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Dr. Shashikanth Vydyula 
(BDS, Cosmetic Dental Surgeon)
Introduction 
Maintaining the teeth in a state of health is of utmost 
importance for complete digestion and nutrition. 
 Not only do the teeth serve several functions in the 
chewing process, but they also affect our speech and 
appearance.
Types of Teeth 
The incisors at the front of the mouth have 
a sharp biting surface and are used for 
cutting or shearing food into small chewable 
pieces. There are eight incisors in both 
primary (baby) and permanent sets of teeth 
(dentitions). 
The canines are situated at the 'corners' of 
the dental arches. They have a sharp, 
pointed biting surface. Their function is to 
grip and tear food. There are four canine 
teeth in both primary and permanent 
dentitions.
The premolars, unlike the incisors and 
canines, have a flat biting surface. Their 
function is to tear and crush food. They are 
unique to the permanent dentition which 
has eight premolars. 
The molars are the largest of the teeth. 
They have a large flat biting surface. The 
function of the molars is to chew, crush and 
grind food. There are eight molars in the 
primary dentition and twelve in the 
permanent dentition.
Eruption Of Tooth 
Upper 
Central incisor 7 - 8 yrs 
 Lateral incisor 8 - 9 yrs 
 Canine 11 - 12 yrs 
 First premolar 10 - 11 yrs 
 Second premolar 10 - 12 yrs 
 First molar 6 - 7 yrs 
 Second molar 12 - 13 yrs 
 Third molar 17 - 21 yrs 
Lower 
Central incisor 6 - 7 yrs 
Lateral incisor 7 - 8 yrs 
Canine 9 - 10 
First premolar 10 - 12 yrs 
Second premolar 11 - 12 yrs 
First molar 6 - 7 yrs 
Second molar 12 - 13 yrs 
Third molar 17 - 21 yrs
Normal Tooth Structure
Saliva and Its Functions 
 The teeth and oral tissues are constantly bathed in saliva. Saliva is secreted 
by the salivary glands. The production of saliva increases when food or 
drinks are consumed. Its presence is vital to the maintenance of healthy 
oral tissue. 
Functions: 
 Fluid/Lubricant: Coats mucosa and helps to protect against mechanical, 
thermal and chemical irritation. Assists smooth airflow, speech and 
swallowing. 
 Ion Reservoir: Holds ions needed for maintenance of enamel near the 
tooth. Helps prevent decay. 
 Buffer: Helps to neutralize plaque acids after eating, thus helps prevent 
decay. 
 Cleansing: Clears food and aids swallowing. 
 Antimicrobial actions: Anti-microbial mechanisms in saliva help control 
the bacteria in the mouth. 
 Pellicle formation: Protective coating formed on enamel from salivary 
proteins. 
 Taste: Saliva acts as a solvent thus allowing interaction of foodstuff with 
taste buds to facilitate taste.
Plaque 
 Dental biofilm or plaque is a causative 
factor for caries and periodontal 
disease. 
 Dental biofilm is an almost colorless 
sticky bacterial film, which adheres to 
the tooth surface. It is not removed by 
rinsing with water. 
 The accumulation of dental biofilm or 
plaque around the gum margin leads to 
the development of gingivitis in most 
people. The longer the plaque is left, 
the greater the risk of developing 
gingivitis. Thus, daily careful plaque 
removal is required to prevent 
gingivitis.
Tooth Paste 
What is in Toothpaste? 
Tooth Paste Consists of: 
Abrasives 
 Detergent (1-2%) 
Binding agents (1%) 
Humectants (10-30%) 
Flavoring, sweetening and coloring agents (1-5%) 
Preservatives (0.05-0.50%) 
 Fluoride and other therapeutic agents 
Water
Tooth Brush 
The toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to 
clean the teeth and gums that consists of a head of 
tightly clustered bristles mounted on a handle, which 
facilitates the cleansing of hard-to-reach areas of the 
mouth.
 Toothbrushes should be replaced when bristles show signs 
of wear. 
 Brushing is more effective with multi-tufted, small-headed 
toothbrushes with soft to medium nylon filaments and a 
comfortable handle. 
 Powered brushes with brush heads that rotate first in one 
direction and then the other (oscillate/rotate) are more 
effective at removing plaque than manual toothbrushes 
and can reduce gingivitis if used for over 3 months.
Mouth Rinses/Wash 
 Mouth rinses contain therapeutic 
agents to control various oral 
health conditions such as caries, 
plaque/ gingivitis, tooth wear and 
halitosis. 
 General mouth wash contains 
Chlorhexidine as a major 
component that helps in 
controlling plaque and gingivitis. 
 Some mouth washes contain 
Fluoride which is effective in 
preventing caries and fights against 
tooth decay.
Dental Floss 
 Dental floss is an inter dental 
cleaning aid which helps in 
removal of plaque and debris 
that accumulate in between 
tooth structures. 
 Dental floss is effective in 
removing plaque where tooth 
brush cannot reach or cannot 
remove plaque.
Dental Caries or Tooth Decay 
 Dental caries is caused by the 
action of acids on the enamel 
surface. The acid is produced 
when sugars (mainly sucrose) 
in foods or drinks react with 
bacteria present in the dental 
biofilm (plaque) on the tooth 
surface. The acid produced 
leads to a loss of calcium and 
phosphate from the enamel; 
this process is called 
demineralization.
Periodontal Disease 
 Periodontal or gum disease is a 
pathological inflammatory condition of 
the gum and bone support (periodontal 
tissues) surrounding the teeth. 
Periodontal Disease = Gingivitis + 
Periodontitis 
 Initial Stage is the infection of gums and 
gingival tissue which bleed on probing. 
This stage is called as Gingivitis. 
 When the periodontal disease affects the 
periodontal ligaments and bone it is 
called is Periodontitis.
Maintain Your Oral Health
Thank You

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Oral Health and Dental Management

  • 1. Dr. Shashikanth Vydyula (BDS, Cosmetic Dental Surgeon)
  • 2. Introduction Maintaining the teeth in a state of health is of utmost importance for complete digestion and nutrition.  Not only do the teeth serve several functions in the chewing process, but they also affect our speech and appearance.
  • 3. Types of Teeth The incisors at the front of the mouth have a sharp biting surface and are used for cutting or shearing food into small chewable pieces. There are eight incisors in both primary (baby) and permanent sets of teeth (dentitions). The canines are situated at the 'corners' of the dental arches. They have a sharp, pointed biting surface. Their function is to grip and tear food. There are four canine teeth in both primary and permanent dentitions.
  • 4. The premolars, unlike the incisors and canines, have a flat biting surface. Their function is to tear and crush food. They are unique to the permanent dentition which has eight premolars. The molars are the largest of the teeth. They have a large flat biting surface. The function of the molars is to chew, crush and grind food. There are eight molars in the primary dentition and twelve in the permanent dentition.
  • 5. Eruption Of Tooth Upper Central incisor 7 - 8 yrs  Lateral incisor 8 - 9 yrs  Canine 11 - 12 yrs  First premolar 10 - 11 yrs  Second premolar 10 - 12 yrs  First molar 6 - 7 yrs  Second molar 12 - 13 yrs  Third molar 17 - 21 yrs Lower Central incisor 6 - 7 yrs Lateral incisor 7 - 8 yrs Canine 9 - 10 First premolar 10 - 12 yrs Second premolar 11 - 12 yrs First molar 6 - 7 yrs Second molar 12 - 13 yrs Third molar 17 - 21 yrs
  • 7. Saliva and Its Functions  The teeth and oral tissues are constantly bathed in saliva. Saliva is secreted by the salivary glands. The production of saliva increases when food or drinks are consumed. Its presence is vital to the maintenance of healthy oral tissue. Functions:  Fluid/Lubricant: Coats mucosa and helps to protect against mechanical, thermal and chemical irritation. Assists smooth airflow, speech and swallowing.  Ion Reservoir: Holds ions needed for maintenance of enamel near the tooth. Helps prevent decay.  Buffer: Helps to neutralize plaque acids after eating, thus helps prevent decay.  Cleansing: Clears food and aids swallowing.  Antimicrobial actions: Anti-microbial mechanisms in saliva help control the bacteria in the mouth.  Pellicle formation: Protective coating formed on enamel from salivary proteins.  Taste: Saliva acts as a solvent thus allowing interaction of foodstuff with taste buds to facilitate taste.
  • 8. Plaque  Dental biofilm or plaque is a causative factor for caries and periodontal disease.  Dental biofilm is an almost colorless sticky bacterial film, which adheres to the tooth surface. It is not removed by rinsing with water.  The accumulation of dental biofilm or plaque around the gum margin leads to the development of gingivitis in most people. The longer the plaque is left, the greater the risk of developing gingivitis. Thus, daily careful plaque removal is required to prevent gingivitis.
  • 9. Tooth Paste What is in Toothpaste? Tooth Paste Consists of: Abrasives  Detergent (1-2%) Binding agents (1%) Humectants (10-30%) Flavoring, sweetening and coloring agents (1-5%) Preservatives (0.05-0.50%)  Fluoride and other therapeutic agents Water
  • 10. Tooth Brush The toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to clean the teeth and gums that consists of a head of tightly clustered bristles mounted on a handle, which facilitates the cleansing of hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.
  • 11.  Toothbrushes should be replaced when bristles show signs of wear.  Brushing is more effective with multi-tufted, small-headed toothbrushes with soft to medium nylon filaments and a comfortable handle.  Powered brushes with brush heads that rotate first in one direction and then the other (oscillate/rotate) are more effective at removing plaque than manual toothbrushes and can reduce gingivitis if used for over 3 months.
  • 12. Mouth Rinses/Wash  Mouth rinses contain therapeutic agents to control various oral health conditions such as caries, plaque/ gingivitis, tooth wear and halitosis.  General mouth wash contains Chlorhexidine as a major component that helps in controlling plaque and gingivitis.  Some mouth washes contain Fluoride which is effective in preventing caries and fights against tooth decay.
  • 13. Dental Floss  Dental floss is an inter dental cleaning aid which helps in removal of plaque and debris that accumulate in between tooth structures.  Dental floss is effective in removing plaque where tooth brush cannot reach or cannot remove plaque.
  • 14. Dental Caries or Tooth Decay  Dental caries is caused by the action of acids on the enamel surface. The acid is produced when sugars (mainly sucrose) in foods or drinks react with bacteria present in the dental biofilm (plaque) on the tooth surface. The acid produced leads to a loss of calcium and phosphate from the enamel; this process is called demineralization.
  • 15. Periodontal Disease  Periodontal or gum disease is a pathological inflammatory condition of the gum and bone support (periodontal tissues) surrounding the teeth. Periodontal Disease = Gingivitis + Periodontitis  Initial Stage is the infection of gums and gingival tissue which bleed on probing. This stage is called as Gingivitis.  When the periodontal disease affects the periodontal ligaments and bone it is called is Periodontitis.