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an example of farm to table participatory learning in potato   OSPUD
Participatory Research Developing relevant agricultural technology and innovation within farming systems using an egalitarian approach with all community members involved A simple, understandable, progression that begins with what people already know, their experiences, concerns, knowledge and beliefs, toward what they   need to know in order to innovate successfully.  Roland Bunch A way of learning together
Project Farmers Spring Hill Farm:  Albany   Gathering Together Farm:  Philomath   Foundhorn Gardens:  Days Creek   Fry Family Farm:  Talent  Sauvie Island Organics:  Portland   47th Ave Farm:  Portland  Persephone Farm:  Lebanon   Blue Fox Farm:  Applegate  Fields Farm:  Bend  Winter Green Farm:  Noti   Ralph’s Greenhouse:  Mount Vernon, WA
OSU Project Participants Dan Sullivan:  PI (Crop & Soil Science) Alex Stone:  PI (Horticulture) Paul Jepson:  PI (IPPC) Lane Selman:  Project Coordinator Mario Ambrosino:  Post-Doc Entomology John McQueen:  Grad Student Soil Fertility Gwendolyn Ellen:  Participatory Coordinator Nick Andrews:  Entomologist Al Mosley:  Retired Potato Specialist Isabel Vales & Solomon Yilma:  Potato Breeding Jeff McMorran:  OSU Potato Seed Certification Don Horneck:  Soil scientist
 
Our Process During winter meetings in the first and second year, we collaboratively:  identified and prioritized the issues reducing potato production sustainability identified and discussed any known solutions generated hypotheses to be tested during the growing season in on-farm trials identified who would participate in on-farm trials developed the annual budget. During the two production seasons, on-farm and research station trials evaluated pest and nutrient management strategies. During the second and final year winter meetings, the season’s field data was shared and discussed.
Primary Issues Addressed  N management Insect pest diagnosis and management Flea Beetles Wireworms Disease diagnosis and management Late Blight
Late Blight Management 5 farmers
Late blight is the most significant disease problem for this group of organic potato farmers. Yield impact depends on timing and duration of epidemic in relationship to tuber bulking. If very early and severe can generate crop failure. In EU, later epidemics can reduce yield by 50%.  Late blight is only a problem on some farms (Willamette and Skagit Valleys) Occasional-chronic late spring problem in wet springs on Willamette Valley project farms Chronic problem mid-season in Skagit Valley (large potato acreages, unmanaged inoculum sources, conducive environment)
http://www.organicagcentre.ca/Potato%20Symposium/index.html
Breeding tolerant/resistant cultivars is the best strategy for managing LB organically.  We need ongoing LB breeding programs as tolerance will break down over time. Copper oxychloride (6 sprays @ 0.9 lbs/A) slows disease progress and met the EU limit for Cu application. Chitting did not control LB. Irrigation management reduces LB. Nutrient management increases yield but doesn’t reduce foliar LB.  Compost teas (etc.) have worked vs. Botrytis in greenhouse culture but they have not been effective in suppressing LB in field potatoes.  Rhubarb extract controls LB but you have to grow a field of rhubarb for every field of potato (someone in EU is working to commercialize this). BlightMOP Conclusions
Disease Management: Objectives Scout fields to identify diseases as they occur on all farms Investigate cause(s) of on-farm LB epidemics (and other diseases)  to determine whether they can be avoided or managed to reduce impact Evaluate LB resistant commercial cultivars Defender, Jacqueline Lee, and Island Sunshine on project farms for resistance and marketability Evaluate other cultivars considered LB resistant in  inoculated experiment station trial (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate specialty clones from the PNW program for LB resistance (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate copper applications for LB management  CULTURAL
Disease Management: Objectives Scout fields to identify diseases as they occur on all farms Investigate cause(s) of on-farm LB epidemics (and other diseases)  to determine whether they can be avoided or managed to reduce impact Evaluate LB resistant commercial cultivars Defender, Jacqueline Lee, and Island Sunshine on project farms for resistance and marketability Evaluate other cultivars considered LB resistant in  inoculated experiment station trial (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate specialty clones from the PNW program for LB resistance (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate copper applications for LB management  GENETIC
Disease Management: Objectives Scout fields to identify diseases as they occur on all farms Investigate cause(s) of on-farm LB epidemics (and other diseases)  to determine whether they can be avoided or managed to reduce impact Evaluate LB resistant commercial cultivars Defender, Jacqueline Lee, and Island Sunshine on project farms for resistance and marketability Evaluate other cultivars considered LB resistant in  inoculated experiment station trial (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate specialty clones from the PNW program for LB resistance (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate copper applications for LB management  CHEMICAL
Ozette, Defender  = more resistant Jacqueline Lee, Island Sunshine = somewhat resistant More resistant varieties in the pipeline – stay tuned! University of Idaho Ozette
Inoculated Replicated LB Trials From Colorado breeding program, not commercially available
Participatory Evaluation of  Potato Germplasm for Suitability  in Organic Production Systems
 
Disease Management: Objectives Scout fields to identify diseases as they occur on all farms Investigate cause(s) of on-farm LB epidemics (and other diseases)  to determine whether they can be avoided or managed to reduce impact Evaluate LB resistant commercial cultivars Defender, Jacqueline Lee, and Island Sunshine on project farms for resistance and marketability Evaluate other cultivars considered LB resistant in  inoculated experiment station trial (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate specialty clones from the PNW program for LB resistance (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate copper and other materials for LB management  CHEMICAL
Copper fungicides are protectants, so they must be applied to the foliage before infection.  The copper ion is absorbed by the germinating spore, and the copper denatures spore proteins. Coppers must be applied regularly throughout the potato production season – this can be 8 or more sprays per season!  Coppers are considered synthetics by the NOP and are permitted with restrictions – they must be applied in a manner that minimizes accumulation in soil. BlightMOP effectively controlled LB with 6 sprays of 0.9 lbs/A each as oxychloride, and this total application rate (5.4 lbs Cu per A) fell within the more restrictive EU guidelines (6 kg/ha, or 5.4 lbs/A) and did not result in increased soil Cu contents.  In the OSU trial, we made 4 applications of 1.9 lbs elemental copper as cupric oxide (Nordox) (total Cu application: 7.6 lbs Cu/A). It is possible that Nordox could be effective at 0.9 lbs elemental copper/A per spray.  Monterey Chemical is currently trialing lower Nordox rates. Copper fungicides
1 Cuprofix is not currently OMRI or WSDA listed for use on certified organic farms 2 Kocide 3000 was OMRI-listed in October 2006 but may no longer be listed. 3 Nordox is currently listed by OMRI and WSDA for use on certified organic farms. It is regulated and must  be used in a manner that minimizes accumulation of copper in the soil [205.601( i )(1)] 4 Josephine Porter Institute for Applied Biodynamics, PO Box 133, Woolwine, VA 24185    Materials were applied as recommended by JPI. 5 Wilt Farms, Hwy 99W, Corvallis, OR. 541 752-0460. Tea was applied as received from Wilt Farm on  dates that Wilt Farm produced tea. On 2 dates, tea was applied the following day. 8/21, 8/29, 9/1, 9/5, 9/12 600 gals/A 9. Wilt Farm tea  (compost tea: Wilt Farm 5 ) 8/29, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 600 gals/A 8.  Water control (applied same dates as 1-7)) 8/29, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 600 units/A 7. Maria Thun barrel compost tea  (compost: BD Institute 4 ) 8/29, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 300 units/A 6. Horsetail tea  (horsetail: BD Institute 4 ) 8/30, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 3 qts /A 5. Sonata  (QST 713  Bacillus subtilis:  Agraquest ) 8/30, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 6 gals/A 4. Oxidate  (hydrogen dioxide and peroxyacetic acid: BioSafe) 8/30, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 2.5 lbs/A 3. Nordox 75 WG  (copper oxide: Monterey Chemical) 3 8/30, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 1.75 lbs/A 2. Kocide 3000  (copper hydroxide: DuPont) 2 8/30, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 3 lbs/A 1. Cuprofix  (copper sulfate: Cerexagri-Nisso) 1 Timing Rate Treatment
Wilt Farm tea 9 Water control 8 Maria Thun tea 7 Horsetail tea 6 Sonata 5 Oxidate 4 Nordox 3 Kocide 2 Cuprofix 1
 
Publications OSU EXTENSION PUBLICATIONS Ambrosino, M. 2008. Flea Beetle Management for Organic Potatoes. Oregon State University. EM 8747-E. Selman,L., N. Andrews, A. Stone, and A.Mosley. 2008. What’s Wrong with my Potato Tubers? Oregon State University. EM 8948-E. Sullivan, D.M., J.P.G. McQueen and D.A. Horneck. 2008.  Estimating Nitrogen Mineralization in Organic Potato Production. Oregon State University. EM 8949-E. THESIS  McQueen, J.P.G. 2007.  Estimating the dry matter production, nitrogen requirements, and yield of organic farm-grown potatoes.  M.S. Thesis.  Oregon State University. Corvallis, OR.  Available at: http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/dspace/bitstream/1957/6245/1/mcqueenj_MSthesis.pdf ).
 
 
Outreach January 2008.  Oregon Tilth 2008 Annual Conference: a potato variety tasting and an Ospud farmer panel presentation January 2008.  North Willamette Horticulture Society Meeting.  February 2008.  The 8th Annual Small Farms and Farm Direct Marketing Conference: Ospud farmer presentation November 2008.  Washington Tilth: Ospud farmer presentation
www.ospud.org
Outcomes All farmer collaborators indicated the OSPUD project had increased their knowledge about: potato varieties  flea beetle management seed quality and handling row and plant spacing.  90% indicated that the project increased their understanding of:  nitrogen fertilization wireworm management  late blight management potato production economics
Outcomes Farmers overwhelmingly responded that the most valuable aspects of OSPUD were:  the relationship building with other growers and researchers,  the interaction and collaboration with university specialists the broad, multi-discipline approach, & detail on a single crop
100% of farmer collaborators indicated that they agreed with the following statements: I would conduct an on-farm experiment with assistance from OSU. I would encourage another grower to participate in a project with OSU. Being part of the OSPUD project made me a better manager of my potato crop. Interacting with other farmers helped me better understand my farm. An important factor in the success of OSPUD was bringing together farmer-derived and science-derived information.  Science-based information is essential to improving organic systems. Interacting with researchers helped me better understand my farm.

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OSPUD: An Example of Farm to Table Participatory Learning in Potato

  • 1. an example of farm to table participatory learning in potato OSPUD
  • 2. Participatory Research Developing relevant agricultural technology and innovation within farming systems using an egalitarian approach with all community members involved A simple, understandable, progression that begins with what people already know, their experiences, concerns, knowledge and beliefs, toward what they need to know in order to innovate successfully. Roland Bunch A way of learning together
  • 3. Project Farmers Spring Hill Farm: Albany Gathering Together Farm: Philomath Foundhorn Gardens: Days Creek Fry Family Farm: Talent Sauvie Island Organics: Portland 47th Ave Farm: Portland Persephone Farm: Lebanon Blue Fox Farm: Applegate Fields Farm: Bend Winter Green Farm: Noti Ralph’s Greenhouse: Mount Vernon, WA
  • 4. OSU Project Participants Dan Sullivan: PI (Crop & Soil Science) Alex Stone: PI (Horticulture) Paul Jepson: PI (IPPC) Lane Selman: Project Coordinator Mario Ambrosino: Post-Doc Entomology John McQueen: Grad Student Soil Fertility Gwendolyn Ellen: Participatory Coordinator Nick Andrews: Entomologist Al Mosley: Retired Potato Specialist Isabel Vales & Solomon Yilma: Potato Breeding Jeff McMorran: OSU Potato Seed Certification Don Horneck: Soil scientist
  • 5.  
  • 6. Our Process During winter meetings in the first and second year, we collaboratively: identified and prioritized the issues reducing potato production sustainability identified and discussed any known solutions generated hypotheses to be tested during the growing season in on-farm trials identified who would participate in on-farm trials developed the annual budget. During the two production seasons, on-farm and research station trials evaluated pest and nutrient management strategies. During the second and final year winter meetings, the season’s field data was shared and discussed.
  • 7. Primary Issues Addressed N management Insect pest diagnosis and management Flea Beetles Wireworms Disease diagnosis and management Late Blight
  • 9. Late blight is the most significant disease problem for this group of organic potato farmers. Yield impact depends on timing and duration of epidemic in relationship to tuber bulking. If very early and severe can generate crop failure. In EU, later epidemics can reduce yield by 50%. Late blight is only a problem on some farms (Willamette and Skagit Valleys) Occasional-chronic late spring problem in wet springs on Willamette Valley project farms Chronic problem mid-season in Skagit Valley (large potato acreages, unmanaged inoculum sources, conducive environment)
  • 11. Breeding tolerant/resistant cultivars is the best strategy for managing LB organically. We need ongoing LB breeding programs as tolerance will break down over time. Copper oxychloride (6 sprays @ 0.9 lbs/A) slows disease progress and met the EU limit for Cu application. Chitting did not control LB. Irrigation management reduces LB. Nutrient management increases yield but doesn’t reduce foliar LB. Compost teas (etc.) have worked vs. Botrytis in greenhouse culture but they have not been effective in suppressing LB in field potatoes. Rhubarb extract controls LB but you have to grow a field of rhubarb for every field of potato (someone in EU is working to commercialize this). BlightMOP Conclusions
  • 12. Disease Management: Objectives Scout fields to identify diseases as they occur on all farms Investigate cause(s) of on-farm LB epidemics (and other diseases) to determine whether they can be avoided or managed to reduce impact Evaluate LB resistant commercial cultivars Defender, Jacqueline Lee, and Island Sunshine on project farms for resistance and marketability Evaluate other cultivars considered LB resistant in inoculated experiment station trial (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate specialty clones from the PNW program for LB resistance (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate copper applications for LB management CULTURAL
  • 13. Disease Management: Objectives Scout fields to identify diseases as they occur on all farms Investigate cause(s) of on-farm LB epidemics (and other diseases) to determine whether they can be avoided or managed to reduce impact Evaluate LB resistant commercial cultivars Defender, Jacqueline Lee, and Island Sunshine on project farms for resistance and marketability Evaluate other cultivars considered LB resistant in inoculated experiment station trial (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate specialty clones from the PNW program for LB resistance (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate copper applications for LB management GENETIC
  • 14. Disease Management: Objectives Scout fields to identify diseases as they occur on all farms Investigate cause(s) of on-farm LB epidemics (and other diseases) to determine whether they can be avoided or managed to reduce impact Evaluate LB resistant commercial cultivars Defender, Jacqueline Lee, and Island Sunshine on project farms for resistance and marketability Evaluate other cultivars considered LB resistant in inoculated experiment station trial (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate specialty clones from the PNW program for LB resistance (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate copper applications for LB management CHEMICAL
  • 15. Ozette, Defender = more resistant Jacqueline Lee, Island Sunshine = somewhat resistant More resistant varieties in the pipeline – stay tuned! University of Idaho Ozette
  • 16. Inoculated Replicated LB Trials From Colorado breeding program, not commercially available
  • 17. Participatory Evaluation of Potato Germplasm for Suitability in Organic Production Systems
  • 18.  
  • 19. Disease Management: Objectives Scout fields to identify diseases as they occur on all farms Investigate cause(s) of on-farm LB epidemics (and other diseases) to determine whether they can be avoided or managed to reduce impact Evaluate LB resistant commercial cultivars Defender, Jacqueline Lee, and Island Sunshine on project farms for resistance and marketability Evaluate other cultivars considered LB resistant in inoculated experiment station trial (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate specialty clones from the PNW program for LB resistance (Vales and Yilma) Evaluate copper and other materials for LB management CHEMICAL
  • 20. Copper fungicides are protectants, so they must be applied to the foliage before infection. The copper ion is absorbed by the germinating spore, and the copper denatures spore proteins. Coppers must be applied regularly throughout the potato production season – this can be 8 or more sprays per season! Coppers are considered synthetics by the NOP and are permitted with restrictions – they must be applied in a manner that minimizes accumulation in soil. BlightMOP effectively controlled LB with 6 sprays of 0.9 lbs/A each as oxychloride, and this total application rate (5.4 lbs Cu per A) fell within the more restrictive EU guidelines (6 kg/ha, or 5.4 lbs/A) and did not result in increased soil Cu contents. In the OSU trial, we made 4 applications of 1.9 lbs elemental copper as cupric oxide (Nordox) (total Cu application: 7.6 lbs Cu/A). It is possible that Nordox could be effective at 0.9 lbs elemental copper/A per spray. Monterey Chemical is currently trialing lower Nordox rates. Copper fungicides
  • 21. 1 Cuprofix is not currently OMRI or WSDA listed for use on certified organic farms 2 Kocide 3000 was OMRI-listed in October 2006 but may no longer be listed. 3 Nordox is currently listed by OMRI and WSDA for use on certified organic farms. It is regulated and must be used in a manner that minimizes accumulation of copper in the soil [205.601( i )(1)] 4 Josephine Porter Institute for Applied Biodynamics, PO Box 133, Woolwine, VA 24185 Materials were applied as recommended by JPI. 5 Wilt Farms, Hwy 99W, Corvallis, OR. 541 752-0460. Tea was applied as received from Wilt Farm on dates that Wilt Farm produced tea. On 2 dates, tea was applied the following day. 8/21, 8/29, 9/1, 9/5, 9/12 600 gals/A 9. Wilt Farm tea (compost tea: Wilt Farm 5 ) 8/29, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 600 gals/A 8. Water control (applied same dates as 1-7)) 8/29, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 600 units/A 7. Maria Thun barrel compost tea (compost: BD Institute 4 ) 8/29, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 300 units/A 6. Horsetail tea (horsetail: BD Institute 4 ) 8/30, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 3 qts /A 5. Sonata (QST 713 Bacillus subtilis: Agraquest ) 8/30, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 6 gals/A 4. Oxidate (hydrogen dioxide and peroxyacetic acid: BioSafe) 8/30, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 2.5 lbs/A 3. Nordox 75 WG (copper oxide: Monterey Chemical) 3 8/30, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 1.75 lbs/A 2. Kocide 3000 (copper hydroxide: DuPont) 2 8/30, 9/3, 9/10, 9/17 3 lbs/A 1. Cuprofix (copper sulfate: Cerexagri-Nisso) 1 Timing Rate Treatment
  • 22. Wilt Farm tea 9 Water control 8 Maria Thun tea 7 Horsetail tea 6 Sonata 5 Oxidate 4 Nordox 3 Kocide 2 Cuprofix 1
  • 23.  
  • 24. Publications OSU EXTENSION PUBLICATIONS Ambrosino, M. 2008. Flea Beetle Management for Organic Potatoes. Oregon State University. EM 8747-E. Selman,L., N. Andrews, A. Stone, and A.Mosley. 2008. What’s Wrong with my Potato Tubers? Oregon State University. EM 8948-E. Sullivan, D.M., J.P.G. McQueen and D.A. Horneck. 2008. Estimating Nitrogen Mineralization in Organic Potato Production. Oregon State University. EM 8949-E. THESIS McQueen, J.P.G. 2007. Estimating the dry matter production, nitrogen requirements, and yield of organic farm-grown potatoes. M.S. Thesis. Oregon State University. Corvallis, OR. Available at: http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/dspace/bitstream/1957/6245/1/mcqueenj_MSthesis.pdf ).
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27. Outreach January 2008. Oregon Tilth 2008 Annual Conference: a potato variety tasting and an Ospud farmer panel presentation January 2008. North Willamette Horticulture Society Meeting. February 2008. The 8th Annual Small Farms and Farm Direct Marketing Conference: Ospud farmer presentation November 2008. Washington Tilth: Ospud farmer presentation
  • 29. Outcomes All farmer collaborators indicated the OSPUD project had increased their knowledge about: potato varieties flea beetle management seed quality and handling row and plant spacing. 90% indicated that the project increased their understanding of: nitrogen fertilization wireworm management late blight management potato production economics
  • 30. Outcomes Farmers overwhelmingly responded that the most valuable aspects of OSPUD were: the relationship building with other growers and researchers, the interaction and collaboration with university specialists the broad, multi-discipline approach, & detail on a single crop
  • 31. 100% of farmer collaborators indicated that they agreed with the following statements: I would conduct an on-farm experiment with assistance from OSU. I would encourage another grower to participate in a project with OSU. Being part of the OSPUD project made me a better manager of my potato crop. Interacting with other farmers helped me better understand my farm. An important factor in the success of OSPUD was bringing together farmer-derived and science-derived information. Science-based information is essential to improving organic systems. Interacting with researchers helped me better understand my farm.