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Organ Culture: Definition, History and
Importance | Plant Tissues Culture
By
Dr.Thirunahari Ugandhar
Asst Prof of Botany
Govt. Degree College
Mahabubabad-506101 (T.S.)
Organ Culture.pptx
Organ Culture.pptx
• The organ culture refers to the in vitro culture and
maintenance of an excised organ primordia or whole or
part of an organ in a way that may allow differentiation
and preservation of the architecture and/or function.
Importance of Organ Culture
• Organ culture provides an excellent experimental system
to define the nutrients and growth factors normally
received by the organ from other parts of the plant body
and from its external environment.
• (ii) Organ culture is particularly valuable in studies of the
interdependence of organs for growth hormones and
other growth factors.
• What is the Meaning of Totipotency?
• Totipotency is the genetic potential of a plant cell to
produce the entire plant. In other words, totipotency is the
cell characteristic in which the potential for forming all the
cell types in the adult organism is retained.
• Expression of Totipotency in Culture:
• The basis of tissue culture is to grow large number of cells in
a sterile controlled environment. The cells are obtained
from stem, root or other plant parts and are allowed to
grow in culture medium containing mineral nutrients, vi-
tamins and hormones to encourage cell division and growth.
As a result, the cells in culture will produce an unorganised
proliferative mass of cells which is known as callus tissue.
Organ Culture.pptx
• Importance of Totipotency in Plant Science:
• The ultimate objective in plant protoplast, cell and tissue
culture is the reconstruction of plants from the totipotent
cell. Although the process of differentiation is still
mysterious in general, the expression of totipotent cell in
culture has provided a lot of information’s.
• On the other hand, the totipotentiality of somatic cells
has been exploited in vegetative propagation of many
economical, medicinal as well as agriculturally important
plant species. Therefore, from fundamental to applied
aspect of plant biology, cellular totipotency is highly
important.
• Brief Past History of Callus Culture:
• R. J. Gautheret (France) (1934-1937):
• He first succeeded in promoting the development
of callus tissue from excised cambial tissue of Salix
capraea and other woody species. He was able to
promote the growth of the callus tissue using
simple nutrient medium supplemented with three
vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and nicotinic acid)
and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) newly discovered by
F W Went and K V Thimann (1937).
• ADVERTISEMENTS:
Organ Culture.pptx
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Organ Culture.pptx
Organ Culture.pptx
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• What is the Meaning of Callus Tissue?
• Callus tissue means an unorganised proliferative
mass of cells produced from isolated plant cells,
tissues or organs when grown aseptically on
artificial nutrient medium in glass vials under
controlled experimental conditions.
• Principles of Callus Culture:
• For successful initiation of callus culture, three
important criteria should be accomplished:
• (i) Aseptic preparation of plant material,
• (ii) Selection of suitable nutrient medium supplemented with
appropriate ratio of auxins and cytokinins or only appropriate
auxin, and
• (iii) Incubation of culture under controlled physical condition.
• Different plant parts carry a number of surface borne micro-
organisms-like bacteria, fungus etc. So, before attempting to
initiate a callus culture, it is necessary to surface sterilize the plant
parts which are to be cultured. Typical plant parts may be
segments of root or stem, pieces of leaf lamina, flower petals etc.
The excised plant parts called explants are at first washed with
liquid detergent (generally 5% v/v ‘Teepol’).
• Then the explants are surface sterilized by the most commonly
used chemicals such as 0.1% w/v mercuric chloride (HgCl2) or
Sodium hypochlorite (0.8% to 1.6% available chlorine) for a
limited time (generally 10-15 minutes). After surface sterilization,
the explants are repeatedly rinsed with autoclaved distilled water.
Organ Culture.pptx
Organ Culture.pptx
Organ Culture.pptx
Organ Culture.pptx
Organ Culture.pptx
Organ Culture.pptx
Organ Culture.pptx
Organ Culture.pptx

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Organ Culture.pptx

  • 1. Organ Culture: Definition, History and Importance | Plant Tissues Culture By Dr.Thirunahari Ugandhar Asst Prof of Botany Govt. Degree College Mahabubabad-506101 (T.S.)
  • 4. • The organ culture refers to the in vitro culture and maintenance of an excised organ primordia or whole or part of an organ in a way that may allow differentiation and preservation of the architecture and/or function.
  • 5. Importance of Organ Culture • Organ culture provides an excellent experimental system to define the nutrients and growth factors normally received by the organ from other parts of the plant body and from its external environment. • (ii) Organ culture is particularly valuable in studies of the interdependence of organs for growth hormones and other growth factors.
  • 6. • What is the Meaning of Totipotency? • Totipotency is the genetic potential of a plant cell to produce the entire plant. In other words, totipotency is the cell characteristic in which the potential for forming all the cell types in the adult organism is retained. • Expression of Totipotency in Culture: • The basis of tissue culture is to grow large number of cells in a sterile controlled environment. The cells are obtained from stem, root or other plant parts and are allowed to grow in culture medium containing mineral nutrients, vi- tamins and hormones to encourage cell division and growth. As a result, the cells in culture will produce an unorganised proliferative mass of cells which is known as callus tissue.
  • 8. • Importance of Totipotency in Plant Science: • The ultimate objective in plant protoplast, cell and tissue culture is the reconstruction of plants from the totipotent cell. Although the process of differentiation is still mysterious in general, the expression of totipotent cell in culture has provided a lot of information’s. • On the other hand, the totipotentiality of somatic cells has been exploited in vegetative propagation of many economical, medicinal as well as agriculturally important plant species. Therefore, from fundamental to applied aspect of plant biology, cellular totipotency is highly important.
  • 9. • Brief Past History of Callus Culture: • R. J. Gautheret (France) (1934-1937): • He first succeeded in promoting the development of callus tissue from excised cambial tissue of Salix capraea and other woody species. He was able to promote the growth of the callus tissue using simple nutrient medium supplemented with three vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and nicotinic acid) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) newly discovered by F W Went and K V Thimann (1937). • ADVERTISEMENTS:
  • 20. • What is the Meaning of Callus Tissue? • Callus tissue means an unorganised proliferative mass of cells produced from isolated plant cells, tissues or organs when grown aseptically on artificial nutrient medium in glass vials under controlled experimental conditions. • Principles of Callus Culture: • For successful initiation of callus culture, three important criteria should be accomplished: • (i) Aseptic preparation of plant material,
  • 21. • (ii) Selection of suitable nutrient medium supplemented with appropriate ratio of auxins and cytokinins or only appropriate auxin, and • (iii) Incubation of culture under controlled physical condition. • Different plant parts carry a number of surface borne micro- organisms-like bacteria, fungus etc. So, before attempting to initiate a callus culture, it is necessary to surface sterilize the plant parts which are to be cultured. Typical plant parts may be segments of root or stem, pieces of leaf lamina, flower petals etc. The excised plant parts called explants are at first washed with liquid detergent (generally 5% v/v ‘Teepol’). • Then the explants are surface sterilized by the most commonly used chemicals such as 0.1% w/v mercuric chloride (HgCl2) or Sodium hypochlorite (0.8% to 1.6% available chlorine) for a limited time (generally 10-15 minutes). After surface sterilization, the explants are repeatedly rinsed with autoclaved distilled water.