SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Open Source Software
Resilience Framework
Apostolos Kritikos / Ioannis Stamelos
PhD Candidate / Professor
Informatics School., Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
akritiko@csd.auth.gr
/apostoloskritikos /akritiko
#1Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
Affiliation
RESEARCH GROUP
Software Engineering Group
(SWENG)
LAB
Software engineering, Web & Intelligent Systems
(SOFTWISE)
SCHOOL
Informatics
UNIVERSITY
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
#2Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
Image Credit: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Image Credit: Municipality of Thessaloniki
Motivation
● An Open Source Software (OSS) project can be utilized either as is, to serve specific needs
on an application level, or on the source code level, as a part of another software system
serving as a component, a library, or even an autonomous third party dependency.
● There are several OSS quality models that provide metrics to measure specific aspects of
the project, like its structural quality. Although other dimensions, like community, health
and activity, software governance principles or license permissiveness, are taken into
account, there is no universally accepted OSS assessment model.
● In this work we are proposing an evaluation approach based on the adaptation of the City
Resilience Framework to OSS with the aim of providing a strong theoretical basis for
evaluating OSS projects.
#3Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
Motivation
In literature we find several works that suggest a holistic approach in evaluating an Open Source
Software project, extending beyond structural quality. For example:
● Permissiveness of the license, number of active developers & end users, language
translations. (Midha & Palvia, [6]*)
● Open Source Governance Model. (Vision Mobile, [7]*)
● Maturity, stability, documentation, community aspects. (Wasserman et al., [9]*)
● Competition & Collaboration in large OSS systems. (Teixeira et al., [10]*)
● Maturity of an OSS project’s community. (Andrade et al. [11]*)
* Note: The extensive references list can be found to our publication.
#4Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
We propose that...
1. To approach an OSS project as an evolving system in order to be able to
study it in a holistic way.
2. For an OSS project o be able to succeed and achieve longevity, it is
crucial to be resilient in order to survive potential stresses and crises that
might occur.
#5Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
Stressors & Crises Examples in OSS
● Forks of the project that might drive the attention of the original project’s community
away.
● Migration of lead developers or even part of the development community to other forks or
projects.
● An unsuccessful major release that might hurt the reputation of the project, changes to the
license.
● Migration to another forge.
Example
The case of Libre Office, an OSS project that started as a fork of Open Office, but managed to
retain the development community and evolve, as of the time of writing, to a successful OSS
project. (Gamalielsson et al., [12])
#6Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
Resilience
Indicative definitions of the term resilience from different disciplines:
“the ability [of a system] to cope with change”
Logistics, (Wieland et al., [13]).
“a resilient system can take a hit to a critical component and recover and
come back for more in a known, bounded and generally acceptable period
of times”
Software, (Axelrod, [14]).
#7Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
Resilience (2)
Indicative definitions of the term resilience from different disciplines:
“city resilience describes the capacity of cities to function, so that the
people living and working in cities particularly the poor and vulnerable
survive and thrive no matter what stresses or shocks they encounter”.
Urban Planning, (Da Silva, et al. [15]).
#8Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
City Resilience Framework (CRF)
● Is the result of research undertaken with the aim of establishing an
accessible, evidence-based definition of Urban Resilience by Arup and
the Rockefeller Foundation.
● The CRF is used by the 100 Resilient Cities a non profit organization to
primarily evaluate the Urban Resilience of more than 90 cities around
the world and, additionally, to assist the cities on crises with tailored
made resilience strategies.
#9Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
City Resilience Index (CRI)
● It is a set of indicators, variables and metrics that allow cities to
understand, baseline and subsequently measure local resilience over
time.
“The CRI will measure relative performance over time rather than comparison
between cities. It will not deliver an overall single score for comparing
performance between cities, neither will it provide a world ranking of the most
resilientcities.”
#10Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
City Resilience Index (CRI)
4 Dimensions
↓
12 Goals
↓
Indicators (KPIs)
11
CRI: Dimensions & Goals (1)
I. Health & well-being:
Related to people, working and living in the city.
Goals:
1. Minimal human vulnerability
2. Diverse livelihoods & employment
3. Effective safeguards to human health & life.
12
CRI: Dimensions & Goals (2)
II. Economy & society:
Related to the organization of cities on a social and economical level.
Goals:
1. Sustainable economy
2. Comprehensive security & rule of law
3. Collective identity & community support.
13
CRI: Dimensions & Goals (3)
III. Infrastructure & environment:
Related to place, the quality of infrastructure and ecosystems.
Goals:
1. Reliable mobility & communications
2. Effective provision of critical services
3. Reduced exposure & fragility
14
CRI: Dimensions & Goals (4)
IV. Leadership & strategy:
Related to knowledge of the past and adapting appropriately for the future.
Goals:
1. Effective leadership & management
2. Empowered stakeholders
3. Integrated development planning
NOTE: The aforementioned goals are further decomposed to indicators. Due to time constraints we didn’t include
them in this presentation.
15
Open Source Software Resilience Framework
We argue that Open Source Software projects share a conceptual similarity with cities.
● They are dynamic and continuously evolving systems with their own structural properties
● They attract people that form communities around them which, on a second level, may utilize a
governance model.
● Some OSS projects have commercial activity.
● As it is happening with cities, OSS projects can face stresses and crises (we saw some examples
earlier).
16
Open Source Software Resilience Framework
17
4 Dimensions
↓
12 Goals
↓
Indicators (KPIs)
OSSRF: Dimensions & Goals (1)
18
I. Source Code:
● The first dimension of CRF is Health & Well-being and it is related with people.
● In Open Source Software we consider source code (i.e. classes) to be the structural unit of the
project.
II. Business & Legal:
● The second dimension of CRF is Economy & Society and is related with organization.
● In Open Source Software the norm is voluntary work but, more mature projects are utilizing
Open Source Business Models to offer commercial services (be it pro features or support). For
those types of projects licensing plays a key role when it comes to commercialization.
OSSRF: Dimensions & Goals (2)
19
III. Integration & Reuse:
● The third dimension of CRF is related to place.
● Open Source Software projects usually reuse components of other OSS projects or are being
reused themselves. In this spirit, in the third dimension of the Open Source Software Resilience
Framework we will be dealing with the aspects of integration and reuse.
IV. Social (Community):
● The last dimension of CRF is about Leadership & Strategy and is related with utilizing
knowledge from the past to become better and more resilient in the future.
● In Open Source Software both leadership and strategy related processes are usually connected
with the community. Knowledge base is the codebase itself, the CVS system, issue trackers etc.
OSSRF: Dimensions & Goals (3)
20
I. Source Code
○ Continuous Growth
○ Holistic Documentation
○ Systematic Testing & Violation Minimization
II. Business & Legal
○ Economic Sustainability
○ Flexible Licensing
○ External Organization Support
OSSRF: Dimensions & Goals (4)
21
III. Integration & Reuse
○ Low Dependability
○ Low Complexity
○ Ease of Integration
IV. Social (Community)
○ Well defined Project Standards
○ Well Defined Governance
○ Developer Base Activity
OSSRF: Indicators
22
● The twelve (12) goals are further analyzed to indicators in order to provide a
more specific description of the goals.
● For the purposes of this paper we will analyze the indicators related to the
goals of the Business & Legal dimension.
● Due to space limitations, we provide the full analysis of the indicators to the
following url: http://users.auth.gr/akritiko/ossrf_indicators.html for the
intended audience.
OSSRF: Indicators - Business & Legal Dimension
23
1. Economic Sustainability
a. Donations: 0 (no) or 1 (yes) based on whether the OSS project accepts donations. 0 is
considered a non resilient value.
b. Commercial features: 0 (no) or 1 (yes) based on whether the OSS project offers commercial
features or a pro (paid) version. The indicator was based to the work of [18]. 0 is considered
a non resilient value.
c. Paid support: 0 (no) or 1 (yes) based on whether the OSS project offers a paid plan for
support. [18]. 0 is considered a non resilient value.
OSSRF: Indicators - Business & Legal Dimension (2)
24
2. Flexible Licensing
a. Level or permissiveness: 0 (all restrictive - i.e. commercial), 1 (persistent i.e. GPL), 2 (all
permissive - i.e. BSD). We base the indicator to the of [19]. The indicator is considered non
resilient when it is less than 1.
b. Level of persistence: 0 (no) or 1 (yes) based on whether there are parts of the project’s code
or dependencies published under persistent licenses (i.e. GPL). We base the indicator to
the of [19]. 1 is considered a non resilient value.
OSSRF: Indicators - Business & Legal Dimension (3)
25
3. External Organization Support: 0 (no) or 1 (yes) based on whether the OSS project is supported by
an external organization (non profit, governmental or corporate). 0 is considered a non resilient
value.
OSSRF: Resilience Determination Mechanism
26
● Starting to the indicators level we will consider an OSS project successful towards a resilience
goal when it is considered resilient at least to 50% of the goals ingredients.
● Moving to the dimensions level, an OSS project will be considered successful towards a
resilience dimension when it is considered resilient at least to 50% of the goals of the specific
dimension.
● Likewise, on a project level, the OSS project is considered resilient when at least two (2) out of
four (4) dimension (50%) are considered resilient.
OSSRF: Application - A non-resilient project
27
28
OSSRF: Application - A resilient project
29
30
Threats to validity
31
● We should note that OSSRF should be applied to project of a relative maturity in terms of
community and age (we would intuitively suggest at least 10 contributors and a maturity of
more than a year). Applying it in solo maintained OSS projects, or projects that not yet have
reached the proposed maturity may lead to misleading results.
● OSSRF is an adaptation of the City Resilience framework to Open Source Software. Although
the structure of the original framework was retained, despite the conceptual similarities that we
have already mentioned earlier, the mapping of dimensions, goals and indicators is a product of
the subjective lens of the authors.
Threats to validity (2)
32
● Regarding the goals and indicators, some of them are based on metrics available for object
oriented source code. Additionally, as far as control version systems are concerned, for the
needs of this publication we selected projects that are hosted in Github.
● As far as the scales and their aggregation is concerned, in this preliminary approach we
considered each criterion equally important and the threshold for defining a project as resilient
or non resilient is 50%.
● Finally, both of the projects analyzed in this paper, were developed in PHP and their domains
are close (OKapi was a framework for web applications and WooCommerce is a plugin for a
WordPress which is also considered by some a kind of web framework).
Future work
33
● For future work we intend to thoroughly fine-tune the rest of the indicators by testing it to a
variety of OSS projects. This will also allow us to investigatehow the OSSRF responds to projects
of different age, community size or source code size and complexity.
● We also intend to investigate whether the software domain of an OSS project affects the results
of the application of the OSSRF.
● Regarding the framework itself we will experiment with other approached regarding the
“Resilience determination mechanism” (i.e. weighted goals).
● In addition we will be extending the OSSRF to be able to work with a variety of control version
systems (not only git-like but also Mercurial, SVN, CVS).
Future work (2)
34
● In a similar spirit will would like to experiment with projects of different programming
languages (i.e. Java).
● Another challenging idea for future work would be to apply OSSRF to OSS projects that are
known to have faced specific stresses or crises in order to identify how those crises relate with
the resiliency levels of an OSS project.
● Finally we intend to attempt and request feedback, in the form of a survey, from key players of
the Open Source Software international community (lead developers, stakeholders, academics
and so forth) about OSSRF.
Open Source Software Resilience Framework
APOSTOLOS KRITIKOS CREDITS
# contact info #
0030 6976 432 234
akritiko@csd.auth.com
# social media #
apostoloskritikos @ LinkedIn
akritiko @ Twitter
# web #
www.softwarereseilience.com
apostolos.kritikos.me
# graphic elements license #
All graphic elements used in this presentation, unless explicitely
stated otherwise, were reused from openclipart.org published
under Public Domain (CC0).
# presentation license #
This presentation is published under Creative Commons
Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 4.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)
license.
# presentation id #
“Open Source Software Resilience Framework”
14th International Conference on Open Source Systems
(OSS2018).
June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece.
08.06.2018

More Related Content

Similar to Open Source Software Resilience Framework

Scalable architectures for phenotype libraries
Scalable architectures for phenotype librariesScalable architectures for phenotype libraries
Scalable architectures for phenotype libraries
Martin Chapman
 
Cultivating Sustainable Software For Research
Cultivating Sustainable Software For ResearchCultivating Sustainable Software For Research
Cultivating Sustainable Software For Research
Neil Chue Hong
 
Importance of Programming Language in Day to Day Life
Importance of Programming Language in Day to Day LifeImportance of Programming Language in Day to Day Life
Importance of Programming Language in Day to Day Life
ijtsrd
 
Asundi
AsundiAsundi
Asundi
guestfea9c55
 
Open Source Vs Proprietary Software
Open Source Vs  Proprietary SoftwareOpen Source Vs  Proprietary Software
Open Source Vs Proprietary Software
Ann Yoders
 
Defect Management Practices and Problems in Free/Open Source Software Projects
Defect Management Practices and Problems in Free/Open Source Software ProjectsDefect Management Practices and Problems in Free/Open Source Software Projects
Defect Management Practices and Problems in Free/Open Source Software Projects
Waqas Tariq
 
International Cooperation Experiences: Results Achieved, Lessons Learned, and...
International Cooperation Experiences: Results Achieved, Lessons Learned, and...International Cooperation Experiences: Results Achieved, Lessons Learned, and...
International Cooperation Experiences: Results Achieved, Lessons Learned, and...
SOFIProject
 
Paper02
Paper02Paper02
Paper02
tehranjarchi
 
ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION WITH SHARED AUTHORING ENVIRONMENT IN ACAD...
ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION WITH SHARED AUTHORING ENVIRONMENT IN ACAD...ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION WITH SHARED AUTHORING ENVIRONMENT IN ACAD...
ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION WITH SHARED AUTHORING ENVIRONMENT IN ACAD...
IJITE
 
Integrating Semantic Systems
Integrating Semantic SystemsIntegrating Semantic Systems
Integrating Semantic Systems
Kingsley Uyi Idehen
 
International Journal of Computational Engineering Research(IJCER)
International Journal of Computational Engineering Research(IJCER)International Journal of Computational Engineering Research(IJCER)
International Journal of Computational Engineering Research(IJCER)
ijceronline
 
Ontological approach to the specification of properties of software systems a...
Ontological approach to the specification of properties of software systems a...Ontological approach to the specification of properties of software systems a...
Ontological approach to the specification of properties of software systems a...
Patricia Tavares Boralli
 
A Proposal on a Method of ArchiMate based Concept of Operation (ConOps)
A Proposal on a Method of ArchiMate based Concept of Operation (ConOps)A Proposal on a Method of ArchiMate based Concept of Operation (ConOps)
A Proposal on a Method of ArchiMate based Concept of Operation (ConOps)
IJCSIS Research Publications
 
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...
ijcsit
 
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...
AIRCC Publishing Corporation
 
Digital notebooks - a Jisc perspective
Digital notebooks - a Jisc perspectiveDigital notebooks - a Jisc perspective
Digital notebooks - a Jisc perspective
Christopher Brown
 
AN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
AN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMSAN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
AN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
ijseajournal
 
AN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
AN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMSAN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
AN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
ijseajournal
 
Commemorating 20 years of open source successes in building awareness and ado...
Commemorating 20 years of open source successes in building awareness and ado...Commemorating 20 years of open source successes in building awareness and ado...
Commemorating 20 years of open source successes in building awareness and ado...
OW2
 
Msr2021 tutorial-di penta
Msr2021 tutorial-di pentaMsr2021 tutorial-di penta
Msr2021 tutorial-di penta
Massimiliano Di Penta
 

Similar to Open Source Software Resilience Framework (20)

Scalable architectures for phenotype libraries
Scalable architectures for phenotype librariesScalable architectures for phenotype libraries
Scalable architectures for phenotype libraries
 
Cultivating Sustainable Software For Research
Cultivating Sustainable Software For ResearchCultivating Sustainable Software For Research
Cultivating Sustainable Software For Research
 
Importance of Programming Language in Day to Day Life
Importance of Programming Language in Day to Day LifeImportance of Programming Language in Day to Day Life
Importance of Programming Language in Day to Day Life
 
Asundi
AsundiAsundi
Asundi
 
Open Source Vs Proprietary Software
Open Source Vs  Proprietary SoftwareOpen Source Vs  Proprietary Software
Open Source Vs Proprietary Software
 
Defect Management Practices and Problems in Free/Open Source Software Projects
Defect Management Practices and Problems in Free/Open Source Software ProjectsDefect Management Practices and Problems in Free/Open Source Software Projects
Defect Management Practices and Problems in Free/Open Source Software Projects
 
International Cooperation Experiences: Results Achieved, Lessons Learned, and...
International Cooperation Experiences: Results Achieved, Lessons Learned, and...International Cooperation Experiences: Results Achieved, Lessons Learned, and...
International Cooperation Experiences: Results Achieved, Lessons Learned, and...
 
Paper02
Paper02Paper02
Paper02
 
ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION WITH SHARED AUTHORING ENVIRONMENT IN ACAD...
ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION WITH SHARED AUTHORING ENVIRONMENT IN ACAD...ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION WITH SHARED AUTHORING ENVIRONMENT IN ACAD...
ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION WITH SHARED AUTHORING ENVIRONMENT IN ACAD...
 
Integrating Semantic Systems
Integrating Semantic SystemsIntegrating Semantic Systems
Integrating Semantic Systems
 
International Journal of Computational Engineering Research(IJCER)
International Journal of Computational Engineering Research(IJCER)International Journal of Computational Engineering Research(IJCER)
International Journal of Computational Engineering Research(IJCER)
 
Ontological approach to the specification of properties of software systems a...
Ontological approach to the specification of properties of software systems a...Ontological approach to the specification of properties of software systems a...
Ontological approach to the specification of properties of software systems a...
 
A Proposal on a Method of ArchiMate based Concept of Operation (ConOps)
A Proposal on a Method of ArchiMate based Concept of Operation (ConOps)A Proposal on a Method of ArchiMate based Concept of Operation (ConOps)
A Proposal on a Method of ArchiMate based Concept of Operation (ConOps)
 
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...
 
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...
OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGY: AN EMERGING AND VITAL PARADIGM IN INSTITUTIONS OF LEA...
 
Digital notebooks - a Jisc perspective
Digital notebooks - a Jisc perspectiveDigital notebooks - a Jisc perspective
Digital notebooks - a Jisc perspective
 
AN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
AN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMSAN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
AN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
 
AN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
AN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMSAN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
AN ITERATIVE HYBRID AGILE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ARCHIVING SYSTEMS
 
Commemorating 20 years of open source successes in building awareness and ado...
Commemorating 20 years of open source successes in building awareness and ado...Commemorating 20 years of open source successes in building awareness and ado...
Commemorating 20 years of open source successes in building awareness and ado...
 
Msr2021 tutorial-di penta
Msr2021 tutorial-di pentaMsr2021 tutorial-di penta
Msr2021 tutorial-di penta
 

More from Apostolos Kritikos

HealthyWP goes 5th UX Thessaloniki Meetup
HealthyWP goes 5th UX Thessaloniki MeetupHealthyWP goes 5th UX Thessaloniki Meetup
HealthyWP goes 5th UX Thessaloniki Meetup
Apostolos Kritikos
 
ΠΣΠΘ 2017 - Και μετά τι;
ΠΣΠΘ 2017 - Και μετά τι;ΠΣΠΘ 2017 - Και μετά τι;
ΠΣΠΘ 2017 - Και μετά τι;
Apostolos Kritikos
 
Startup Weekend Thessaloniki 2017
Startup Weekend Thessaloniki 2017Startup Weekend Thessaloniki 2017
Startup Weekend Thessaloniki 2017
Apostolos Kritikos
 
Open Culture: Fractals of Freedom
Open Culture: Fractals of FreedomOpen Culture: Fractals of Freedom
Open Culture: Fractals of Freedom
Apostolos Kritikos
 
Doing F/LOSS :: The Cathedral & the Bazaar
Doing F/LOSS :: The Cathedral & the BazaarDoing F/LOSS :: The Cathedral & the Bazaar
Doing F/LOSS :: The Cathedral & the Bazaar
Apostolos Kritikos
 
Keep calm and build the future
Keep calm and build the futureKeep calm and build the future
Keep calm and build the future
Apostolos Kritikos
 
Open Data Hackathon - Howto Guide
Open Data Hackathon - Howto GuideOpen Data Hackathon - Howto Guide
Open Data Hackathon - Howto Guide
Apostolos Kritikos
 
Android Development: A meta-learning approach
Android Development: A meta-learning approachAndroid Development: A meta-learning approach
Android Development: A meta-learning approach
Apostolos Kritikos
 
FLOSS my company... 'open' for business
FLOSS my company... 'open' for businessFLOSS my company... 'open' for business
FLOSS my company... 'open' for business
Apostolos Kritikos
 
Software Reuse: Towards coding sanity
Software Reuse: Towards coding sanitySoftware Reuse: Towards coding sanity
Software Reuse: Towards coding sanity
Apostolos Kritikos
 
Code Reuse Presentation @ ENASE 2010
Code Reuse Presentation @ ENASE 2010Code Reuse Presentation @ ENASE 2010
Code Reuse Presentation @ ENASE 2010
Apostolos Kritikos
 
Open Coffee Thessaloniki 20th meeting
Open Coffee Thessaloniki 20th meetingOpen Coffee Thessaloniki 20th meeting
Open Coffee Thessaloniki 20th meeting
Apostolos Kritikos
 

More from Apostolos Kritikos (12)

HealthyWP goes 5th UX Thessaloniki Meetup
HealthyWP goes 5th UX Thessaloniki MeetupHealthyWP goes 5th UX Thessaloniki Meetup
HealthyWP goes 5th UX Thessaloniki Meetup
 
ΠΣΠΘ 2017 - Και μετά τι;
ΠΣΠΘ 2017 - Και μετά τι;ΠΣΠΘ 2017 - Και μετά τι;
ΠΣΠΘ 2017 - Και μετά τι;
 
Startup Weekend Thessaloniki 2017
Startup Weekend Thessaloniki 2017Startup Weekend Thessaloniki 2017
Startup Weekend Thessaloniki 2017
 
Open Culture: Fractals of Freedom
Open Culture: Fractals of FreedomOpen Culture: Fractals of Freedom
Open Culture: Fractals of Freedom
 
Doing F/LOSS :: The Cathedral & the Bazaar
Doing F/LOSS :: The Cathedral & the BazaarDoing F/LOSS :: The Cathedral & the Bazaar
Doing F/LOSS :: The Cathedral & the Bazaar
 
Keep calm and build the future
Keep calm and build the futureKeep calm and build the future
Keep calm and build the future
 
Open Data Hackathon - Howto Guide
Open Data Hackathon - Howto GuideOpen Data Hackathon - Howto Guide
Open Data Hackathon - Howto Guide
 
Android Development: A meta-learning approach
Android Development: A meta-learning approachAndroid Development: A meta-learning approach
Android Development: A meta-learning approach
 
FLOSS my company... 'open' for business
FLOSS my company... 'open' for businessFLOSS my company... 'open' for business
FLOSS my company... 'open' for business
 
Software Reuse: Towards coding sanity
Software Reuse: Towards coding sanitySoftware Reuse: Towards coding sanity
Software Reuse: Towards coding sanity
 
Code Reuse Presentation @ ENASE 2010
Code Reuse Presentation @ ENASE 2010Code Reuse Presentation @ ENASE 2010
Code Reuse Presentation @ ENASE 2010
 
Open Coffee Thessaloniki 20th meeting
Open Coffee Thessaloniki 20th meetingOpen Coffee Thessaloniki 20th meeting
Open Coffee Thessaloniki 20th meeting
 

Recently uploaded

GT degree offer diploma Transcript
GT degree offer diploma TranscriptGT degree offer diploma Transcript
GT degree offer diploma Transcript
attueb
 
TEQnation 2024: Sustainable Software: May the Green Code Be with You
TEQnation 2024: Sustainable Software: May the Green Code Be with YouTEQnation 2024: Sustainable Software: May the Green Code Be with You
TEQnation 2024: Sustainable Software: May the Green Code Be with You
marcofolio
 
SEO Cheat Sheet with Learning Resources by Balti Bloggers.pdf
SEO Cheat Sheet with Learning Resources by Balti Bloggers.pdfSEO Cheat Sheet with Learning Resources by Balti Bloggers.pdf
SEO Cheat Sheet with Learning Resources by Balti Bloggers.pdf
Balti Bloggers
 
welcome to presentation on Google Apps
welcome to   presentation on Google Appswelcome to   presentation on Google Apps
welcome to presentation on Google Apps
AsifKarimJim
 
UMiami degree offer diploma Transcript
UMiami degree offer diploma TranscriptUMiami degree offer diploma Transcript
UMiami degree offer diploma Transcript
attueb
 
BATber53 AWS Modernize your applications with purpose-built AWS databases
BATber53 AWS Modernize your applications with purpose-built AWS databasesBATber53 AWS Modernize your applications with purpose-built AWS databases
BATber53 AWS Modernize your applications with purpose-built AWS databases
BATbern
 
Amazon Music Spelling Correction - SIGIR 2024
Amazon Music Spelling Correction - SIGIR 2024Amazon Music Spelling Correction - SIGIR 2024
Amazon Music Spelling Correction - SIGIR 2024
siddharth1729
 
Vip Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad A...
Vip Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad A...Vip Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad A...
Vip Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad A...
ashiklo9823
 
🚂🚘 Premium Girls Call Ranchi 🛵🚡000XX00000 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...
🚂🚘 Premium Girls Call Ranchi  🛵🚡000XX00000 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...🚂🚘 Premium Girls Call Ranchi  🛵🚡000XX00000 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...
🚂🚘 Premium Girls Call Ranchi 🛵🚡000XX00000 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...
bahubalikumar09988
 
Tour and travel website management in odoo,
Tour and travel website management in odoo,Tour and travel website management in odoo,
Tour and travel website management in odoo,
Axis Technolabs
 
A Step-by-Step Guide to Selecting the Right Automated Software Testing Tools.pdf
A Step-by-Step Guide to Selecting the Right Automated Software Testing Tools.pdfA Step-by-Step Guide to Selecting the Right Automated Software Testing Tools.pdf
A Step-by-Step Guide to Selecting the Right Automated Software Testing Tools.pdf
kalichargn70th171
 
Private Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Servic...
Private Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Servic...Private Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Servic...
Private Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Servic...
902basic
 
VVIP Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
VVIP Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...VVIP Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
VVIP Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
jealousviolet
 
SAP implementation steps PDF - Zyple Software
SAP implementation steps PDF - Zyple SoftwareSAP implementation steps PDF - Zyple Software
SAP implementation steps PDF - Zyple Software
Zyple Software
 
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
singhlata50dh
 
Celebrity Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servic...
Celebrity Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servic...Celebrity Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servic...
Celebrity Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servic...
45unexpected
 
Girls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
neshakor5152
 
Independent Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Tanisha Best High Class H...
Independent Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Tanisha Best High Class H...Independent Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Tanisha Best High Class H...
Independent Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Tanisha Best High Class H...
aslasdfmkhan4750
 
當測試開始左移
當測試開始左移當測試開始左移
當測試開始左移
Jersey (CHE-PING) Su
 
ERP Software Solutions Provider in Coimbatore
ERP Software Solutions Provider in CoimbatoreERP Software Solutions Provider in Coimbatore
ERP Software Solutions Provider in Coimbatore
Nextskill Technologies
 

Recently uploaded (20)

GT degree offer diploma Transcript
GT degree offer diploma TranscriptGT degree offer diploma Transcript
GT degree offer diploma Transcript
 
TEQnation 2024: Sustainable Software: May the Green Code Be with You
TEQnation 2024: Sustainable Software: May the Green Code Be with YouTEQnation 2024: Sustainable Software: May the Green Code Be with You
TEQnation 2024: Sustainable Software: May the Green Code Be with You
 
SEO Cheat Sheet with Learning Resources by Balti Bloggers.pdf
SEO Cheat Sheet with Learning Resources by Balti Bloggers.pdfSEO Cheat Sheet with Learning Resources by Balti Bloggers.pdf
SEO Cheat Sheet with Learning Resources by Balti Bloggers.pdf
 
welcome to presentation on Google Apps
welcome to   presentation on Google Appswelcome to   presentation on Google Apps
welcome to presentation on Google Apps
 
UMiami degree offer diploma Transcript
UMiami degree offer diploma TranscriptUMiami degree offer diploma Transcript
UMiami degree offer diploma Transcript
 
BATber53 AWS Modernize your applications with purpose-built AWS databases
BATber53 AWS Modernize your applications with purpose-built AWS databasesBATber53 AWS Modernize your applications with purpose-built AWS databases
BATber53 AWS Modernize your applications with purpose-built AWS databases
 
Amazon Music Spelling Correction - SIGIR 2024
Amazon Music Spelling Correction - SIGIR 2024Amazon Music Spelling Correction - SIGIR 2024
Amazon Music Spelling Correction - SIGIR 2024
 
Vip Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad A...
Vip Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad A...Vip Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad A...
Vip Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Pooja Best High Class Hyderabad A...
 
🚂🚘 Premium Girls Call Ranchi 🛵🚡000XX00000 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...
🚂🚘 Premium Girls Call Ranchi  🛵🚡000XX00000 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...🚂🚘 Premium Girls Call Ranchi  🛵🚡000XX00000 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...
🚂🚘 Premium Girls Call Ranchi 🛵🚡000XX00000 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...
 
Tour and travel website management in odoo,
Tour and travel website management in odoo,Tour and travel website management in odoo,
Tour and travel website management in odoo,
 
A Step-by-Step Guide to Selecting the Right Automated Software Testing Tools.pdf
A Step-by-Step Guide to Selecting the Right Automated Software Testing Tools.pdfA Step-by-Step Guide to Selecting the Right Automated Software Testing Tools.pdf
A Step-by-Step Guide to Selecting the Right Automated Software Testing Tools.pdf
 
Private Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Servic...
Private Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Servic...Private Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Servic...
Private Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Servic...
 
VVIP Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
VVIP Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...VVIP Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
VVIP Girls Call Mumbai 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
 
SAP implementation steps PDF - Zyple Software
SAP implementation steps PDF - Zyple SoftwareSAP implementation steps PDF - Zyple Software
SAP implementation steps PDF - Zyple Software
 
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
 
Celebrity Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servic...
Celebrity Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servic...Celebrity Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servic...
Celebrity Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Servic...
 
Girls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Mysore 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
 
Independent Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Tanisha Best High Class H...
Independent Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Tanisha Best High Class H...Independent Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Tanisha Best High Class H...
Independent Girls Call ServiCe Hyderabad 0000000000 Tanisha Best High Class H...
 
當測試開始左移
當測試開始左移當測試開始左移
當測試開始左移
 
ERP Software Solutions Provider in Coimbatore
ERP Software Solutions Provider in CoimbatoreERP Software Solutions Provider in Coimbatore
ERP Software Solutions Provider in Coimbatore
 

Open Source Software Resilience Framework

  • 1. Open Source Software Resilience Framework Apostolos Kritikos / Ioannis Stamelos PhD Candidate / Professor Informatics School., Aristotle University of Thessaloniki akritiko@csd.auth.gr /apostoloskritikos /akritiko #1Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
  • 2. Affiliation RESEARCH GROUP Software Engineering Group (SWENG) LAB Software engineering, Web & Intelligent Systems (SOFTWISE) SCHOOL Informatics UNIVERSITY Aristotle University of Thessaloniki #2Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece Image Credit: Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Image Credit: Municipality of Thessaloniki
  • 3. Motivation ● An Open Source Software (OSS) project can be utilized either as is, to serve specific needs on an application level, or on the source code level, as a part of another software system serving as a component, a library, or even an autonomous third party dependency. ● There are several OSS quality models that provide metrics to measure specific aspects of the project, like its structural quality. Although other dimensions, like community, health and activity, software governance principles or license permissiveness, are taken into account, there is no universally accepted OSS assessment model. ● In this work we are proposing an evaluation approach based on the adaptation of the City Resilience Framework to OSS with the aim of providing a strong theoretical basis for evaluating OSS projects. #3Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
  • 4. Motivation In literature we find several works that suggest a holistic approach in evaluating an Open Source Software project, extending beyond structural quality. For example: ● Permissiveness of the license, number of active developers & end users, language translations. (Midha & Palvia, [6]*) ● Open Source Governance Model. (Vision Mobile, [7]*) ● Maturity, stability, documentation, community aspects. (Wasserman et al., [9]*) ● Competition & Collaboration in large OSS systems. (Teixeira et al., [10]*) ● Maturity of an OSS project’s community. (Andrade et al. [11]*) * Note: The extensive references list can be found to our publication. #4Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
  • 5. We propose that... 1. To approach an OSS project as an evolving system in order to be able to study it in a holistic way. 2. For an OSS project o be able to succeed and achieve longevity, it is crucial to be resilient in order to survive potential stresses and crises that might occur. #5Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
  • 6. Stressors & Crises Examples in OSS ● Forks of the project that might drive the attention of the original project’s community away. ● Migration of lead developers or even part of the development community to other forks or projects. ● An unsuccessful major release that might hurt the reputation of the project, changes to the license. ● Migration to another forge. Example The case of Libre Office, an OSS project that started as a fork of Open Office, but managed to retain the development community and evolve, as of the time of writing, to a successful OSS project. (Gamalielsson et al., [12]) #6Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
  • 7. Resilience Indicative definitions of the term resilience from different disciplines: “the ability [of a system] to cope with change” Logistics, (Wieland et al., [13]). “a resilient system can take a hit to a critical component and recover and come back for more in a known, bounded and generally acceptable period of times” Software, (Axelrod, [14]). #7Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
  • 8. Resilience (2) Indicative definitions of the term resilience from different disciplines: “city resilience describes the capacity of cities to function, so that the people living and working in cities particularly the poor and vulnerable survive and thrive no matter what stresses or shocks they encounter”. Urban Planning, (Da Silva, et al. [15]). #8Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
  • 9. City Resilience Framework (CRF) ● Is the result of research undertaken with the aim of establishing an accessible, evidence-based definition of Urban Resilience by Arup and the Rockefeller Foundation. ● The CRF is used by the 100 Resilient Cities a non profit organization to primarily evaluate the Urban Resilience of more than 90 cities around the world and, additionally, to assist the cities on crises with tailored made resilience strategies. #9Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
  • 10. City Resilience Index (CRI) ● It is a set of indicators, variables and metrics that allow cities to understand, baseline and subsequently measure local resilience over time. “The CRI will measure relative performance over time rather than comparison between cities. It will not deliver an overall single score for comparing performance between cities, neither will it provide a world ranking of the most resilientcities.” #10Open Source Software Resilience Framework, Apostolos Kritikos, A.U.TH. | 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018) | June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece
  • 11. City Resilience Index (CRI) 4 Dimensions ↓ 12 Goals ↓ Indicators (KPIs) 11
  • 12. CRI: Dimensions & Goals (1) I. Health & well-being: Related to people, working and living in the city. Goals: 1. Minimal human vulnerability 2. Diverse livelihoods & employment 3. Effective safeguards to human health & life. 12
  • 13. CRI: Dimensions & Goals (2) II. Economy & society: Related to the organization of cities on a social and economical level. Goals: 1. Sustainable economy 2. Comprehensive security & rule of law 3. Collective identity & community support. 13
  • 14. CRI: Dimensions & Goals (3) III. Infrastructure & environment: Related to place, the quality of infrastructure and ecosystems. Goals: 1. Reliable mobility & communications 2. Effective provision of critical services 3. Reduced exposure & fragility 14
  • 15. CRI: Dimensions & Goals (4) IV. Leadership & strategy: Related to knowledge of the past and adapting appropriately for the future. Goals: 1. Effective leadership & management 2. Empowered stakeholders 3. Integrated development planning NOTE: The aforementioned goals are further decomposed to indicators. Due to time constraints we didn’t include them in this presentation. 15
  • 16. Open Source Software Resilience Framework We argue that Open Source Software projects share a conceptual similarity with cities. ● They are dynamic and continuously evolving systems with their own structural properties ● They attract people that form communities around them which, on a second level, may utilize a governance model. ● Some OSS projects have commercial activity. ● As it is happening with cities, OSS projects can face stresses and crises (we saw some examples earlier). 16
  • 17. Open Source Software Resilience Framework 17 4 Dimensions ↓ 12 Goals ↓ Indicators (KPIs)
  • 18. OSSRF: Dimensions & Goals (1) 18 I. Source Code: ● The first dimension of CRF is Health & Well-being and it is related with people. ● In Open Source Software we consider source code (i.e. classes) to be the structural unit of the project. II. Business & Legal: ● The second dimension of CRF is Economy & Society and is related with organization. ● In Open Source Software the norm is voluntary work but, more mature projects are utilizing Open Source Business Models to offer commercial services (be it pro features or support). For those types of projects licensing plays a key role when it comes to commercialization.
  • 19. OSSRF: Dimensions & Goals (2) 19 III. Integration & Reuse: ● The third dimension of CRF is related to place. ● Open Source Software projects usually reuse components of other OSS projects or are being reused themselves. In this spirit, in the third dimension of the Open Source Software Resilience Framework we will be dealing with the aspects of integration and reuse. IV. Social (Community): ● The last dimension of CRF is about Leadership & Strategy and is related with utilizing knowledge from the past to become better and more resilient in the future. ● In Open Source Software both leadership and strategy related processes are usually connected with the community. Knowledge base is the codebase itself, the CVS system, issue trackers etc.
  • 20. OSSRF: Dimensions & Goals (3) 20 I. Source Code ○ Continuous Growth ○ Holistic Documentation ○ Systematic Testing & Violation Minimization II. Business & Legal ○ Economic Sustainability ○ Flexible Licensing ○ External Organization Support
  • 21. OSSRF: Dimensions & Goals (4) 21 III. Integration & Reuse ○ Low Dependability ○ Low Complexity ○ Ease of Integration IV. Social (Community) ○ Well defined Project Standards ○ Well Defined Governance ○ Developer Base Activity
  • 22. OSSRF: Indicators 22 ● The twelve (12) goals are further analyzed to indicators in order to provide a more specific description of the goals. ● For the purposes of this paper we will analyze the indicators related to the goals of the Business & Legal dimension. ● Due to space limitations, we provide the full analysis of the indicators to the following url: http://users.auth.gr/akritiko/ossrf_indicators.html for the intended audience.
  • 23. OSSRF: Indicators - Business & Legal Dimension 23 1. Economic Sustainability a. Donations: 0 (no) or 1 (yes) based on whether the OSS project accepts donations. 0 is considered a non resilient value. b. Commercial features: 0 (no) or 1 (yes) based on whether the OSS project offers commercial features or a pro (paid) version. The indicator was based to the work of [18]. 0 is considered a non resilient value. c. Paid support: 0 (no) or 1 (yes) based on whether the OSS project offers a paid plan for support. [18]. 0 is considered a non resilient value.
  • 24. OSSRF: Indicators - Business & Legal Dimension (2) 24 2. Flexible Licensing a. Level or permissiveness: 0 (all restrictive - i.e. commercial), 1 (persistent i.e. GPL), 2 (all permissive - i.e. BSD). We base the indicator to the of [19]. The indicator is considered non resilient when it is less than 1. b. Level of persistence: 0 (no) or 1 (yes) based on whether there are parts of the project’s code or dependencies published under persistent licenses (i.e. GPL). We base the indicator to the of [19]. 1 is considered a non resilient value.
  • 25. OSSRF: Indicators - Business & Legal Dimension (3) 25 3. External Organization Support: 0 (no) or 1 (yes) based on whether the OSS project is supported by an external organization (non profit, governmental or corporate). 0 is considered a non resilient value.
  • 26. OSSRF: Resilience Determination Mechanism 26 ● Starting to the indicators level we will consider an OSS project successful towards a resilience goal when it is considered resilient at least to 50% of the goals ingredients. ● Moving to the dimensions level, an OSS project will be considered successful towards a resilience dimension when it is considered resilient at least to 50% of the goals of the specific dimension. ● Likewise, on a project level, the OSS project is considered resilient when at least two (2) out of four (4) dimension (50%) are considered resilient.
  • 27. OSSRF: Application - A non-resilient project 27
  • 28. 28
  • 29. OSSRF: Application - A resilient project 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. Threats to validity 31 ● We should note that OSSRF should be applied to project of a relative maturity in terms of community and age (we would intuitively suggest at least 10 contributors and a maturity of more than a year). Applying it in solo maintained OSS projects, or projects that not yet have reached the proposed maturity may lead to misleading results. ● OSSRF is an adaptation of the City Resilience framework to Open Source Software. Although the structure of the original framework was retained, despite the conceptual similarities that we have already mentioned earlier, the mapping of dimensions, goals and indicators is a product of the subjective lens of the authors.
  • 32. Threats to validity (2) 32 ● Regarding the goals and indicators, some of them are based on metrics available for object oriented source code. Additionally, as far as control version systems are concerned, for the needs of this publication we selected projects that are hosted in Github. ● As far as the scales and their aggregation is concerned, in this preliminary approach we considered each criterion equally important and the threshold for defining a project as resilient or non resilient is 50%. ● Finally, both of the projects analyzed in this paper, were developed in PHP and their domains are close (OKapi was a framework for web applications and WooCommerce is a plugin for a WordPress which is also considered by some a kind of web framework).
  • 33. Future work 33 ● For future work we intend to thoroughly fine-tune the rest of the indicators by testing it to a variety of OSS projects. This will also allow us to investigatehow the OSSRF responds to projects of different age, community size or source code size and complexity. ● We also intend to investigate whether the software domain of an OSS project affects the results of the application of the OSSRF. ● Regarding the framework itself we will experiment with other approached regarding the “Resilience determination mechanism” (i.e. weighted goals). ● In addition we will be extending the OSSRF to be able to work with a variety of control version systems (not only git-like but also Mercurial, SVN, CVS).
  • 34. Future work (2) 34 ● In a similar spirit will would like to experiment with projects of different programming languages (i.e. Java). ● Another challenging idea for future work would be to apply OSSRF to OSS projects that are known to have faced specific stresses or crises in order to identify how those crises relate with the resiliency levels of an OSS project. ● Finally we intend to attempt and request feedback, in the form of a survey, from key players of the Open Source Software international community (lead developers, stakeholders, academics and so forth) about OSSRF.
  • 36. APOSTOLOS KRITIKOS CREDITS # contact info # 0030 6976 432 234 akritiko@csd.auth.com # social media # apostoloskritikos @ LinkedIn akritiko @ Twitter # web # www.softwarereseilience.com apostolos.kritikos.me # graphic elements license # All graphic elements used in this presentation, unless explicitely stated otherwise, were reused from openclipart.org published under Public Domain (CC0). # presentation license # This presentation is published under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 4.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) license. # presentation id # “Open Source Software Resilience Framework” 14th International Conference on Open Source Systems (OSS2018). June 8-10, 2018, Athens, Greece. 08.06.2018