SlideShare a Scribd company logo
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
educational
resources
Nicole Allen (nicole@sparc.arl.org)
Director of Open Education, SPARC
Except where otherwise
noted...
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Takeaways
1) the problem
2) about OER
3) library’s role
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
higher ed is
important
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
higher ed is
expensive
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Source: New America Foundation
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
what can we
do about it?
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Cost Factors:
Tuition and Fees
Room and Board
Transportation
Books and Supplies
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Cost Factors:
Tuition and Fees
Room and Board
Transportation
Books and Supplies
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Average Estimated Undergraduate
Budgets, 2014-15
Source: College Board
Books & Supplies = $1,225
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
“the straw that broke the
camel’s back”
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Figure 1: Estimated Increases in New College Textbook Prices, College Tuition and
Fees, and Overall Consumer Price Inflation, 2002 to 2012
prices grew by 28 percent.
textbooks
inflation
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Figure 1: Estimated Increases in New College Textbook Prices, College Tuition and
Fees, and Overall Consumer Price Inflation, 2002 to 2012
prices grew by 28 percent.
tuition & fees
textbooks
inflation
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
College Algebra (6th Edition): Robert F. Blitzer
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
+
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
!!
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Source: Student PIRGs
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
2 in 3
Students say they decided against
buying a textbook because the cost is
too high
Source: Student PIRGs
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
1 in 2
Students say they have at some point
taken fewer courses due to the cost of
textbooks
Source: Florida Virtual Campus
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
<1 in 2
Students purchase a current
edition of their textbook
Source: Book Industry Study Group
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Students can’t learn
from materials
they can’t afford
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
how does your
campus save
students $$$?
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Image © from http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/28/showbiz/heat-director-buddy-cop/
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
“less than one third of students
believed that using e-textbooks
significantly improved their
learning or engagement in a
course”
Source: EDUCAUSE
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
the market
is broken
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Market Failure
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Market Failure
5 major
publishers hold
nearly 90% of
the market
Source: Turning the Page by James Koch
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Market Failure
Source: NACS.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
We can do better.
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
OPEN
EDUCATIONAL
RESOURCES
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Hewlett Foundation Definition:
“OER are teaching, learning, and
research resources that reside in the
public domain or are released under an
intellectual property license that permits
their free use and repurposing by
others”
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Hewlett Foundation Definition:
“OER are teaching, learning, and
research resources that reside in the
public domain or are released under an
intellectual property license that permits
their free use and repurposing by
others”
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Free + 5R Permissions
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Free + 5R Permissions
• Retain
• Reuse
• Revise
• Remix
• Redistribute
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Open Licensing
uses copyright to enable
free sharing and reuse
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
(easy-to-use open licenses)
www.creativecommons.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
most
open
least
open
OER
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
most
open
least
open
OER
not
either
OA
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
how is OER
created?
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
ocw.mit.edu
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
open.michigan.edu
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
oercommons.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
cnx.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
openstaxcollege.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
open.umn.edu
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
oli.cmu.edu
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
how is OER
being used?
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Open Textbook (Example)
• Free online
• Free PDF
• Free ePub
• Print $49.73
• Instructor can adapt
and distribute
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
The cost of college textbooks has risen 812% since 1978, more
than the rates of inflation, health care, new home prices, and
college tuition.
More and more, college students are unable to afford their
textbooks, and as many as 70% of students have reported
avoiding buying at least one textbook for their courses. Not
surprisingly, these students do not do as well academically.
As of May 2013, if a TCC student purchased all of the textbooks
required for a business administration degree, that student would
spend $3,678.95 on new books. While used textbooks may lower
this price, their availability is, at best, uneven.
But the problem with printed textbooks goes beyond financial cost; textbooks “ cost” students and teachers
in other ways as well.
Because textbooks are frequently written for broad audiences in the hopes that they will fill the learning
support needs and be adopted by large numbers of faculty and departments, they are filled with content
and exercises that are superfluous to a specific course’ s learning outcomes. The cost here is in teaching
efficiency and effectiveness.
Fortunately a solution to both problems exists.
Beginning in Fall 2013, TCC became the first college in the U.S. to create an Associate of Science degree
based solely on open educational resources (OER), academically vetted and publicly licensed content. After
Tidewater CommunityCollege
ismakingcollegemoreaffordable.
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
pm4id.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
what are the
benefits?
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
“a student saves $128 per
course, when their
traditionally published
textbook is replaced with
an open textbook”
“open textbooks have the
potential to save more
than a billion dollars each
year”
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Supporting Adoption
Developmental Math Results"
Percentage passing with C or better
48.40%
60.18%
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
Spring 2011
No OER
Spring 2013
All OER
n=2,842
About Lumen Lear
Open Educational Resources represent a
and learners, while at the same time imp
unsure what to do to help their institution
This is where Lumen enters the picture.
Co-founded by open education visionary
Lumen is dedicated to facilitating broad,
After years of pioneering work in open ed
Generation Learning Challenges grant-fu
textbooks with OER in community colleg
50% and improving student success rate
resulted in moving the cost of required te
10% compared to student performance in
You can read more about the Kaleidosco
Adding this concrete proof to the body of
help more educational institutions and st
Lumen helps institutional leaders and fac
! Finding quality content and mapp
around the country to review and agg
into Open Courses that match gener
course frameworks online. This proc
individual or institution to download a
! Incorporating OER into academic
consulting services to help institution
sense to introduce OER into courses
Source: Lumen Learning
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
$1M student savings, and counting
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
impact.lumenlearning.com
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
impact.lumenlearning.com
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
how is OER
being used on your
campus?
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
what is the role of
the library?
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
• OER adoption programs
www.sparc.arl.org
Library Trends
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
open.umn.edu
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
z.umn.edu/opentextbooks
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
• OER adoption programs
• Digital coursepacks
www.sparc.arl.org
Library Trends
@txtbks | sparc.arl.orgwww.sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.orgwww.sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
• OER adoption programs
• Digital coursepacks
• OER librarian positions
www.sparc.arl.org
Library Trends
@txtbks | sparc.arl.orgwww.sparc.arl.org
http://libraries.ou.edu/announcements/?id=219
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
• OER adoption programs
• Digital coursepacks
• OER librarian positions
• Library publishing of OER
www.sparc.arl.org
Library Trends
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
• OER adoption programs
• Digital coursepacks
• OER librarian positions
• Library publishing of OER
• Inter-institutional collaboration
www.sparc.arl.org
Library Trends
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
SECU Workshop
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
The Open Textbook Network is a consortium of
institutions working to:
• help faculty overcome barriers to adoption of open
textbooks
• increase institutional capacity to support faculty
adoption and use of open textbooks
• collaboratively develop new understandings and
best practices of open textbook adoption and use.
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
z.umn.edu/opentextbooks
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
the library as the center
of campus
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
Libraries & OER Forum
www.sparc.arl.org/liboer
#LibOER
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
SPARC OER Campus Tour
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
OER Institute at ALA Midwinter
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
www.opencon2015.org | @open_con
@txtbks | sparc.arl.org
nicole@sparc.arl.org
sparc.arl.org/liboer
sparc.arl.org/membership

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