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Open (Government) Data
and some hints about Italy


      Maurizio Napolitano <maurizio.napolitano@okfn.org>
Index
Definitions
Why
How
The Public Administration
Example with transport data
Italy
References
Definitions
Definitions (Data)
                                                    single pieces
                                                         of information
                                                                 of every nature


      descriptions of facts
      reproducible without ambiguities
      parts of larger information or knowledge structures
      can be expressed and stored in digital formats

                               Data → Information → Knowledge → Wisdom

http://digitalcuration.blogspot.com/2009/05/what-are-data.html
Definitions (Open)




        source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/open


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open
Definition of Open Data
       Opendefinition.org




“A piece of content or data is open if anyone is free to use,
                                                         use
reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most,
reuse
to the requirement to attribute and share-alike.”

     http://opendefinition.org/okd/
Data and Open Data

       Wildlife and plants
       protected
       Business secrets      Aggregated
                                          Anything else
       Statistical secret    Anonymized
       Privacy
       Military secrets

Data                                                 Open Data
Why?
… it is an old story




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Snow_%28physician%29
Transparency and Open Government
                                                       My Administration is committed to creating
                                                       an unprecedented level of openness in
                                                       Government.
                                                       We will work together to ensure the public
                                                       trust and establish a system of transparency,
                                                                                       transparency
                                                       public participation, and collaboration.
                                                       Openness will strengthen our democracy
                                                       and promote efficiency and effectiveness in
                                                       Government.




Transparency and Open Government Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies (2009)
Now …
                                                                 Open […] Data



http://www.trentinoopendata.eu

                    Open Government Data
                                                                  http://opengovernmentdata.org/film/


                                                       Open Community Data
                                                                         Open Linked Data


http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/tim_berners_lee_the_year_open_data_went_worldwide.html
USA
UK
Two years after
One year after
more ...


           http://opengovernmentdata.org/data/catalogues/
HOW?
The Open Data Handbook :)




http://opendatahandbook.org/
How open up data
Linked Open Data
  ★ make your stuff available on the Web
  (whatever format) under an open license
  ★★ make it available as structured data
  (e.g., Excel instead of image scan of a table)
  ★★★ use non-proprietary formats
  (e.g., CSV instead of Excel)
  ★★★★ use URIs to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff
  ★★★★★ link your data to other data to provide context



http://lab.linkeddata.deri.ie/2010/star-scheme-by-example/
Licenses
Please don't forget the open definition!!!
Definition of Open Data

“A piece of content or data is open if anyone is

free to use, reuse, and redistribute it —
        use reuse
subject only, at most, to the requirement to

attribute and share-alike.”
Which license




http://www.jordanhatcher.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Open_v_Public_licenses_Venn.002-001.png
Public Domain
    PERMISSIONS                                          CONSTRAINTS



                                                              NOTHING


         SHARE




CREATE            ADAPT

                 http://www.publicdomainmanifesto.org/
          http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
Attribution
    PERMISSIONS                        CONSTRAINTS




                                           ATTRIBUTION

         SHARE




CREATE           ADAPT


                             ODC AL – CC-BY – IODL 2.0
Share a Like
    PERMISSIONS                 CONSTRAINTS



                             ATTRIBUTION

         SHARE


                                            SHARE ALIKE




CREATE           ADAPT


                           ODbL – CC-BY-SA – IODL 1.0
The Public Administration
 or Open Government Data
 or PSI – Public Sector Information
P.A. and Data

                                                  DISSEMINATE
COLLECT            MANAGE        UPDATE
                                                     SHARE




   SERVICE PAID BY TAXES
                                            vs

 distribution at marginal cost            average cost recovery
  transparency                             optimization costs

  loss of income                           high transaction costs
PSI directive

                                                              EU directive to make the
                                                              public sector information
                                                              available for re-use

                                                                         2003


                               http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Directive_on_the_re-use_of_public_sector_information
In Italy = C.A.D.
http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Codice_dell%27amministrazione_digitale
European Commission trusts in Open Data




          http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/11/1524


     http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/psi/index_en.htm
But ...
Barriers for implementation of OGD
                                                                                                         Data islands
Insufficient quality of data
                                                          hard shell o
                                                     T he             f

  Censorship                                                                                                         Secrets

                                                   Op
                                                     en Government
      low budget
                                                                                                                    huge feedback
distribution costs              Missing resources                              Unpredictable impact
human resources                                                                                                    new requirments



The hard shell of Open Government ( B. Lutz, 2012) - Barriers for implementation of OGD in Austrian public administrations
                                             2012
NOT GOOD OPEN DATA PRACTICES




http://blog.okfn.org/2011/06/07/when-washington-dc-took-a-step-back-from-open-data-transparency/
a formula for making this possible
                                            1.Leadership
                                               also / primarily political
                                            2.Crisis
                                               ex. budget cuts
                                            3.Heroes
                                               (from government / administration)

                                               people that believe is possible,
                                               but also ready to lose
                                            4.(Pressure from citizens)



http://www.linkedin.com/in/laurencemillar
Open Government recipie


    Tecnology        Law




         Communication
Understand the data ...




                      Image by EpicGraphic
A good example
                         Communication
                             Der Weg zu Open Government (Data) Wien
                             http://data.wien.gv.at/neuigkeiten/wege/


                         Understand the data
                             Radfahranlagen
                             http://data.wien.gv.at/katalog/radfahranlagen.html


An italian summary
http://smartinnovation.forumpa.it/story/69393/la-citta-di-vienna-e-l-open-government-schiaccianoci
An example of data re-use …
(transport data)
Why only for Google Transit?
Another use :)



       http://www.mapnificent.net/




http://www.mysociety.org/2007/more-travel-maps/morehousing
http://linz.faehrt.at/




Real Time Transport map
Hints about Italy
Italy trusts the open data




http://www.agenda-digitale.it/
Story ...
Regione Piemonte




Approvazione delle nuove Linee Guida regionali in materia
di riuso
Sono state approvate dalla Regione Piemonte le nuove linee guida che definiscono come riusabili
tutti i dati in possesso della Regione di tipo aggregato/anonimo o senza vincoli di privacy e che
adottano come licenza standard la Licenza CC-zero.
Queste linee guida licenziano in automatico con licenza standard CC-zero, anche tutti i dati ad
oggi pubblicati e scaricabili dal sito istituzionale o da altri canali istituzionali della Regione.
[...]
Regione Piemonte - CC0



http://www.dati.piemonte.it/blog/item/approvazione-delle-nuove-linee-guida-regionali-in-materia-di-riuso.html




                […] tutti i dati in possesso della Regione di tipo
                aggregato/anonimo o senza vincoli di privacy [..]
                adottano come licenza standard la
                Licenza CC-zero.
ISTAT
                                                             […] tutti i contenuti pubblicati [...]
                                                             Creative Commons - Attribuzione -
                                                             versione 3.0 o successiva.

                                                             [...] possibile riprodurre, distribuire,
                                                             trasmettere e adattare liberamente dati e
                                                             analisi dell'Istituto nazionale di statistica,
                                                             anche a scopi commerciali, a condizione
                                                             che venga citata la fonte.
http://www.istat.it/it/note-legali
                                                             [...]

                                                             Non è necessaria alcuna autorizzazione
                                                             per creare collegamenti ipertestuali
                                                             verso le pagine di questo sito.

                                     http://dati.istat.it/
Italian Open Government Data
                              Regions and autonomous Provices with a ogd data portal

                               Dark Green → official data portal
                               Light Green → some datasets
 *




*Lazio is only for the Province of Rome
dati.gov.it       (november 2011)




+Bologna, Faenza, Firenze, Udine, Torino ….
Trentino ...



            The   40% of the geodata managed by
            the Provincia Autonoma of Trento are

            Open Data

Press release http://goo.gl/yNPgD 17/02/2012
wish list fo the next year
Open Government Data as a Right
More Schemas (Knowledge APIs) – keep it focused, let’s not try to boil the ocean
Open Data as a Platform, Not a Commodity
Massive Interconnection Between Open Data Sites
Open Corporate Data (for and by Corporates)
Standards (e.g. for catalog metadata) for Data Portals and Data Hubs
Open Data for Growth – making clear the the connection
Strong international norms for data inventories
Organizational identifiers – Dunn & Bradstreet should be replaced with open data
MiData – getting personal data out of corporates and government back into the hands of the people
whose data it is


                                                                                                    51
 http://blog.okfn.org/2011/10/23/open-data-wishlist-for-the-next-year/
wish list fo the next year

Open Government Data as a Right
More Schemas (Knowledge APIs) – keep it focused, let’s not try to boil the ocean
Open Data as a Platform, Not a Commodity
Massive Interconnection Between Open Data Sites
Open Corporate Data (for and by Corporates)
Standards (e.g. for catalog metadata) for Data Portals and Data Hubs
Open Data for Growth – making clear the the connection
Strong international norms for data inventories
Organizational identifiers – Dunn & Bradstreet should be replaced with open data
MiData – getting personal data out of corporates and government back into the hands of the people whose data it is




                                                                                                                     52
 http://blog.okfn.org/2011/10/23/open-data-wishlist-for-the-next-year/
Open Data and Law
                                 (open data as right)


                                          Green → law
                                          Orange → resolution
                                          Red → proposal




http://blog.ernestobelisario.eu/2012/03/09/mappa-delle-leggi-regionali-in-materia-di-open-data/
OKF support ...
Data „tools“
Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network

    About the project http://ckan.org
    The project http://ckan.net - http://thedatahub.org
               The italian hub http://it.ckan.net

    Europe http://publicdata.eu/
    World http://opendatasearch.org/

    Get the data http://getthedata.org/

    Under the hood –   DATAPKG http://packages.python.org/datapkg/
OKFN initiatives
                       http://opengovernmentdata.org/
                       http://opendatachallenge.org/
                       http://wheredoesmymoneygo.org/
                       http://openspending.org/
                       http://energy.publicdata.eu/ee/
                       http://publicdomainworks.net/
                       http://bibliographica.org/
VISIT US
http://www.okfn.org/

JOIN US
http://okfn.org/register/
Thanks!
                             Thanks
Twitter: napo
Blog: http://de.straba.us
Email: maurizio.napolitano@okfn.org
Slide: http://slideshare.net/napo


I offer positions for internship, thesis, developers ...

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Open (Government) Data - some hints about Italy

  • 1. Open (Government) Data and some hints about Italy Maurizio Napolitano <maurizio.napolitano@okfn.org>
  • 2. Index Definitions Why How The Public Administration Example with transport data Italy References
  • 4. Definitions (Data) single pieces of information of every nature descriptions of facts reproducible without ambiguities parts of larger information or knowledge structures can be expressed and stored in digital formats Data → Information → Knowledge → Wisdom http://digitalcuration.blogspot.com/2009/05/what-are-data.html
  • 5. Definitions (Open) source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/open http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open
  • 6. Definition of Open Data Opendefinition.org “A piece of content or data is open if anyone is free to use, use reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, reuse to the requirement to attribute and share-alike.” http://opendefinition.org/okd/
  • 7. Data and Open Data Wildlife and plants protected Business secrets Aggregated Anything else Statistical secret Anonymized Privacy Military secrets Data Open Data
  • 9. … it is an old story http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Snow_%28physician%29
  • 10. Transparency and Open Government My Administration is committed to creating an unprecedented level of openness in Government. We will work together to ensure the public trust and establish a system of transparency, transparency public participation, and collaboration. Openness will strengthen our democracy and promote efficiency and effectiveness in Government. Transparency and Open Government Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies (2009)
  • 11. Now … Open […] Data http://www.trentinoopendata.eu Open Government Data http://opengovernmentdata.org/film/ Open Community Data Open Linked Data http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/tim_berners_lee_the_year_open_data_went_worldwide.html
  • 12. USA
  • 13. UK
  • 16. more ... http://opengovernmentdata.org/data/catalogues/
  • 17. HOW?
  • 18. The Open Data Handbook :) http://opendatahandbook.org/
  • 19. How open up data
  • 20. Linked Open Data ★ make your stuff available on the Web (whatever format) under an open license ★★ make it available as structured data (e.g., Excel instead of image scan of a table) ★★★ use non-proprietary formats (e.g., CSV instead of Excel) ★★★★ use URIs to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff ★★★★★ link your data to other data to provide context http://lab.linkeddata.deri.ie/2010/star-scheme-by-example/
  • 21. Licenses Please don't forget the open definition!!!
  • 22. Definition of Open Data “A piece of content or data is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — use reuse subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and share-alike.”
  • 24. Public Domain PERMISSIONS CONSTRAINTS NOTHING SHARE CREATE ADAPT http://www.publicdomainmanifesto.org/ http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
  • 25. Attribution PERMISSIONS CONSTRAINTS ATTRIBUTION SHARE CREATE ADAPT ODC AL – CC-BY – IODL 2.0
  • 26. Share a Like PERMISSIONS CONSTRAINTS ATTRIBUTION SHARE SHARE ALIKE CREATE ADAPT ODbL – CC-BY-SA – IODL 1.0
  • 27. The Public Administration or Open Government Data or PSI – Public Sector Information
  • 28. P.A. and Data DISSEMINATE COLLECT MANAGE UPDATE SHARE SERVICE PAID BY TAXES vs distribution at marginal cost average cost recovery transparency optimization costs loss of income high transaction costs
  • 29. PSI directive EU directive to make the public sector information available for re-use 2003 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Directive_on_the_re-use_of_public_sector_information In Italy = C.A.D. http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Codice_dell%27amministrazione_digitale
  • 30. European Commission trusts in Open Data http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/11/1524 http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/psi/index_en.htm
  • 32. Barriers for implementation of OGD Data islands Insufficient quality of data hard shell o T he f Censorship Secrets Op en Government low budget huge feedback distribution costs Missing resources Unpredictable impact human resources new requirments The hard shell of Open Government ( B. Lutz, 2012) - Barriers for implementation of OGD in Austrian public administrations 2012
  • 33. NOT GOOD OPEN DATA PRACTICES http://blog.okfn.org/2011/06/07/when-washington-dc-took-a-step-back-from-open-data-transparency/
  • 34. a formula for making this possible 1.Leadership also / primarily political 2.Crisis ex. budget cuts 3.Heroes (from government / administration) people that believe is possible, but also ready to lose 4.(Pressure from citizens) http://www.linkedin.com/in/laurencemillar
  • 35. Open Government recipie Tecnology Law Communication
  • 36. Understand the data ... Image by EpicGraphic
  • 37. A good example Communication Der Weg zu Open Government (Data) Wien http://data.wien.gv.at/neuigkeiten/wege/ Understand the data Radfahranlagen http://data.wien.gv.at/katalog/radfahranlagen.html An italian summary http://smartinnovation.forumpa.it/story/69393/la-citta-di-vienna-e-l-open-government-schiaccianoci
  • 38. An example of data re-use … (transport data)
  • 39. Why only for Google Transit?
  • 40. Another use :) http://www.mapnificent.net/ http://www.mysociety.org/2007/more-travel-maps/morehousing
  • 43. Italy trusts the open data http://www.agenda-digitale.it/
  • 45. Regione Piemonte Approvazione delle nuove Linee Guida regionali in materia di riuso Sono state approvate dalla Regione Piemonte le nuove linee guida che definiscono come riusabili tutti i dati in possesso della Regione di tipo aggregato/anonimo o senza vincoli di privacy e che adottano come licenza standard la Licenza CC-zero. Queste linee guida licenziano in automatico con licenza standard CC-zero, anche tutti i dati ad oggi pubblicati e scaricabili dal sito istituzionale o da altri canali istituzionali della Regione. [...]
  • 46. Regione Piemonte - CC0 http://www.dati.piemonte.it/blog/item/approvazione-delle-nuove-linee-guida-regionali-in-materia-di-riuso.html […] tutti i dati in possesso della Regione di tipo aggregato/anonimo o senza vincoli di privacy [..] adottano come licenza standard la Licenza CC-zero.
  • 47. ISTAT […] tutti i contenuti pubblicati [...] Creative Commons - Attribuzione - versione 3.0 o successiva. [...] possibile riprodurre, distribuire, trasmettere e adattare liberamente dati e analisi dell'Istituto nazionale di statistica, anche a scopi commerciali, a condizione che venga citata la fonte. http://www.istat.it/it/note-legali [...] Non è necessaria alcuna autorizzazione per creare collegamenti ipertestuali verso le pagine di questo sito. http://dati.istat.it/
  • 48. Italian Open Government Data Regions and autonomous Provices with a ogd data portal Dark Green → official data portal Light Green → some datasets * *Lazio is only for the Province of Rome
  • 49. dati.gov.it (november 2011) +Bologna, Faenza, Firenze, Udine, Torino ….
  • 50. Trentino ... The 40% of the geodata managed by the Provincia Autonoma of Trento are Open Data Press release http://goo.gl/yNPgD 17/02/2012
  • 51. wish list fo the next year Open Government Data as a Right More Schemas (Knowledge APIs) – keep it focused, let’s not try to boil the ocean Open Data as a Platform, Not a Commodity Massive Interconnection Between Open Data Sites Open Corporate Data (for and by Corporates) Standards (e.g. for catalog metadata) for Data Portals and Data Hubs Open Data for Growth – making clear the the connection Strong international norms for data inventories Organizational identifiers – Dunn & Bradstreet should be replaced with open data MiData – getting personal data out of corporates and government back into the hands of the people whose data it is 51 http://blog.okfn.org/2011/10/23/open-data-wishlist-for-the-next-year/
  • 52. wish list fo the next year Open Government Data as a Right More Schemas (Knowledge APIs) – keep it focused, let’s not try to boil the ocean Open Data as a Platform, Not a Commodity Massive Interconnection Between Open Data Sites Open Corporate Data (for and by Corporates) Standards (e.g. for catalog metadata) for Data Portals and Data Hubs Open Data for Growth – making clear the the connection Strong international norms for data inventories Organizational identifiers – Dunn & Bradstreet should be replaced with open data MiData – getting personal data out of corporates and government back into the hands of the people whose data it is 52 http://blog.okfn.org/2011/10/23/open-data-wishlist-for-the-next-year/
  • 53. Open Data and Law (open data as right) Green → law Orange → resolution Red → proposal http://blog.ernestobelisario.eu/2012/03/09/mappa-delle-leggi-regionali-in-materia-di-open-data/
  • 55. Data „tools“ Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network About the project http://ckan.org The project http://ckan.net - http://thedatahub.org The italian hub http://it.ckan.net Europe http://publicdata.eu/ World http://opendatasearch.org/ Get the data http://getthedata.org/ Under the hood – DATAPKG http://packages.python.org/datapkg/
  • 56. OKFN initiatives http://opengovernmentdata.org/ http://opendatachallenge.org/ http://wheredoesmymoneygo.org/ http://openspending.org/ http://energy.publicdata.eu/ee/ http://publicdomainworks.net/ http://bibliographica.org/ VISIT US http://www.okfn.org/ JOIN US http://okfn.org/register/
  • 57. Thanks! Thanks Twitter: napo Blog: http://de.straba.us Email: maurizio.napolitano@okfn.org Slide: http://slideshare.net/napo I offer positions for internship, thesis, developers ...