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OER AND THE INNOVATION
OF LEARNING
Dirk Van Damme
OECD/EDU/IMEP
twitter @VanDammeEDU #OEGlobal
• Open Education and Open Educational Resources
(OER) in particular are potentially a tremendously
powerful agent of change and innovation
• Still, one has the impression that the systemic
transformative impact of ‘Open’ is greater in, say,
science and research than in education
– MOOCs – which should not be seen as equivalent to
‘Open’ – have in a way ‘hijacked’ this potential without
yet having delivered systemic change
• Why is that? What is needed?
2
Introduction
• OER are not a technological innovation, but they are
a force of social and educational innovation made
possible by technology
• The innovation potential of OER can only be
unlocked when aligning with the innovation needs of
education systems themselves
• So, the question is not how to mainstream OER, but
how we can utilise OER for the innovation focused
education policies
Introduction
3
• Talk based on an OECD Centre for Educational
Research and Innovation (CERI) project on the
policy benefits of OER, sponsored by the
Hewlett Foundation
• Report Open Educational resources: a Catalyst
for Innovation to be published later this year
4
Introduction
21ST CENTURY EDUCATION:
MORE OF THE SAME OR
SOMETHING ELSE?
5
• Relentless expansion of education systems
Setting the scene – the big picture
6
• Relentless expansion of education systems
Setting the scene – the big picture
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Israel
UnitedStates
Germany
Brazil
Estonia
Austria
RussianFederation
Finland
Chile
Turkey
Italy
Denmark
Mexico
Switzerland
NewZealand
Canada
SlovakRepublic
Iceland
Australia
Greece
Sweden
EU21average
OECDaverage
Norway
Hungary
Netherlands
CzechRepublic
UnitedKingdom
Portugal
Belgium
Slovenia
Spain
France
Luxembourg
Ireland
Japan
Poland
Korea
Difference between the 25-34 and 55-64 year-old population with tertiary education (right axis)
Proportion of the 25-34 year-old population with tertiary education (left axis)
Proportion of the 55-64 year-old population with tertiary education (left axis)
%
Percentage
points
7
• Relentless expansion of education systems
• Growing impact of education on various social
and economic outcomes
Setting the scene – the big picture
8
• Relentless expansion of education systems
• Growing impact of education on various social
and economic outcomes
Setting the scene – the big picture
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
CzechRepublic
Italy
Spain
Estonia
Germany
Japan
SlovakRepublic
Ireland
Canada
Korea
England/N.Ireland(UK)
Austria
Average
Flanders(Belgium)
Australia
UnitedStates
Netherlands
Sweden
Denmark
Finland
Norway
%
Below upper secondary education
Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education
Tertiary Education
An individual with a higher level of education is more
likely to believe they have a say in government
9
• Relentless expansion of education systems
• Growing impact of education on various social
and economic outcomes
• But challenges remain and magnify
– The equity and social mobility challenge
– The quality challenge
– The efficiency challenge
Setting the scene – the big picture
10
Setting the scene – the big picture
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Czech…
Japan
Germany
Estonia
Poland
Canada
Norway
United…
Russian…
Finland
Slovak…
Austria
Sweden
England/…
Denmark
Flanders…
Average
France
Korea
Australia
Netherlan…
Ireland
Italy
Spain
Proportion of young students (20-34 year-olds) in tertiary education whose parents have below upper
secondary education
Proportion of parents with below upper secondary education in the total parent population%
The participation of students in HE from low-educated
families is less than half of their share in the population
11
Setting the scene – the big picture
0
10
20
30
40
HongKong-China
Korea+
Liechtenstein
Macao-China+
Japan
Switzerland
Belgium-
Netherlands-
Germany
Poland+
Canada-
Finland-
NewZealand-
Australia-
Austria
OECDaverage2003-
France
CzechRepublic-
Luxembourg
Iceland-
SlovakRepublic
Ireland
Portugal+
Denmark-
Italy+
Norway-
Hungary
UnitedStates
Sweden-
Spain
Latvia
RussianFederation
Turkey
Greece
Thailand
Uruguay-
Tunisia
Brazil
Mexico
Indonesia
%
2012 2003
In most countries the percentage of top performers in
math in PISA has declined between 2003 and 2012
12
Setting the scene – the big picture
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
Brazil
Chile
SlovakRepublic
Korea
Poland
CzechRepublic
Canada
Australia
Israel
Germany
Switzerland
Portugal
Mexico
UnitedKingdom
Finland
Sweden
EU21average
OECDaverage
Netherlands
Austria
Japan
Norway
UnitedStates
Ireland
Belgium
Slovenia
France
RussianFederation
Spain
Estonia
Iceland
Denmark
Italy
Hungary
Index of change
(2008=100)
Change in expenditure
Change in the number of students (in full-time equivalents)
Change in expenditure per student
Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education
In most countries the per student expenditure
has continued to increase
13
• Can we continue
– To assume that an industrial model of education
will serve the needs of 21st century societies?
– Expanding our systems quantitatively?
– Exporting our model to emerging and developing
countries?
– Pretending that nothing is changing in the outside
world, impacting on the
• Why
• What
• How we are educating?
Setting the scene – more of the same?
14
• Challenges for education policy makers increase
– Supporting the expansion of the system
– Ensuring quality
– Securing equitable access and opportunities
– Meeting ever growing expectations
• But in very difficult times
– Deepening social problems
– Doing more with less
– Intensifying political and ideological differences
Challenges may seduce policy-makers to
stick to the current model
15
EDUCATION GETTING
OUT OF TUNE?
16
• The race with technology and the changing
nature of the skills demand
Where is education getting out of tune?
17
“~50% of US jobs
potentially
automatable”
Oxford Martin Study 2014
18
19
Changing skills demand
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006 2009
Routine manual Nonroutine manual Routine cognitive
Nonroutine analytic Nonroutine interpersonal
Mean task input in percentiles of 1960 task distribution
• The race with technology and the changing
nature of the skills demand
• Social efficacy: will social protection systems
pay the price?
Where is education getting out of tune?
20
Percentage of low educated younger adults (25-34 year-
olds), by gender (2013)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
Portugal
Spain
Brazil
Denmark
Latvia
Estonia
Italy
Iceland
Greece
Colombia
Australia
Norway
Luxembourg
Israel
Netherlands
Belgium
Ireland
Finland
OECDaverage
Canada
UnitedStates
France
Slovenia
Poland
Russian…
Sweden
NewZealand
Chile
UnitedKingdom
Hungary
Germany
CzechRepublic
Korea
SlovakRepublic
Mexico
Switzerland
Austria
Turkey
Men Women%
21
Increasing social expenditure
22
• The race with technology and the changing
nature of the skills demand
• Social efficacy: will social protection systems
pay the price?
• Relevance of curricula – knowledge, cognitive
skills, social and emotional skills, values
Where is education getting out of tune?
23
Curriculum:
What should
students learn?
Technology
Values
Democracy
Social
change
Jobs
Science
Interdependency
Relevance of curricula
Social
integration
Fundamentalisms
Intolerance
Inequality
Families
Climate change
Future of work
Media
Financial crisis
Welfare state
Globalisation
Complexity
Citizenship
Jobless growth
Innovation
Pluralism
Knowledge
explosion
Youth
unemployment
Violence
24
Living in the world
Personal and social responsibility
Life and careers
Citizenship
Fairness
Integrity
Respect
Self-awareness
Courage
Empathy
Resilience
Adaptability
Curiosity
Initiative
Leadership
25
• But, most importantly, are our education systems
really tuned to
– Support learning?
– Foster social learning?
– Create learning societies?
• Or are we merely maintaining credentialism, systems of selecting,
screening and signalling people?
Where is education getting out of tune?
26
• Principles of learning:
– Learners at the centre
– The social nature of learning
– Emotions are integral to learning
– Recognising individual differences
– Stretching all students
– Assessment for learning
– Building horizontal connections
• We know which road to follow!
The roadmap of innovating learning
27
From what we know from learning research, teaching and
learning environments and pedagogies should be:
• Learner-centred: highly focused on learning but not as an
alternative to the key role for teachers
• Structured and well-designed: needs careful design and
high professionalism alongside inquiry & autonomous learning
• Profoundly personalised: acutely sensitive to individual and
group differences and offering tailored feedback
• Inclusive: such sensitivity to individual and group differences
means they are fundamentally inclusive
• Social: learning is effective in group settings, when learners
collaborate, and when there is a connection to community.
28
Redefining teaching and learning
• Learning is the key to creating learning societies
that can address challenges and to liberating
humanity’s problem-solving potential
• Innovative environments and conditions will be
necessary for individuals and societies to
succeed in higher, better, deeper learning
• How can we create innovation ecosystems in
education to make that happen?
• What role can OER play?
Innovating learning
29
HOW CAN OER HELP?
30
OER
New forms of
learning
Teachers’
collaboration
Public &
private costs
Quality of
resources
Distribution
of resources
Barriers to
learning
31
Relative strength of policy benefits of OER
32
OER
New forms of
learning
Teachers’
collaboration
Public &
private costs
Quality of
resources
Distribution
of resources
Barriers to
learning
33
• In reality, most OER are content-focused, to be
used in existing educational settings
• At best, augmenting the teaching-learning
process and the resources used
• But 21st century learning requires a focus on
more innovative skills development and
pedagogies
• The relevance of OER lies not only in the quality
of content, but also the quality of the learning it
facilitates
1. Fostering 21st century learning
34
• Changing the role of learners from passive
consumers to active producers
• Fostering peer-to-peer learning
• Stimulating problem-based learning
• Enriching learning resources through
collaborative practice
• Enhancing the social and emotional context of
learning
• …
How can OER support innovative
pedagogies?
35
OER
New forms of
learning
Teachers’
collaboration
Public &
private costs
Quality of
resources
Distribution
of resources
Barriers to
learning
36
• ICT technology and the ways to use them in a
productive way in teaching and learning cited by
teachers as one of the most important needs of
professional development
• Professional collaboration is still the most
contentious and difficult dimension of
professionalism among teachers
2. Fostering teachers’ professional
development
37
Professional collaboration still the most
contentious aspect of professional growth
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
Shared vision Focus on student
learning
Reflection De-privatisation of
practice
Collaborative
activities -
exchange
Collaborative
activities - teach
jointly
Meanfactorscore
Professional learning community
Belgium (Fl.)
Belgium (Fl.) profile A: 80% of teachers in Belgium (Fl.)
Belgium (Fl.) profile B: 13% of teachers in Belgium (Fl.)
Belgium (Fl.) profile C: 8% of teachers in Belgium (Fl.)
38
TALIS 2008
• Training and professional development for
teachers on using OER
• Using OER in teacher training and teacher
professional development
• Collaborative production of OER
• Stimulating teachers in reusing, revising,
remixing and redistributing of OER
• …
How can OER support teachers’ professional
development?
39
HOW CAN EDUCATION
POLICIES SUPPORT OER?
40
41
Governments’ support of OER through policy
instruments - coverage
Out of 33 countries, 25 (76%) reported having a
government policy to support OER production and use
Source: CERI/OECD government survey
Policy
support
Provision of OER and
repositories
Communities of
practice among
teachers
Framework conditions
of educational settings
Evidence-based
research for policy &
practice
How can educational policies support OER?
42
• Policy helps to establish repositories and supports the
provision of open licence materials.
• Policy helps the establishment of communities of
practices within the teaching body, to encourage
production and use of OER.
• Policy can change the framework conditions of formal
educational settings, by modifying rules, promoting new
tools and reassigning the division of labour.
• More research is necessary to better understand the
potential and the usage of OER for policy and practice
43
Governments’ policy support found in 4 key
areas
FINAL COMMENTS
44
• Being ‘open’ is not going to be a sufficient condition
for OER to have transformative impact
• Ultimately, the systemic impact of OER will depend
on the contribution it makes to improving teaching
and learning and to facilitating 21st century skills
development
• Content and pedagogy are not distinct but interact
• OER should be able to exploit and demonstrate its
intrinsic superiority over proprietary materials in their
substantive quality, but also in their capacity for
pedagogical innovation
Some conclusions and final comments
45
Thank you !
dirk.vandamme@oecd.org
www.oecd.org/edu/ceri
twitter @VanDammeEDU
46

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OER and the innovation of learning

  • 1. OER AND THE INNOVATION OF LEARNING Dirk Van Damme OECD/EDU/IMEP twitter @VanDammeEDU #OEGlobal
  • 2. • Open Education and Open Educational Resources (OER) in particular are potentially a tremendously powerful agent of change and innovation • Still, one has the impression that the systemic transformative impact of ‘Open’ is greater in, say, science and research than in education – MOOCs – which should not be seen as equivalent to ‘Open’ – have in a way ‘hijacked’ this potential without yet having delivered systemic change • Why is that? What is needed? 2 Introduction
  • 3. • OER are not a technological innovation, but they are a force of social and educational innovation made possible by technology • The innovation potential of OER can only be unlocked when aligning with the innovation needs of education systems themselves • So, the question is not how to mainstream OER, but how we can utilise OER for the innovation focused education policies Introduction 3
  • 4. • Talk based on an OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) project on the policy benefits of OER, sponsored by the Hewlett Foundation • Report Open Educational resources: a Catalyst for Innovation to be published later this year 4 Introduction
  • 5. 21ST CENTURY EDUCATION: MORE OF THE SAME OR SOMETHING ELSE? 5
  • 6. • Relentless expansion of education systems Setting the scene – the big picture 6
  • 7. • Relentless expansion of education systems Setting the scene – the big picture -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Israel UnitedStates Germany Brazil Estonia Austria RussianFederation Finland Chile Turkey Italy Denmark Mexico Switzerland NewZealand Canada SlovakRepublic Iceland Australia Greece Sweden EU21average OECDaverage Norway Hungary Netherlands CzechRepublic UnitedKingdom Portugal Belgium Slovenia Spain France Luxembourg Ireland Japan Poland Korea Difference between the 25-34 and 55-64 year-old population with tertiary education (right axis) Proportion of the 25-34 year-old population with tertiary education (left axis) Proportion of the 55-64 year-old population with tertiary education (left axis) % Percentage points 7
  • 8. • Relentless expansion of education systems • Growing impact of education on various social and economic outcomes Setting the scene – the big picture 8
  • 9. • Relentless expansion of education systems • Growing impact of education on various social and economic outcomes Setting the scene – the big picture 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 CzechRepublic Italy Spain Estonia Germany Japan SlovakRepublic Ireland Canada Korea England/N.Ireland(UK) Austria Average Flanders(Belgium) Australia UnitedStates Netherlands Sweden Denmark Finland Norway % Below upper secondary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary Education An individual with a higher level of education is more likely to believe they have a say in government 9
  • 10. • Relentless expansion of education systems • Growing impact of education on various social and economic outcomes • But challenges remain and magnify – The equity and social mobility challenge – The quality challenge – The efficiency challenge Setting the scene – the big picture 10
  • 11. Setting the scene – the big picture 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Czech… Japan Germany Estonia Poland Canada Norway United… Russian… Finland Slovak… Austria Sweden England/… Denmark Flanders… Average France Korea Australia Netherlan… Ireland Italy Spain Proportion of young students (20-34 year-olds) in tertiary education whose parents have below upper secondary education Proportion of parents with below upper secondary education in the total parent population% The participation of students in HE from low-educated families is less than half of their share in the population 11
  • 12. Setting the scene – the big picture 0 10 20 30 40 HongKong-China Korea+ Liechtenstein Macao-China+ Japan Switzerland Belgium- Netherlands- Germany Poland+ Canada- Finland- NewZealand- Australia- Austria OECDaverage2003- France CzechRepublic- Luxembourg Iceland- SlovakRepublic Ireland Portugal+ Denmark- Italy+ Norway- Hungary UnitedStates Sweden- Spain Latvia RussianFederation Turkey Greece Thailand Uruguay- Tunisia Brazil Mexico Indonesia % 2012 2003 In most countries the percentage of top performers in math in PISA has declined between 2003 and 2012 12
  • 13. Setting the scene – the big picture 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Brazil Chile SlovakRepublic Korea Poland CzechRepublic Canada Australia Israel Germany Switzerland Portugal Mexico UnitedKingdom Finland Sweden EU21average OECDaverage Netherlands Austria Japan Norway UnitedStates Ireland Belgium Slovenia France RussianFederation Spain Estonia Iceland Denmark Italy Hungary Index of change (2008=100) Change in expenditure Change in the number of students (in full-time equivalents) Change in expenditure per student Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education In most countries the per student expenditure has continued to increase 13
  • 14. • Can we continue – To assume that an industrial model of education will serve the needs of 21st century societies? – Expanding our systems quantitatively? – Exporting our model to emerging and developing countries? – Pretending that nothing is changing in the outside world, impacting on the • Why • What • How we are educating? Setting the scene – more of the same? 14
  • 15. • Challenges for education policy makers increase – Supporting the expansion of the system – Ensuring quality – Securing equitable access and opportunities – Meeting ever growing expectations • But in very difficult times – Deepening social problems – Doing more with less – Intensifying political and ideological differences Challenges may seduce policy-makers to stick to the current model 15
  • 17. • The race with technology and the changing nature of the skills demand Where is education getting out of tune? 17
  • 18. “~50% of US jobs potentially automatable” Oxford Martin Study 2014 18
  • 19. 19 Changing skills demand 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006 2009 Routine manual Nonroutine manual Routine cognitive Nonroutine analytic Nonroutine interpersonal Mean task input in percentiles of 1960 task distribution
  • 20. • The race with technology and the changing nature of the skills demand • Social efficacy: will social protection systems pay the price? Where is education getting out of tune? 20
  • 21. Percentage of low educated younger adults (25-34 year- olds), by gender (2013) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Portugal Spain Brazil Denmark Latvia Estonia Italy Iceland Greece Colombia Australia Norway Luxembourg Israel Netherlands Belgium Ireland Finland OECDaverage Canada UnitedStates France Slovenia Poland Russian… Sweden NewZealand Chile UnitedKingdom Hungary Germany CzechRepublic Korea SlovakRepublic Mexico Switzerland Austria Turkey Men Women% 21
  • 23. • The race with technology and the changing nature of the skills demand • Social efficacy: will social protection systems pay the price? • Relevance of curricula – knowledge, cognitive skills, social and emotional skills, values Where is education getting out of tune? 23
  • 24. Curriculum: What should students learn? Technology Values Democracy Social change Jobs Science Interdependency Relevance of curricula Social integration Fundamentalisms Intolerance Inequality Families Climate change Future of work Media Financial crisis Welfare state Globalisation Complexity Citizenship Jobless growth Innovation Pluralism Knowledge explosion Youth unemployment Violence 24
  • 25. Living in the world Personal and social responsibility Life and careers Citizenship Fairness Integrity Respect Self-awareness Courage Empathy Resilience Adaptability Curiosity Initiative Leadership 25
  • 26. • But, most importantly, are our education systems really tuned to – Support learning? – Foster social learning? – Create learning societies? • Or are we merely maintaining credentialism, systems of selecting, screening and signalling people? Where is education getting out of tune? 26
  • 27. • Principles of learning: – Learners at the centre – The social nature of learning – Emotions are integral to learning – Recognising individual differences – Stretching all students – Assessment for learning – Building horizontal connections • We know which road to follow! The roadmap of innovating learning 27
  • 28. From what we know from learning research, teaching and learning environments and pedagogies should be: • Learner-centred: highly focused on learning but not as an alternative to the key role for teachers • Structured and well-designed: needs careful design and high professionalism alongside inquiry & autonomous learning • Profoundly personalised: acutely sensitive to individual and group differences and offering tailored feedback • Inclusive: such sensitivity to individual and group differences means they are fundamentally inclusive • Social: learning is effective in group settings, when learners collaborate, and when there is a connection to community. 28 Redefining teaching and learning
  • 29. • Learning is the key to creating learning societies that can address challenges and to liberating humanity’s problem-solving potential • Innovative environments and conditions will be necessary for individuals and societies to succeed in higher, better, deeper learning • How can we create innovation ecosystems in education to make that happen? • What role can OER play? Innovating learning 29
  • 30. HOW CAN OER HELP? 30
  • 31. OER New forms of learning Teachers’ collaboration Public & private costs Quality of resources Distribution of resources Barriers to learning 31
  • 32. Relative strength of policy benefits of OER 32
  • 33. OER New forms of learning Teachers’ collaboration Public & private costs Quality of resources Distribution of resources Barriers to learning 33
  • 34. • In reality, most OER are content-focused, to be used in existing educational settings • At best, augmenting the teaching-learning process and the resources used • But 21st century learning requires a focus on more innovative skills development and pedagogies • The relevance of OER lies not only in the quality of content, but also the quality of the learning it facilitates 1. Fostering 21st century learning 34
  • 35. • Changing the role of learners from passive consumers to active producers • Fostering peer-to-peer learning • Stimulating problem-based learning • Enriching learning resources through collaborative practice • Enhancing the social and emotional context of learning • … How can OER support innovative pedagogies? 35
  • 36. OER New forms of learning Teachers’ collaboration Public & private costs Quality of resources Distribution of resources Barriers to learning 36
  • 37. • ICT technology and the ways to use them in a productive way in teaching and learning cited by teachers as one of the most important needs of professional development • Professional collaboration is still the most contentious and difficult dimension of professionalism among teachers 2. Fostering teachers’ professional development 37
  • 38. Professional collaboration still the most contentious aspect of professional growth 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 Shared vision Focus on student learning Reflection De-privatisation of practice Collaborative activities - exchange Collaborative activities - teach jointly Meanfactorscore Professional learning community Belgium (Fl.) Belgium (Fl.) profile A: 80% of teachers in Belgium (Fl.) Belgium (Fl.) profile B: 13% of teachers in Belgium (Fl.) Belgium (Fl.) profile C: 8% of teachers in Belgium (Fl.) 38 TALIS 2008
  • 39. • Training and professional development for teachers on using OER • Using OER in teacher training and teacher professional development • Collaborative production of OER • Stimulating teachers in reusing, revising, remixing and redistributing of OER • … How can OER support teachers’ professional development? 39
  • 40. HOW CAN EDUCATION POLICIES SUPPORT OER? 40
  • 41. 41 Governments’ support of OER through policy instruments - coverage Out of 33 countries, 25 (76%) reported having a government policy to support OER production and use Source: CERI/OECD government survey
  • 42. Policy support Provision of OER and repositories Communities of practice among teachers Framework conditions of educational settings Evidence-based research for policy & practice How can educational policies support OER? 42
  • 43. • Policy helps to establish repositories and supports the provision of open licence materials. • Policy helps the establishment of communities of practices within the teaching body, to encourage production and use of OER. • Policy can change the framework conditions of formal educational settings, by modifying rules, promoting new tools and reassigning the division of labour. • More research is necessary to better understand the potential and the usage of OER for policy and practice 43 Governments’ policy support found in 4 key areas
  • 45. • Being ‘open’ is not going to be a sufficient condition for OER to have transformative impact • Ultimately, the systemic impact of OER will depend on the contribution it makes to improving teaching and learning and to facilitating 21st century skills development • Content and pedagogy are not distinct but interact • OER should be able to exploit and demonstrate its intrinsic superiority over proprietary materials in their substantive quality, but also in their capacity for pedagogical innovation Some conclusions and final comments 45