2 stages – i.e after breakfast and after dinner (prata paschat and sayam paschat) – since those were the days only 2 meals were taken. But sharangadhara specifically mentions bhojanananta exclusively for vyana kopa and not udaana. Susruta just mentions about that it is good for the upper body.
  11. Pratah bhojan kala- in this kaala the medicine is administered after morning meal/ breakfast, Vyana Vata Vikruti – i.e probably we could predict it to be in diseases of MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEMS & CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Poorva kaya balaadaanaartam (For strengthening ) Poorva kayasya gadeshu (Diseases of upper half of the body i.e chest, throat, and head) – eg: Urdhva jatrugata vikaras Dehasya sthoolikaraṇāya – to improve the build The medicine is advised to be administered in the morning because the site of vyaana vayu is considered to be hrudaya (heart). Acharyas have stated that as every flower blooms in the morning everyday similarly every morning heart also blooms, activating vyaana vayu in it ??. Thus the medicine administered in the morning will reach hridaya and will act properly on vyaana vaayu. The medicine should be administered after meal, as the vyaana vaayu gets activated after the digestion of food and formation of aahara rasa. And hence medcne is given in the morning after food – in lean and weak individuals
  12. Sayam bhojan kala- in this kaala the medicine is administered after evening meal/ dinner It is Indicated in Udana Vayu Vikruti (disease) eg: in diseases like CHARDI, THROAT INFECTION, ALTERED VOICE, DYSPHONIA, DEPRESSION Poorva kaya balaadaanaartam (For strengthening the upper part of the body) Poorva kayasya gadeshu (Diseases of upper half of the body i.e chest, throat, and head) – eg: Urdhva jatrugata vikaras Also in Ura Sthangata vikaras like Kasa – Shwasa Vyadhi. Sayampashchat In this kaala the medicine is administered after meal in the evening. This kaala is also considered under adhobhakta and is advised in case of Udana Vayu Vikruti. Acharyas has stated that, as the flowers droop in the evening after blooming for the whole day, similarly the heart also gets languish after working for the whole day. Thus the activity of vyaana vaayu also droops in the night. The activities of vyaana are then taken over by udana vaayu. thus the administered helps to cure the diseases related with udana vata
  13. The administration of food in between two meals is called Antarabhakta. Mentioned by Susruta and Ashtanga Sangraha Synonyms: Antarabhaktam, Bhaktayormadhye. The administration of medication in between two meals is considered as Antarabhakta. It is Indicated in Diptagni Vikara and Vata Dosha Janya Vikara. In which medication is administered after digestion of afternoon meal, then, after digestion of medicine the evening meal is taken. Similar regimen is followed between evening and morning meal. According to Acharya Indu the second antarabhakta kaala is considered as one yama followed by the digestion of evening meal, which is same as nishi aushadha sevan kaala. Acharya jejjat have categorized this kaala under madhyobhakta.
  14. Jejjata – nirantara padavyakhya- on charaka
  15. Sabhakta is when the medcn is mixed with food. The mixing is done either after the preparation of food or during preparation of food. Synonyms Bhakta Samyuktam, Sannam, and Samabhaktam Indications Aruchi, Mandagni (loss of appetite) In children, weak and emaciated, Stree, Vriddha, Sukumara, Ksheena. To protect Bala and Sarvaangagata Rogas. Except for Indu, all the commentators agree that Aushadha should be consumed along with food. Indu specifies that Aushadha is processed or cooked along with food or it is given along with food. Sabhakta Synonym: saannam, samabhaktam, Bhakta samyuktam In this kaala the medicine is administered by mixing with the food. The medicine is mixed with prepared food or mixed while food preparation. It is indicated in Sukumara vyakti, Bala, Aruchikara, Aushadha Sarvangata Vikara. medicine is taken by mixing along with food, thus when the food is digested and gets converted into aahaara rasa, the medicine also gets digested and its extract comes with aahara rasa.
  16. Food is processed with oushadha and given. As the Teekshnata, strong odour, bad taste of Aushadha are masked, it is suitable for administration in children, aged, persons with less strength, and one who hates Aushadha. Indication for this Kaala is not mentioned for any particular dosha, but indicated in Sarvanga Roga and Kshata Ksheena (emaciated). how does it help in sarvangagata roga??? Aushadha along with Ahara will be digested and ahara rasa along with extract of medicine is formed, which will be circulated all over the body with the help of Vyana Vata and helps to cure diseases all over the body.
  17. Sagrasa (with each and every morsel of food) It is indicated in prana Vayu Dushtijanya Vikara (Respiratory diseases), Hrudroga, Dipana, Vajikara Aushadhi. Sagrasa means with each and every morsel of food, aushadha is given. Grasantare (in between two morsel of food)[1] It is indicated in Prana Vayu janya Vikara (Respiratory Diseases), Prana Vayu Prakopavastha. Grasantare means Kala in between two morsels, is meant for Aushadha intake. Grasa grasantarah Synonym: kavalantare Grasa grasantarah means an aushadha sevan kaala in which medicine is administered in between bolus of food. It is indicated Prana Vayu janya Vikara. Conceptual description Powdered medicines are advised to be taken in this kaala. Powdered medicines being dry in constituency are difficult to deglutinate, thus they are advised to be taken along with the food so as to ease the deglutination of powdered medicine. The process of deglutination is supervised by prana vaayu. Thus the medicine taken along with each bolus of food will come in contact with prana and will help to cure prana related diseases.
  18. Samudga refers to the administration of Aushadha both before and after food. Samudga the actual word refers to Samputaka, which means a box like structure. No specific Dosha is indicated for this Kaala instead some conditions like Kampa, Akshepaka, Hikka are mentioned where Doshas are situated in both Urdhwa (upper) and Adho (lower) Shareera. Vyana udana and Apana Vayu Vikruti. . Pravisruta (spreaded) Dosha- Urdhwa, and Adha Visruta Dosha. When the form of medicine is Pana (liquid), Navana (administered through nostrils), Avaleha (confections). Food taken should be Laghu (light). Acharya dalhana have emphasized on the word „piyate‟ in the context of samudga kaala which, explains that the medicine must be in liquid form so that food is put in nutshell. Indu and Hemadri specify that Aushadha should be consumed immediately in relation to food.
  19. Sharangadhara mentions muhurmuhu to be given along with food.
  20. Mahurmuhu In this kaala medicine is taken again and again with or without food. This kaala is divided into two: 1. Abhakta muhurmuhu 2. Sabhakta muhurmuhu In abhakta muhurmuhu the medication is taken repeatedly without food. In sabhakta muhurmuhu the medicine is taken repeatedly with food. Sabhaktan and abhakta muhurmuhu are chosen according to the strength of the patient. Muhurmuhu is indicated in Shwasa Kasa, Hikka, Chhardi, trushna Vikara. So, Frequent administration of Aushadha regardless of Bhukta or Abhukta is muhurmuhu Kala. This Kaala is indicated in Shwasa, Kasa, Trishna, Hikka, Chhardi and Visha where continuous Vegas are produced. The medicine is administered repeatedly so that it can act on vegas of disease thoroughly.
  21. 10. Nishi is administration of medcn at bed time in the night. Charaka and susruta did not mention Nishi, Probably cos, they considered it under the paschatbhakta acc to charaka or antarabhakta acc to susruta Synonyms Swpnakale, Ratre. Indications Urdhwajatrugata Vikara (diseases above the neck) – in all shalakya branch related diseases – importance can be given to the nishi bhaishaja kala. Vamana, Dhumpana. Implications According to Ayurveda one should go to sleep after the digestion of the evening food. Hence medicine should be administered after the digestion of evening food. Indu specifies the exact Nisha Kala is the time after the evening meal has digested and 3 hours have been passed. Thus this becomes second Antara Bhakta according to Indu, and it is indicated in Urdhwa Jatru Gata Vikaras. Nisha Kala of medicine administration, is after digestion of food consumed; Indu specifies the exact Nisha Kala is the time after the evening meal has digested and 3 hours have been passed.
  22. The relation between Kaala and Aushadha is well established in our classics by all the Acharyas. This relation has been neglected now a days, specially while administering the medicine. Such negligence may be one of the reasons for not getting the desired effect from the therapy, as the Aushadha Dravya fails to show its complete effect. Hence to utilize the Aushadha to its optimum level, Bhaishajya Kaalas have been quoted depending on the predominance of the Doshas, seat of the disease, frequency of attack, etc The advantages of Bhaishajya Kaala are wide spread, but they are mainly elucidated in relation with Shamana Aushadhi especially when the medicine is administered into the GIT, it is given with respect to the intake of food. Hemadri commenting on the same called these Kaala as Shamana Aushadha Kaala.
  23. Evaluation of Vaya, Jeernalinga, Ritu, Vyadhi, Dooshya, Desha plays a pivotal role in deciding Bhaishajya Kaala. Vata Dosha - prime importance -though Pitta and Kapha are considered at some places - Sushruta did not mention the Aushadhi Sevans kala as per the Vata – Dushti. The bheshaja kaala explained by acharyas seem to be based on the routine we follow in a day from morning to night along with predominance of dosha. As it is observed that, the first bhaishajya kaala explained by all the acharya is abhakta which is observed in the morning and the last bhaishajya kaala is observed as nishi, which is observed in the night.
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