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Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Prof. Dr. Holger Lütters 
Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin, Germany 
Online Research Coming of AgeBrown-Bag presentation 18.09.2014
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Holger Lütters –a little older than the internet 
My unplanned way into online research 
•First E-Mail sent 1994 
•First Webpage 1996 
•1999 Own online survey created with HTML 
•2004 PhD on web based Analytic Hierarchy Process 
•2006 Interactive SniperScale 
•2007 Panel study 
•2008 International Multi-language studies 
•2010 Facebook for recruiting 
•2011 Mobile only study 
•2012 Avatar study 
•2013 Gyroscale use 
•2014 Mobile only Panel
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Problem with online market research: Lack of representativeness 
Quelle: FesselGfKAustria
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Online Market Africa: SA at 50% of Internet penetration leading on the continent, but still away from a representative popuation 
http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats1.htm
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Methods of online research are not a substitute but a complement to the existing methods of market research 
•Online market research has established itself as a serious approach (already 1st place in many countries) 
•There are outstanding online solutions for many questions available 
•For some topics online still is an inappropriate method due to the lack of representativeness of the population 
•The time continues to work for the online market research idea: 
•Expiration of classical structures of accessibility of people on the phone (5 phones in the home, multiple phone numbers, only mobile users, VoIP, etc.) 
•Rising costs for traditional types of surveys 
•Many online groups are already covered at 100% (students, teenagers, business surveys) 
•Everything presented today will be in South Africa sooner or later. With our university cooperation it may be sooner and give you a competitive advantage over other institutions in your country and will help you compete with the international research community
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Fundamentalsofonline research 
1
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
„Internet as an object“ 
Analysis of online users, online sites and online research methods 
„Internet as a method“ 
Collection of market and customer data with the help of the Internet 
Online Research: Internet as an object or a method? 
Source: Zerr 
Online-Research 
Non-reactive data 
•User-Tracking 
•Visitor Analysis 
•Conversion Analysis 
•… 
Reactive Data 
•Interviews 
•Focus Groups 
•Web- Experiments 
•Delphi 
•…
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Online Market Research: Primary and secondary research with the help of Internet technologies 
Example 
-Reports 
-Statistics 
-Databases 
in 
-WWW 
-Intranet 
-Extranet 
-Social Media 
Reactive 
Data 
Non-reactive 
Data 
Primary researchInternet as a tool 
Secondary research (Desk) 
Internet as a source 
Online-Market Research 
SocialMedia Research
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Online-interview = location-independent, impersonal, self-administered computer-interview 
Face-to-Face 
Telephone 
impersonal 
personal 
Computer-based surveys 
Computer Assisted 
Personal Interview 
CAPI 
Computer Assisted 
Telephone Interview 
CATI 
Computer Assisted 
Web-Interview 
CAWI 
Many methodologically supported interviews are computer-assisted interviews ... ... with the respective advantages and disadvantages of the specific interaction method
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
5 standard survey modes in 2014 
Advantages of the different survey methods? Every method has its own purpose and target group 
Effect of the chosen interview mode on results? 
Effect on cost, time, quality? 
Personal Interview 
Paper PencilSurvey 
Telephone 
Interview 
Online 
Interview 
Mobile Interview
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Threestepstoruna surveyonline 
2
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Three key challenges arise after the decision for an online market research project 
(Scientific) Modelingof 
questionnaires 
Development of a survey design 
Programming 
Distribution & Response Management 
Reach the defined participants 
Controlling 
Screen-out 
Quota Definition 
Analysis & Reporting 
Statistical analysis 
Communication of results
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Evaluation of an online software for your own research project 
Make sure that the software… 
•Does what you need 
•Has certain methodical features (Conjoint; PSM; AHP) 
•Can be connected to a panel / CRM-System / Facebook 
•Gives you total control over the entire study process (example: no advertising from third parties; no access from outside; no logos etc.) 
•Creates appealingquestionnaires 
•Is accessible during and a certain time after the actual study (at least for more than 4 weeks / for free) 
•Is exporting the data to SPSS/Excel 
•Is easy to use (for surveymakerANDsurveytaker)
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Online survey software should be online (SaaS) Some providers offer free access for non-commercial scientific research 
http://www.gesis.org/dienstleistungen/methoden/beratungen/datenerhebung/online-umfragen/software-fuer-online-befragungen/#listings 
Freeware:
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Creatingmotivatingquestionnaires 
3
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Don’t worry about the duration. The first minute is the most important!
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
How do users perceive the interview experience? Leaving HTML-Standards towards bigger elements grows usability 
HTML 
AJAX
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Why taking over paper pencil standards onto the color screen? New forms are available and show very positive effects 
Simple Radio Button 
Simple Slider Design 
Slider Design with Graphical Support 
Flash Scale 
Lütters, H. / Westphal, D. / Heublein, F. (2007): SniperScale: Graphical scaling in data collection and its effect on the response behavior of participants in online studies; General Online Research Conference (GOR) 2007, Leipzig.
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
WithgrowingbandwithmoreappealingquestionnairescanbecreatedEffect: Higher willingnesstoparticipate
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Lütters/Westphal/Heublein (2007): “The future of graphical scaling is interactive” 
Flash interaction with movement and sound 
Non-interactive scales with AJAX technology 
Interactive tests of the team based on Flash technology in 2007 
Examples based on Ajax technology
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Audienceadopteddesign createshigherresponserates
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Adopttotheaudienceandthedeviceused: ExampleoffirstiPad-onlystudy
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
The progress bar: Never ending story of misunderstandings 
Summary: 
•Has a strong effect (any kind of undesired effect is negative) 
•Makes people thing about the duration more than they should 
•Is only motivating when it is faked (53% after 2 questions) 
•Faking vs. AAPOR/ESOMAR code of ethics 
•People believe that it is a necessary part of a questionnaire. It’s not! 
•Avoid the progress bar! Try the count-down… 
http://conftool.gor.de/conftool11/index.php?page=downloadPaper&filename=Callegaro-hould_we_use_the_progress_bar_in_online_surveys_A_meta- analysis-151.pdf&form_id=151&form_index=&form_version=final&CTSID_GOR11=AgPbzZ3ygg6WVMGwtHF8Y0
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Mobile research about to break through. Device Agnostic Research is the way to go on the long term
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
The questionnaire designed often looks different to interviewee than expected by the designer 
Source:pangealabs;Dillman2000:360 
Online 
Questionnaire 
Designer 
Designer‘s 
Hardware & 
Software 
Questionnaire 
as seen by 
Designer 
Questionnaire 
as seen by 
Designer 
Respondent‘s 
Hardware & 
Software 
Online 
Respondent 
Questionnaire 
asseenby 
Respondent 
Questionnaire 
asseenby 
Respondent
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Invitingpeopletoonline questionnaires 
4
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Where will the participants be coming from? Why should they participate in such a survey? 
•Employees 
•Customers 
•Company Website 
•Other Website 
•Convenient Sample (Ponzi scheme ) 
•Riversampling 
•Panelrecruiting 
•Offline 
•… 
1.Topic 
2.Incentives(monetary / non-monetary) 
3.Offering Results 
4.Design 
5.Anonymity 
6.… 
•Open vs..closed 
•Quota features 
•Plausibility check 
•Consistency Check 
•… 
Controlling 
of sources and quality of answers 
Motivation 
(to fully complete) 
Sources of respondents
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Motivation to complete starts even with the invitation approachInfluence on opening rate and click rate 
Sarah? 
Isabel?
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
SPAM as a central problem of email invitationsHTML vs. Plain Text:
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Social Media Recruiting isan opportunitywhichneedssomeextra care 
0 
20 
40 
60 
80 
100 
120 
140 
160 
Anzahl der Starter/ Completeresponses 
Completes Social Media 
Starter Social Media 
14.2. 
23.8. 
5.10. 
Daily averagecompletionrate: 80% 
First reactiontoblogposton web 
First Invitation 
asposton 
adidas Running 
Reminder 
(Second Invitation)
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Combining offline and online with incentivesThe GAP invites to the customer survey on the receipt. 
http://outlet-feedback.gap.com/
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Controlling of online interactions 
5
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Controlling isimportanttoseesuccessandunderstandeffects 
date 
total noofcontacts 
quota full(interview terminated by questfox) 
screened out(interview terminated by questfox) 
Noofinterviewspossible 
Completedn= 
Completed% 
26.08.2013 
41 
0 
1 
40 
40 
100 % 
27.08.2013 
175 
0 
3 
172 
159 
92,4 % 
28.08.2013 
235 
103 
1 
131 
103 
78,6 % 
29.08.2013 
1041 
639 
14 
388 
166 
42,8 % 
30.08.2013 
1280 
976 
26 
278 
194 
69,8 %
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Quality isinsuredbymonitoring
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Controlling eachquestiontellsaboutproblemsofthequestionnaire 
questionpage 
responsestoquestionpage 
surveycompleted 
Q1: ### Steuerung der Befragung 
2772(99,9% oftotal) 
662(23,9%) 
Q2: Screener (Geschlecht) 
2726(98,3% oftotal) 
662(24,3%) 
Q3: Screener (Alter) 
2613(94,2% oftotal) 
662(25,3%) 
Q4: Screener (Bildung) 
2597(93,6% of total) 
662(25,5%) 
Q5: Screener (Bundesland graphisch) 
2576(92,9% oftotal) 
662(25,7%) 
Q6: Screener (Stadt oder Land) 
2557(92,2% oftotal) 
662(25,9%) 
Q7: Screener (Location) 
2547(91,8% oftotal) 
662(26%) 
Q8: Erfahrung mit Befragungen der Marktforschung 
2536(91,4% of total) 
662(26,1%) 
Q9: Screener (Teilnahmebereitschaft) 
2528(91,1% of total) 
662(26,2%) 
Q10: Screener (Device) 
2773(100% of total) 
662(23,9%) 
T11: Politik, Liebe, Drogen 
719(25,9% of total) 
639(88,9%) 
Q12: ### P01 -Regierung weiterempfehlen 
707(25,5% of total) 
641(90,7%) 
Q13: P02 -Wo stehen Sie politisch? 
700(25,2% of total) 
644(92%) 
Q14: P02_Sonntagsfrage 
695(25,1% of total) 
642(92,4%) 
Q15: ### S01 -Beziehungsstatus 
689(24,8% of total) 
641(93%)
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Quota control attempts to portray the planned number of representative cases and close the study in case of reached limits 
Example quota monitoring during an ongoing study 
Example quota achievement after completing a study
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
IP to location creates detailed reports for regions (without asking) 
Result of a UK study recruited over a panel
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Buyingtherespondents‘ willingnesstoparticipate 
6
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Example of a worst case scenario: Recruiting from company database2780 email invitations resulted in 27 completed interviews 
PERSONAL INVITATION 
INFO @ INVITATION 
Source: B2B research project in EU research 
Response to an international survey (6 languages) after one week 
Σ=27
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Recruitment: Make or Buy? Recruiting for the same study with a commercial panel 
Σ=638 
Connection to a commercial panel in the same period 
638 full interviews from panel vs. 27 full interviews with company e-mail-addresses 
Source: B2B research project in EU research
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Many service providers are established in the new market of recruitment of participants (so-called online panel or MROC)
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
The price of ONE participant in an online study is a calculation based on duration and incidence of the targeted criteria 
Example from SmartResearchin Euro: 1 €= 14 SAR 
Number of questions 
Panel 
Number of Interviews 
Incidence 
9500 SAR 
Drivers of the price 
•Duration (calculate €0,10 cent per Minute) thus less than 15 rand for a complete 10 minutes interview 
•Only complete interviews are paid 
•2 Minutes sampling time allowed to define screen-outs and quota rules 
Incidence: 
•50% Male / Female 
•Car Owner: 70% 
•Owner of a Volkswagen: 10% (equal to market share) 
•Owner of a VW Polo 1% 
In words: you need to contact 100 people to get one polo driver into your study. And what if he/she drops out?
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
The willingness to participate is guaranteed through incentivesThis approach creates less topic involvement
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Future of sampling: AYTM All-in-One-Solutions per Click
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Google consumer surveys is a combination of survey making and sampling at the same time
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
panelfinder.com as a meta platform for all kinds of panels
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Set up minimum standards and monitor your panel. Good Panels have full control over the relation to the participants
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Summary: Panels are very functional and cause less organizational pain… but need to be paid 
Hints: 
•Always ask for 3 quotes from different companies and ask for their calculation of the INCIDENCE 
•Only negotiate on full interview 
•Start small (n=300) -> you can still buy more respondents later 
•A panel telling you “no problem” might not be your first choice 
Suggestion: 
•Why not doing general research in the USA (cheapest) or Europe (widely available)? 
•Why not building up the first university panel in South Africa?
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
A few tips for your online project: Serious fun® 
•Select the online method only when it is appropriate (not for financial reasons) 
•Try on-line studies: you will learn a lot about yourself and your relationship with employees and customers or other groups much quicker 
•Take your time: An online project requires a much time as a classic data collection project. Perhaps a little more when doing it for the first time 
•Emphasize more on methodology than on technology 
•Take care of your population.They are interviewed more often than needed.Reconsider the number of required interviews in every study 
•Take care of every single respondent. Rethink difficulty, design, duration for each project. Find an average between fun and torture. 
•Think from the perspective of your participants: Try to take into account an external point of view throughout your project. Is it really as easy as you think? 
•Remain critical: Do not just mindlessly accept approaches from the past or from offline into this new world.Go into a critical review process after a project 
•Online is different.Online needs to be different!Take advantage of the benefits of a new world of data collection opportunities 
•Be open to new ideas. The internet is faster than you are. Try to incorporate some of the brilliant ideas into your research
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Newerformsofonline research 
usedbyHTW Berlin Marketing Research Team
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Eyetracking: Registeringpeopleslooks 
Eyetrackingofa singleperson 
HeatMapasaggregationofviews
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Face Detection technology from the FraunhoferInstituteGfK EMO Scan isthecommericalisedversion 
Idea: FacialScan 
Field ofapplication 
•Gender recognition 
•Estimate of age 
•Mood measurement 
•Recognition of people in groups 
•Recording the changes in mood on exposition to changing stimulus (ex. Video ad) 
•Possible with simple technologyhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fs-ngMK09Vk
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Listening isthenewasking(Poynter) Insightsfromsocialmediawithoutaskinganyoneanymore
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Interaction through device movement: The Gyroscaleliterally moves answers 
The Gyroscale® is available in questfox® 
Source: www.pangealabs.comGyroscale® and questfox® are trademarks of pangea labs GmbH Switzerland
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
The avatars are empowered by text-to-speech technology which allows them to read out loud written texts 
Different people have very different relations to .... 
Text for reading: 
Text is read by Avatar: 
R1 
R2 
R3
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Outlook intothefutureofonline research
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Some trends from the US are online on ist way to Europe 
http://issuu.com/researchshare/docs/grit-winter-2014
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
#newMRis discussing the future of online 
http://www.mrweb.com/mrt/
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Greenbookas a good online source to start with 
http://www.greenbook.org/
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
What happens to market research, if the boundaries are broadened? 
“In the future many professions and sectors will go the way of steam engine makers and the man who used to walk in front of cars carrying a red flag. 
This might include the definition of market research as a business sector.” 
Discussion under http://krz.ch/vkib
Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 
Thank you for your interest Feel free to contact me 
HolgerLütters–HTW Berlin 
Contact information 
Prof.Dr.HolgerLütters 
HochschulefürTechnikund WirtschaftBerlin 
Holger.Luetters@htw-berlin.de 
www.luetters.com Twitter @luetters 
xing.com/profile/Holger_Luetters 
de.linkedin.com/in/luetters/

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Online Research Coming of age - Brownbag Presentation at Universitty of Pretoria SA

  • 1. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Prof. Dr. Holger Lütters Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin, Germany Online Research Coming of AgeBrown-Bag presentation 18.09.2014
  • 2. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Holger Lütters –a little older than the internet My unplanned way into online research •First E-Mail sent 1994 •First Webpage 1996 •1999 Own online survey created with HTML •2004 PhD on web based Analytic Hierarchy Process •2006 Interactive SniperScale •2007 Panel study •2008 International Multi-language studies •2010 Facebook for recruiting •2011 Mobile only study •2012 Avatar study •2013 Gyroscale use •2014 Mobile only Panel
  • 3. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Problem with online market research: Lack of representativeness Quelle: FesselGfKAustria
  • 4. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Online Market Africa: SA at 50% of Internet penetration leading on the continent, but still away from a representative popuation http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats1.htm
  • 5. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Methods of online research are not a substitute but a complement to the existing methods of market research •Online market research has established itself as a serious approach (already 1st place in many countries) •There are outstanding online solutions for many questions available •For some topics online still is an inappropriate method due to the lack of representativeness of the population •The time continues to work for the online market research idea: •Expiration of classical structures of accessibility of people on the phone (5 phones in the home, multiple phone numbers, only mobile users, VoIP, etc.) •Rising costs for traditional types of surveys •Many online groups are already covered at 100% (students, teenagers, business surveys) •Everything presented today will be in South Africa sooner or later. With our university cooperation it may be sooner and give you a competitive advantage over other institutions in your country and will help you compete with the international research community
  • 6. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Fundamentalsofonline research 1
  • 7. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 „Internet as an object“ Analysis of online users, online sites and online research methods „Internet as a method“ Collection of market and customer data with the help of the Internet Online Research: Internet as an object or a method? Source: Zerr Online-Research Non-reactive data •User-Tracking •Visitor Analysis •Conversion Analysis •… Reactive Data •Interviews •Focus Groups •Web- Experiments •Delphi •…
  • 8. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Online Market Research: Primary and secondary research with the help of Internet technologies Example -Reports -Statistics -Databases in -WWW -Intranet -Extranet -Social Media Reactive Data Non-reactive Data Primary researchInternet as a tool Secondary research (Desk) Internet as a source Online-Market Research SocialMedia Research
  • 9. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Online-interview = location-independent, impersonal, self-administered computer-interview Face-to-Face Telephone impersonal personal Computer-based surveys Computer Assisted Personal Interview CAPI Computer Assisted Telephone Interview CATI Computer Assisted Web-Interview CAWI Many methodologically supported interviews are computer-assisted interviews ... ... with the respective advantages and disadvantages of the specific interaction method
  • 10. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 5 standard survey modes in 2014 Advantages of the different survey methods? Every method has its own purpose and target group Effect of the chosen interview mode on results? Effect on cost, time, quality? Personal Interview Paper PencilSurvey Telephone Interview Online Interview Mobile Interview
  • 11. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Threestepstoruna surveyonline 2
  • 12. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Three key challenges arise after the decision for an online market research project (Scientific) Modelingof questionnaires Development of a survey design Programming Distribution & Response Management Reach the defined participants Controlling Screen-out Quota Definition Analysis & Reporting Statistical analysis Communication of results
  • 13. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Evaluation of an online software for your own research project Make sure that the software… •Does what you need •Has certain methodical features (Conjoint; PSM; AHP) •Can be connected to a panel / CRM-System / Facebook •Gives you total control over the entire study process (example: no advertising from third parties; no access from outside; no logos etc.) •Creates appealingquestionnaires •Is accessible during and a certain time after the actual study (at least for more than 4 weeks / for free) •Is exporting the data to SPSS/Excel •Is easy to use (for surveymakerANDsurveytaker)
  • 14. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Online survey software should be online (SaaS) Some providers offer free access for non-commercial scientific research http://www.gesis.org/dienstleistungen/methoden/beratungen/datenerhebung/online-umfragen/software-fuer-online-befragungen/#listings Freeware:
  • 15. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Creatingmotivatingquestionnaires 3
  • 16. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Don’t worry about the duration. The first minute is the most important!
  • 17. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 How do users perceive the interview experience? Leaving HTML-Standards towards bigger elements grows usability HTML AJAX
  • 18. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Why taking over paper pencil standards onto the color screen? New forms are available and show very positive effects Simple Radio Button Simple Slider Design Slider Design with Graphical Support Flash Scale Lütters, H. / Westphal, D. / Heublein, F. (2007): SniperScale: Graphical scaling in data collection and its effect on the response behavior of participants in online studies; General Online Research Conference (GOR) 2007, Leipzig.
  • 19. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 WithgrowingbandwithmoreappealingquestionnairescanbecreatedEffect: Higher willingnesstoparticipate
  • 20. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Lütters/Westphal/Heublein (2007): “The future of graphical scaling is interactive” Flash interaction with movement and sound Non-interactive scales with AJAX technology Interactive tests of the team based on Flash technology in 2007 Examples based on Ajax technology
  • 21. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Audienceadopteddesign createshigherresponserates
  • 22. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Adopttotheaudienceandthedeviceused: ExampleoffirstiPad-onlystudy
  • 23. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 The progress bar: Never ending story of misunderstandings Summary: •Has a strong effect (any kind of undesired effect is negative) •Makes people thing about the duration more than they should •Is only motivating when it is faked (53% after 2 questions) •Faking vs. AAPOR/ESOMAR code of ethics •People believe that it is a necessary part of a questionnaire. It’s not! •Avoid the progress bar! Try the count-down… http://conftool.gor.de/conftool11/index.php?page=downloadPaper&filename=Callegaro-hould_we_use_the_progress_bar_in_online_surveys_A_meta- analysis-151.pdf&form_id=151&form_index=&form_version=final&CTSID_GOR11=AgPbzZ3ygg6WVMGwtHF8Y0
  • 24. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Mobile research about to break through. Device Agnostic Research is the way to go on the long term
  • 25. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 The questionnaire designed often looks different to interviewee than expected by the designer Source:pangealabs;Dillman2000:360 Online Questionnaire Designer Designer‘s Hardware & Software Questionnaire as seen by Designer Questionnaire as seen by Designer Respondent‘s Hardware & Software Online Respondent Questionnaire asseenby Respondent Questionnaire asseenby Respondent
  • 26. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Invitingpeopletoonline questionnaires 4
  • 27. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Where will the participants be coming from? Why should they participate in such a survey? •Employees •Customers •Company Website •Other Website •Convenient Sample (Ponzi scheme ) •Riversampling •Panelrecruiting •Offline •… 1.Topic 2.Incentives(monetary / non-monetary) 3.Offering Results 4.Design 5.Anonymity 6.… •Open vs..closed •Quota features •Plausibility check •Consistency Check •… Controlling of sources and quality of answers Motivation (to fully complete) Sources of respondents
  • 28. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Motivation to complete starts even with the invitation approachInfluence on opening rate and click rate Sarah? Isabel?
  • 29. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 SPAM as a central problem of email invitationsHTML vs. Plain Text:
  • 30. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Social Media Recruiting isan opportunitywhichneedssomeextra care 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Anzahl der Starter/ Completeresponses Completes Social Media Starter Social Media 14.2. 23.8. 5.10. Daily averagecompletionrate: 80% First reactiontoblogposton web First Invitation asposton adidas Running Reminder (Second Invitation)
  • 31. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Combining offline and online with incentivesThe GAP invites to the customer survey on the receipt. http://outlet-feedback.gap.com/
  • 32. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Controlling of online interactions 5
  • 33. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Controlling isimportanttoseesuccessandunderstandeffects date total noofcontacts quota full(interview terminated by questfox) screened out(interview terminated by questfox) Noofinterviewspossible Completedn= Completed% 26.08.2013 41 0 1 40 40 100 % 27.08.2013 175 0 3 172 159 92,4 % 28.08.2013 235 103 1 131 103 78,6 % 29.08.2013 1041 639 14 388 166 42,8 % 30.08.2013 1280 976 26 278 194 69,8 %
  • 34. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Quality isinsuredbymonitoring
  • 35. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Controlling eachquestiontellsaboutproblemsofthequestionnaire questionpage responsestoquestionpage surveycompleted Q1: ### Steuerung der Befragung 2772(99,9% oftotal) 662(23,9%) Q2: Screener (Geschlecht) 2726(98,3% oftotal) 662(24,3%) Q3: Screener (Alter) 2613(94,2% oftotal) 662(25,3%) Q4: Screener (Bildung) 2597(93,6% of total) 662(25,5%) Q5: Screener (Bundesland graphisch) 2576(92,9% oftotal) 662(25,7%) Q6: Screener (Stadt oder Land) 2557(92,2% oftotal) 662(25,9%) Q7: Screener (Location) 2547(91,8% oftotal) 662(26%) Q8: Erfahrung mit Befragungen der Marktforschung 2536(91,4% of total) 662(26,1%) Q9: Screener (Teilnahmebereitschaft) 2528(91,1% of total) 662(26,2%) Q10: Screener (Device) 2773(100% of total) 662(23,9%) T11: Politik, Liebe, Drogen 719(25,9% of total) 639(88,9%) Q12: ### P01 -Regierung weiterempfehlen 707(25,5% of total) 641(90,7%) Q13: P02 -Wo stehen Sie politisch? 700(25,2% of total) 644(92%) Q14: P02_Sonntagsfrage 695(25,1% of total) 642(92,4%) Q15: ### S01 -Beziehungsstatus 689(24,8% of total) 641(93%)
  • 36. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Quota control attempts to portray the planned number of representative cases and close the study in case of reached limits Example quota monitoring during an ongoing study Example quota achievement after completing a study
  • 37. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 IP to location creates detailed reports for regions (without asking) Result of a UK study recruited over a panel
  • 38. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Buyingtherespondents‘ willingnesstoparticipate 6
  • 39. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Example of a worst case scenario: Recruiting from company database2780 email invitations resulted in 27 completed interviews PERSONAL INVITATION INFO @ INVITATION Source: B2B research project in EU research Response to an international survey (6 languages) after one week Σ=27
  • 40. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Recruitment: Make or Buy? Recruiting for the same study with a commercial panel Σ=638 Connection to a commercial panel in the same period 638 full interviews from panel vs. 27 full interviews with company e-mail-addresses Source: B2B research project in EU research
  • 41. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Many service providers are established in the new market of recruitment of participants (so-called online panel or MROC)
  • 42. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 The price of ONE participant in an online study is a calculation based on duration and incidence of the targeted criteria Example from SmartResearchin Euro: 1 €= 14 SAR Number of questions Panel Number of Interviews Incidence 9500 SAR Drivers of the price •Duration (calculate €0,10 cent per Minute) thus less than 15 rand for a complete 10 minutes interview •Only complete interviews are paid •2 Minutes sampling time allowed to define screen-outs and quota rules Incidence: •50% Male / Female •Car Owner: 70% •Owner of a Volkswagen: 10% (equal to market share) •Owner of a VW Polo 1% In words: you need to contact 100 people to get one polo driver into your study. And what if he/she drops out?
  • 43. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 The willingness to participate is guaranteed through incentivesThis approach creates less topic involvement
  • 44. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Future of sampling: AYTM All-in-One-Solutions per Click
  • 45. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Google consumer surveys is a combination of survey making and sampling at the same time
  • 46. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 panelfinder.com as a meta platform for all kinds of panels
  • 47. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Set up minimum standards and monitor your panel. Good Panels have full control over the relation to the participants
  • 48. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Summary: Panels are very functional and cause less organizational pain… but need to be paid Hints: •Always ask for 3 quotes from different companies and ask for their calculation of the INCIDENCE •Only negotiate on full interview •Start small (n=300) -> you can still buy more respondents later •A panel telling you “no problem” might not be your first choice Suggestion: •Why not doing general research in the USA (cheapest) or Europe (widely available)? •Why not building up the first university panel in South Africa?
  • 49. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 A few tips for your online project: Serious fun® •Select the online method only when it is appropriate (not for financial reasons) •Try on-line studies: you will learn a lot about yourself and your relationship with employees and customers or other groups much quicker •Take your time: An online project requires a much time as a classic data collection project. Perhaps a little more when doing it for the first time •Emphasize more on methodology than on technology •Take care of your population.They are interviewed more often than needed.Reconsider the number of required interviews in every study •Take care of every single respondent. Rethink difficulty, design, duration for each project. Find an average between fun and torture. •Think from the perspective of your participants: Try to take into account an external point of view throughout your project. Is it really as easy as you think? •Remain critical: Do not just mindlessly accept approaches from the past or from offline into this new world.Go into a critical review process after a project •Online is different.Online needs to be different!Take advantage of the benefits of a new world of data collection opportunities •Be open to new ideas. The internet is faster than you are. Try to incorporate some of the brilliant ideas into your research
  • 50. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Newerformsofonline research usedbyHTW Berlin Marketing Research Team
  • 51. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Eyetracking: Registeringpeopleslooks Eyetrackingofa singleperson HeatMapasaggregationofviews
  • 52. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Face Detection technology from the FraunhoferInstituteGfK EMO Scan isthecommericalisedversion Idea: FacialScan Field ofapplication •Gender recognition •Estimate of age •Mood measurement •Recognition of people in groups •Recording the changes in mood on exposition to changing stimulus (ex. Video ad) •Possible with simple technologyhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fs-ngMK09Vk
  • 53. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Listening isthenewasking(Poynter) Insightsfromsocialmediawithoutaskinganyoneanymore
  • 54. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Interaction through device movement: The Gyroscaleliterally moves answers The Gyroscale® is available in questfox® Source: www.pangealabs.comGyroscale® and questfox® are trademarks of pangea labs GmbH Switzerland
  • 55. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 The avatars are empowered by text-to-speech technology which allows them to read out loud written texts Different people have very different relations to .... Text for reading: Text is read by Avatar: R1 R2 R3
  • 56. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Outlook intothefutureofonline research
  • 57. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Some trends from the US are online on ist way to Europe http://issuu.com/researchshare/docs/grit-winter-2014
  • 58. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 #newMRis discussing the future of online http://www.mrweb.com/mrt/
  • 59. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Greenbookas a good online source to start with http://www.greenbook.org/
  • 60. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 What happens to market research, if the boundaries are broadened? “In the future many professions and sectors will go the way of steam engine makers and the man who used to walk in front of cars carrying a red flag. This might include the definition of market research as a business sector.” Discussion under http://krz.ch/vkib
  • 61. Holger Lütters -Online Research Coming of Age -University of Pretoria September 2014 Thank you for your interest Feel free to contact me HolgerLütters–HTW Berlin Contact information Prof.Dr.HolgerLütters HochschulefürTechnikund WirtschaftBerlin Holger.Luetters@htw-berlin.de www.luetters.com Twitter @luetters xing.com/profile/Holger_Luetters de.linkedin.com/in/luetters/