SlideShare a Scribd company logo
“Nowhere to Turn, Nowhere to Go”
Inclusive Library Services for LGBTQ* Minorities
Part 1: Library Service and Collection Policies and Strategies
Alvin M. Schrader, PhD
Professor Emeritus, University of Alberta, and Adjunct Professor, iSMSS
~ email me at alvin.schrader@ualberta.ca with
suggested corrections and additions
This version has been expanded to incorporate recent
research and professional events.
It is divided into two separate SlideShare files:
1. Library Service and Collection Policies and Strategies for
Supporting LGBTQ* Communities
2. Being a More Visible Support for LGBTQ* Communities – What
Some Canadian Libraries are Doing to Promote LGBTQ*
Services, Inclusivity, and Community Engagement
Based on a presentation to the MLIS Course LIS 541
“LIS Services in Culturally Diverse Society,”
School of Library and Information Studies, University of Alberta
(Sept. 15, 2014), and revised from Slideshare Sept. 27, 2013 upload
This work is dedicated to those who
lost their way because they had
nowhere to turn, nowhere to go, and
to the librarians and the teachers
who give them hope
The presentation title comes from keynote speaker
Glen Murray, first gay mayor of Winnipeg, who told us
at the 2006 British Columbia Library Conference
about the importance of libraries to LGBTQ* youth
and about a boyhood friend who had committed
suicide when they were 14 years of age because there
was nowhere to turn, nowhere to go, to be able to talk
about his feelings and his fears.
Librarians are catalysts for
social change and
personal transformation.
5
I hope this presentation affords a pathway. The focus is
principally on Alberta and Canada because this context is
what I know best.
But there are many commonalities across countries and
cultures in what LGBTQ* communities experience and in how
librarians and libraries can position themselves as service
providers, supporters, and advocates to create an ethno-
cultural climate of respect and resilience in society, grounded
in an ethos of human rights and social justice.
But first come professional due diligence and careful study
to learn about the LGBTQ* communities, their diverse histories,
local and global, and their wide-ranging library information
needs.
The context is then established for developing and enhancing
strategies, policies, procedures, and action plans that will
support local LGBTQ* communities.
Framings of
previous
presentations:
Opening the Closet Door
---
The Last Taboo
---
I Thought I’d Find Myself in
the Library
---
Challenging Silence,
Challenging Censorship,
Building Resilience
PART 1
Library Service and Collection Policies and Strategies
for Supporting LGBTQ* Communities
• The Status of LGBTQ* rights around the world – from death,
violence, discrimination, and oppression to legality, equality, and respect … 9
• The LGBTQ* rainbow umbrella – breaking through the binary to
understand the spectrum … 25
• Library service and collection policies and strategies for
supporting LGBTQ* communities … 46
• Policy framework for supporting LGBTQ* communities … 48
– constitutional and legislative … 50
– administrative of justice, policing … 77
– public schools … 78
– teachers’ associations … 80
– library associations … 82 7
PART 1 …cont’d…
• Access challenges in meeting LGBTQ* library information needs
… 105
– library staff values, beliefs, and service attitudes … 106
– materials access … 123
– subject access … 130
– Internet access and filtering … 140
– reference and research services … 164
– library information needs research … 165
• In summary … 167
• Professional resources to support LGBTQ* communities and
library users – all media … 171
• With thanks … 218
8
The Status of LGBTQ* Rights
around the World – from
Death, Violence, Discrimination,
and Oppression to
Legality, Equality, and Respect
9
The Canadian version of U.S. McCathyism
involved a highly secret political and police
campaign of systemic repression against
perceived gay men and lesbians as national
security risks.
The campaign involved millions of taxpayer
dollars and included not only police
surveillance, intimidation, blackmail, and
entrapment, but bogus research into a
“fruit machine” for “detecting”
homosexuals.
10
Canadian-style Oppression of
LGBTQ* Minorities in the
1950s and the 1960s
George Klippert was the last person in Canada to be
imprisoned, in 1965, for homosexual acts (“gross indecency”).
He was further sentenced to “preventive detention” and
imprisoned for life as a “dangerous sexual offender.”
In 1967, the Supreme Court of Canada denied his appeal – even
though it recognized that his sexual relationships had always
been entirely consensual and free of violence.
In spite of the decriminalization of homosexual acts in
1969, Klippert remained in prison until 1971.
11
A shameful chapter in Canadian democracy…
- “A Brief Canadian History of Laws Affecting Gays and Lesbians” [1965-2005], by Charmaine
Spencer, Vancouver, 2008 (?), http://www.canadianelderlaw.ca/Gay%20Timeline.htm;
“PRIDE! 18 Dates to Remember in Canadian LGBTIQ History,” by Meagan Perry, June 27, 2014,
http://rabble.ca/news/2014/06/pride-18-dates-to-remember-canadian-lgbtiq-history
1969 – federal decriminalization of some same-sex relationships
1977 – Quebec first province to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual
orientation; 2002 civil unions and parental rights
1982 – Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (s. 15 equality rights in force
1985)
1992 – Canadian military ended anti-gay policies
1992 – first openly gay politician in Alberta, Michael Phair, Edmonton City
Council
1995 – sexual orientation “read in” to s. 15 of the Charter by the Supreme
Court as a prohibited ground of discrimination
1996 – sexual orientation added to the Canadian Human Rights Act
1998 – Supreme Court read in sexual orientation to the Alberta Individual
Rights Protection Act [Delwin Vriend fired 1991 for being gay]
2003 – Ontario first province to legally recognize marriage equality
2005 – federal marriage equality
Milestones in the Struggle for
LGBTQ* Human Rights in Canada
12
But Key Challenges Remain for Canadian LGBTQ*
Minorities
Canada does not explicitly prohibit discrimination on the basis of
gender identity and gender expression.
This is an urgent and simple legislative remedy.
Canada has not outlawed the “homosexual panic” defence in murder trials
– a homophobic ruse never available to women, lesbian or straight.
This must be prohibited.
Canada provides millions of taxpayer $$ in aid to virulently homophobic
countries around the world.
This must change.
Canada impedes LGBTQ* refugee and asylum seekers.
This must stop.
1962 – Illinois first state to decriminalize homosexuality
1969 – Stonewall Inn, New York City, 3-day riots against policy brutality
1973 – American Psychiatric Association delisted homosexuality as a
mental illness
1982 – Wisconsin first state to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination
2000 – Vermont first state to legalize same-sex civil unions
2003 – Sodomy decriminalized by Supreme Court (Lawrence v. Texas)
2004 – Massachusetts court ruled gay marriage ban unconstitutional
2010 – U.S. Senate repealed “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” the openly gay military
service ban
2013 – Supreme Court ruled Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)
unconstitutional; also dismissed Proposition 8 appeal against marriage
equality in California
Milestones in the Struggle for LGBTQ*
Human Rights in the U.S.
14
15
Spain 88%
Germany 87
Canada 80
Czech Rep. 80
Australia 79
France 77
Britain 76
Argentina 74
Italy 74
Philippines 73
Chile 68
Mexico 61
Brazil 60
United States 60
Japan 54
Greece 53
Societal Acceptance of Homosexuality in 39 Countries
Venezuela 51%
Bolivia 43
Poland 42
Israel 40
S. Korea 39
El Salvador 34
South Africa 32
China 21
Lebanon 18
Russia 16
Less than 10%
Malaysia, Turkey, Pal. Ter.,
Uganda, Jordan, Indonesia,
Senegal, Egypt, Ghana,
Pakistan, Tunisia, Nigeria
- The Global Divide on Homosexuality, Pew Research Center, 2013
www.pewglobal.org/2013/06/04/the-global-divide-on-homosexuality/
16
• Brunei
• Iran
• Maldives
• Mauritania
Death Penalty in 13 States for Being Gay*
* Technically, the death penalty in most of these countries (or parts of countries) is
for homosexual “acts.”
• Nigeria
• Qatar
• Saudi Arabia
• Somalia
• Sudan
• Tonga
• United Arab Emirates
• Uganda
• Yemen
- “78 countries where homosexuality is illegal,” January 16, 2015,
http://76crimes.com/76-countries-where-homosexuality-is-illegal/
State-sponsored homophobia, by Lucas Paoli Itaborahy and Jingshu Zhu, ILGA, May 2013;
The Curious Case of Countries Where Being Gay Is a Crime, by James Kirchick, 2014,
www.thedailybeast.com/;
Criminalization around the World, Human Rights Campaign Foundation, December 17, 2014
17
Less barbarous but still reprehensible anti-homosexuality laws exist
in 79 other countries (including Russia). All of these human rights
violators are members of the United Nations.
18
Former British Territories Embrace the Most Repugnant of
19th Century Imperialist Practices
- “International Law and the Uncertainty of Rights for LGBT People,” by Graeme Reid, JURIST-Hotline,
September 6, 2014, http://jurist.org/hotline/2014/09/graeme-reid-lgbt-rights.php
Marriage Equality
19
1. Netherlands 2001
2. Belgium 2003
3. Spain 2005
4. Canada 2005
5. South Africa 2006
6. Norway 2009
7. Sweden 2009
8. Portugal 2010
9. Iceland* 2010
10. Argentina 2010
11. Denmark 2012
12. England 2013
13. Wales 2013
14. Brazil 2013
15. France 2013
16. New Zealand 2013
17. Uruguay
18. Scotland 2014
19. Luxembourg 2014
20. Finland 2014
21. Slovenia 2015
22. Vietnam 2015
23. Ireland ? [referendum May 2015]
* In 2009 elected the world’s first openly lesbian head of
government, Johanna Sigurdardottir
- Marriage Equality around the World, Human Rights
Campaign Foundation, January 5, 2015
20
www.freedomtomarry.org/states
U.S. Marriage Equality
• Some within-country jurisdictions
- U.S. – more than half of U.S. states (37 states since 2003, as of March
2015), D.C., and 22 American Indian tribes – but LGBTQ* minorities still lack
varying degrees of workplace, housing, health care, education, public service, public
accommodation, and other protections in more than half of U.S. states, with transgender
people the latest, most vicious, and most vulnerable targets of discriminatory legislation
- “Two Americas for LGBT People,” by Brynn Tannehill, HuffPost Gay Voices, March 3, 2015,
www.huffingtonpost.com/brynn-tannehill/two-americas-for-lgbt-people-
_b_6842066.html?ncid=newsltushpmg00000003
- Mexico – Coahuila (state) 2007, Mexico City (federal district) 2009, states of Quintana
Roo 2011, Oaxaca 2013, Colima 2013, Yucatán 2013, Chihuahua 2013
- Japan – Tokyo 2015
Marriage Equality
21
Postscript: Historically, many countries, and many regions,
municipalities, or cities within some countries (e.g., 160+ in Italy),
have sanctioned same-sex “civil unions” (civil, domestic, or
registered partnerships).
In some countries same-sex marriages from other countries are
recognized as civil partnerships, e.g., Israel, and within some
countries same-sex marriages performed in one within-country state
or county are recognized by others, e.g., in Mexico.
Civil unions have led to full equality, e.g., Denmark in 2012, the first
country to sanction civil unions in 1989.
The further step of secular marriage, however, has often been
opposed by vitriolic minorities suddenly concerned about the
intolerable sins of LGBTQ* immorality, abnormality, disease, decay,
depravity, deviance, disaster, etc., ad nauseum.
Marriage Equality and Civil Union
22
faggot – 12 million tweets/year*
no homo – 3 million tweets/year
so gay – 3 million tweets/year
dyke – 1 million tweets/year
All 4 terms – 20 million tweets/year
* Monthly average over 32 months July 2012 to February 2015,
www.nohomophobes.com
“Casual Homophobia”
Homophobic Language on Twitter
23
24- Screenshot,16 March 2015, www.nohomophobes.com
dyke
so gay
no homo
faggot
“Casual Homophobia” — Worldwide
The LGBTQ* Rainbow Umbrella
Breaking through the Binary to Understand the Spectrum
~ deconstructing gender identity, gender expression, biological
sex, sexual orientation, and romantic attraction
25
Facebook expanded gender
identity in February 2014
and now has 59 options.
When in doubt about
preferred names and
pronouns, it’s okay to ask.
26http://itspronouncedmetrosexual.com/2015/03/the-genderbread-person-v3
The LGBTQ* Rainbow Umbrella
Heterogeneity, Commonality, Terminology
27
The rainbow umbrella embraces a multitude of LGBTQ* communities,
historically fragmented and fractionalized, with disparate histories, and
wide-ranging library information needs.
These communities are heterogeneous and nuanced – all overlaid by
variations across multiple demographic constructs and other
intersectionalities: heritage, education, race, religion, gender, age,
physical and mental capabilities, occupation, economic status, etc.
In spite of fragmentation, the rainbow communities bleed into each other,
all sharing experiences of stigma, stereotyping, bullying, name-calling,
violence, harassment, disparagement, condescension, victimization,
discrimination, oppression, internalized LGBTQ*-phobia, exclusion,
marginalization, denial, invisibility, and
being cast, and cast out, as the “Other.”
• Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans*, Trans-Identified,
Transgender, Transsexual, Transman, Transwoman,
Transvestite, Two Spirit, Intersex, Pansexual, Queer,
Questioning, Asexual
• Sexual and Gender (SGM), Sexual Minority and Gender
Variant (SMGV), Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
(SOGI), Same Gender Loving (SGL)
• Genderfluid, Genderqueer, Gender-Creative, Gender
Nonconforming, Third Sex, Third Gender, Non-Binary, Bi-
Gender, Genderf*ck, Non-Gendered, Agender, Genderless
• Initialisms: LGBT, LGBTQ, LGBTQ*, LGBTQ+, LGBTI,
LGBTQ2S, GLBT, GLBTQ, LGBTQQIA, LGBTQQIAAP,
LGBTTI2QQ, LGBPTTQQIIAA+, LGBTTIQQ2SA*,
LGBTTTIQQAAPK, Q2GQIAASCP(GSM). Etc.
Rainbow Umbrella Terminology
life ***
healing
sunlight
nature
serenity
spirit
***Alternate colour meanings for the Rainbow Flag:
acceptance, tolerance, happiness, harmony, peace, spirit 28
The Rainbow Umbrella also includes* ….
- For many of these ideas, I am indebted to Emily Lloyd, “Serving Our
GLBTQ Customers (at the Library).” SlideShare November 17, 2010,
www.slideshare.net/elloyd74/serving-our-glbtq-customers-at-the-library
29
• children of LGBTQ* parents
• parents, grandparents, other relatives
of LGBTQ* children
• heterosexual spouses and children of
LGBTQ* people who may be coming out
later in life
• anyone linked in a close way to an
LGBTQ* person who may be seeking
LGBTQ*-related resources for personal
or research reasons
• allies of all persuasions
Not All Minorities are Visible
• Sexual, gender, and trans-identified minorities are invisible
• Questions about identity are confusing, bewildering, and
impenetrable
• “Generation queer” youth are coming out at younger ages,
especially trans-identifying kids – average coming-out age is 15 to
17, but of first self-awareness, 10 or younger
• Coming out is revealing one’s sexuality or gender identity to
another person, a lifelong process repeated with every new
person one meets – not to be confused with “outing”
• Fewer than half of gay men are out to their doctors
• LGBTQ* members of newcomer communities are at higher risk
and even more vulnerable
30
Like the historically
negative practices
of libraries and of
journalism, far
worse than
stereotyping,
scapegoating,
ridicule, and
caricature, the
greatest enemy of
public truth in
Hollywood movies
has been invisibility.
31
The Perils of Invisibility
When those who have power to name and to
socially construct reality choose not to see you or
hear you … when someone with the authority of a
teacher, say, describes the world and you are not in
it, there is a moment of psychic disequilibrium, as
if you looked into a mirror and saw nothing. It takes
some strength of soul – not just individual
strength, but collective understanding – to resist
this void, this nonbeing, into which you are thrust,
and to stand up, demanding to be seen and heard.
- Adrienne Rich, Blood, Bread and Poetry,
1986, p.199 (from “Invisibility in Academe,” 1984)
32
Not All Minorities are Safe
• LGBTQ* students in Canada are
disproportionately targeted for name-
calling, bullying, and violence.
 2/3 of LGBTQ* students feel unsafe in
schools
 75% of trans students are verbally harassed
— Every Class in Every School, 2011
• LGBTQ* youth are disproportionately
homeless, banished by LGBTQ*-phobic
parents who fail both moral and legal
standards of parental responsibility.
• Lesbian, gay, and bisexual Asian youth
are 30 times more likely to face
harassment than heterosexual peers. 33
• One LGBTQ* person was murdered
every month in Canada 1990-2004.
• At least twice as many were victims
of violent assaults.
• Disproportionate number of victims
were trans-identified.
• Most perpetrators were young men.
- Pink Blood: Homophobic Violence in Canada, by Douglas
Victor Janoff (2005)
34
35
In the U.S.
In the U.S. …cont’d…
36
In the U.S. …cont’d…
37
Verbal disrespect through “casual homophobia” is
widespread, toxic, and prejudicial.
LGBTQ*-phobia promotes a social climate of irrational fear
and bullying.
38
“I was bullied growing up, and the scars are still there.
But look at me now – I’ve got the last laugh.”
– Susan Boyle, 2009 winner, “Britain’s Got Talent”
“The health of the LGBTQ community is a barometer of
the entire community.”
– Edmonton Mayor Stephen Mandel, Mayor’s Pride Brunch, 2007
“To be represented is to be humanized.” – Kerry Washington
Not All Minorities are Respected
A Toxic Social Climate
• Stereotyping is lazy thinking.
• Stereotypes aren’t bad because they are false or wrong – but
because they are profoundly incomplete and reductionistic, erase multiple
complexities, and crush full personhood into a singular binary
• Equal treatment and access are not the same as equitable
treatment and access – librarians must acknowledge difference and
embrace diversity to achieve equitable service
• Fear is the enemy of rationality – stereotyping and ignorance trigger
fear and fear triggers discrimination, oppression, bullying, and violence.
• Silence is complicity; intolerance flourishes in silence;
silence is a text easy to misread.
39
Not All Minorities are Respected
Why Pride Celebrations?….
• Freedom from homophobic, biphobic, and transphobic
oppression is acutely linked to freedom from ignorance around gender norms,
misogyny, sexism, double standards, unhealthy masculinity, heteronormativity,
and gendered privilege and power.
• Sexism and misogyny are the ubiquitous weapons of LGBTQ*-phobia – girlie
men, economic girlie men [Arnold Schwarzenegger, denigrating political opponents], girl,
sissy, effeminate, momma’s boy, henpecked, “pink government” [Silvio Berlusconi,
referring to a new Spanish government], pansification, man up, don’t be a pussy, bitch,
slut, boys don’t cry, crybaby.
• Homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia are the misogynistic male’s fear that
gay men will treat him the way he treats women, and that lesbians will treat other
women better than he does.
• Women’s liberation and gay liberation are inseparable oppressions and
struggles.
…cont’d…
Hierarchies of Oppression
Balancing Equality Rights
41
• There can be no hierarchy of oppression. The struggle against one form of
injustice is the struggle against them all. Truth to power has many voices.
• But just as there is no hierarchy of oppression, there can be no hierarchy of
equality and equality rights, and so the larger struggle for a reasonable balance
among competing human rights continues on many fronts.
• States – and societies – must live up to the universalist promises to all
marginalized minorities inherent in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as
well as in numerous other international agreements, which they have signed and
are thus legally binding signatories.
• On top of this international framework of human rights guarantees to which
Canada is a signatory, Canada must live up to the Canadian Charter of Rights and
Freedoms, the Canadian Human Rights Act, and provincial and territorial human
rights acts.
…cont’d…
Hierarchies of Oppression …cont’d…
42
“Both women’s and trans liberation have presented me with
two important tasks. One is to join the fight to strip away the
discriminatory and oppressive values attached to
masculinity and femininity. The other is to defend gender
freedom – the right of each individual to express their
gender in any way they choose, whether feminine,
androgynous, masculine, or any point on the spectrum
between. And that includes the right to gender ambiguity
and gender contradiction. It’s equally important that each
person have the right to define, determine, or change their
sex in any way they choose – whether female, male, or any
point on the spectrum between. And that includes the right
to physical ambiguity and contradiction. ”
- TRANSgender Warriors, by Leslie Feinberg,
Beacon Press, Boston, 1996, p. 103.
Hierarchies of Oppression …cont’d…
43
On a personal note, I have never been able to understand homophobic
women.
Is it self-hatred at not being born as a privileged male? – religious
indoctrination? – cultural desensitization?
Or is it just oblivious naivety about how intimately linked homophobia is
to misogyny and sexism?
How can it be that any self-respecting and spiritual adult woman could
feel herself entitled
 to tell a 5-year-old that a queer loved one is going to burn in hell,
 to bully a queer teen,
 to choose religious doctrine over their own queer child,
 to disown a queer child and kick them out of their home –
all the while thinking she herself is acting self-righteously free of
personal, emotional, moral, spiritual, and societal consequences?
Hierarchies of Oppression
Homophobic Women
44
45
Homophobic Women …cont’d…
A message to her, and to like-minded men:
If a parent is among those who reject abortion but refuse
to love their LGBTQ* child, they are not “pro-life.”
No sacred text can justify persecution and violence
against vulnerable minorities.
Homophobia is a choice – regardless of whether
homosexuality is.
- Several points in this series are from Rev. J.P. Mokgethi-Health (Sweden) at the 2014 International
AIDS Conference, Melbourne, Australia, July 20-25, 2014, as quoted in “'Homophobia is a Choice,
not Homosexuality': Inter-faith Message,” by Bobby Ramakant, Citizen News Service, July 21, 2014
Library Service and Collection
Policies and Strategies for Supporting
LGBTQ* Communities
 Board Policies and Legislation – Policy is
protection!
 Community Development
 Professional Networking
 Selection Criteria
 Challenges and Reconsideration of Materials
 Collection Development
 Collection Access
…cont’d…
Policies and Strategies …cont’d…
 Web Access
 Library Access
 Promotion and Marketing
 Community Advocacy
 Professional Development
 Evaluation – monitoring and accountability
 Library Service Charter
Seize the teachable moment to educate
your community!
Policy Framework for Supporting LGBTQ*
Communities
Principles and Values in a Human Rights and Social Justice
Framework
• non-discrimination
• inclusion
• safety
• respect
• duty of care (schools)
• freedom of access
• freedom of expression
Policy informs, guides, and protects everybody!
1) Constitutional and legislative –
international; other national; national; provincial and
territorial; local
2) Administration of justice, policing
3) Public schools
4) Teachers’ associations
5) Library associations
52
Policy Framework
Sources of Principles and Values in a
Human Rights and Social Justice Framework
Policy Framework
1) Constitutional and legislative – international
• Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations, 1948
• Convention on the Rights of the Child, United Nations, 1989
• Resolution on Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, United
Nations Human Rights Council, 2011, 2014
• Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 2001; Discrimination
on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, 2010
• American Convention on Human Rights, Organization of American States,
1969; Rapporteurship on the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and
Intersex (LGBTI) Persons, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights,
2011, 2013
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are
endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a
spirit of brotherhood.
2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration,
without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion,
political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other
status.
18. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right
includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in
community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief
in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes
freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart
information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
- United Nations, December 10, 1948, www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/51
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 2
1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention
to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective
of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language,
religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property,
disability, birth or other status. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity
and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards
one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is
protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the
status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child's parents, legal
guardians, or family members.
Article 13
1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include
freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of
frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other
media of the child's choice.
cont’d…52
Convention on the Rights of the Child … cont’d …
Article 14
1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience
and religion.
Article 17
States Parties recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall
ensure that the child has access to information and material from a diversity of national
and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social,
spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health.
Article 19
1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and
educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental
violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation,
including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other
person who has the care of the child.
- United Nations, November 1989, 1995 (2002),
www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CRC.aspx53
The United Nations and LGBTQ* Rights
54
• UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, 2010: Written message to event on
ending violence and criminal sanctions based on sexual orientation and
gender identity.
• UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2011: first report “Discriminatory
laws and practices and acts of violence against individuals based on their
sexual orientation and gender identity.”
• UN Human Rights Council, 2011: first resolution on human rights, sexual
orientation, and gender identity
• UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, 2011: “To those who are lesbian, gay,
bisexual or transgender, let me say: You are not alone. Your struggle for an
end to violence and discrimination is a shared struggle. Any attack on you is
an attack on the universal values the United Nations and I have sworn to
defend and uphold.”
• Born Free and Equal: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in International
Human Rights Law, UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights,
2012.
• UN Human Rights Council, 2012: first formal debate on ending violence and
discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.
cont’d…
The United Nations and LGBTQ* Rights … cont’d…
• UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay, 2012: “When I raise the
issue of violence and discrimination against individuals based on their
sexual orientation or gender identity, some complain that I’m pushing for
“new rights” or “special rights”. But there is nothing new or special about the
right to life and security of person, the right to freedom from discrimination.
These and other rights are universal: enshrined in international law but
denied to many of our fellow human beings simply because of their sexual
orientation or gender identity.”
• Resolution on Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, UN
Human Rights Council, endorsed by 94 countries, 2014: Grave concern at
acts of violence and discrimination because of sexual orientation and gender
identity and requesting the UN High Commissioner to report on rights abuses
and on good practices for overcoming LGBTQ violence and discrimination,
http://daccess-dds-
ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G14/177/32/PDF/G1417732.pdf?OpenElement
cont’d…
55
The United Nations and LGBTQ* Rights … cont’d…
• “Free and Equal Campaign,” a global education campaign for lesbian, gay,
bisexual, and transgender rights, UN Office of the High Commissioner for
Human Rights, 2013, https://www.unfe.org
• UN Special Rapporteur Maina Kiai, 2014: “A nation that can silence one group
can silence all groups.”
• UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, 2014: New policy to recognize same-sex
marriages of all UN Secretariat staff worldwide and provide full benefits,
regardless of whether their home country supports marriage equality – "I am
proud to stand for greater equality for all staff, and I call on all members of our
UN family to unite in rejecting homophobia as discrimination that can never be
tolerated at our workplace.”
56
European Union
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
10. Freedom of thought, conscience and religion 1. Everyone has the right to freedom
of thought, conscience and religion. This right includes freedom to change religion or
belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or in private,
to manifest religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.
11. Freedom of expression and information 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of
expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart
information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of
frontiers.
21. Non-discrimination 1. Any discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race,
colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or
any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or
sexual orientation shall be prohibited.
- Official Journal of the European Communities, 18.12.2000,
European Parliament, 2000/C 364/01, 2000,
www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/pdf/text_en.pdf-
57
European Union
Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and
Gender Identity
2. Under international law, all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and
rights. Sexual orientation and gender identity are recognised as prohibited grounds for
discrimination. According to the European Court of Human Rights, a difference in
treatment is discriminatory if it has no objective and reasonable justification….
5. Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity can be
magnified on the basis of sex and gender, with lesbian, bisexual and transgender
women, in particular, running an increased risk of violence.
13. Homophobia and transphobia have particularly serious consequences for young
LGBT people.
16. Member states are called on to:
ensure that the fundamental rights of LGBT people, including freedom of expression
and freedom of assembly and association, are respected, in line with international
human rights standards [16.1];
…cont’d… 58
Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and
Gender Identity … cont’d…
recognise that lesbian, bisexual and transgender women face an increased risk of
gender-based violence….[16.3];
condemn hate speech and discriminatory statements….[16.4];
ensure legal recognition of same-sex partnerships when national legislation envisages
such recognition….[16.9];
provide the possibility for joint parental responsibility of each partner’s children,
bearing in mind the interests of the children [16.10];
address the specific discrimination and human rights violations faced by transgender
persons….[16.11];
recognise persecution of LGBT persons as a ground for granting asylum….[16.15].
- Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, adopted by the
Parliamentary Assembly, European Union, Resolution 1728 (2010), 29 April 29, 2010,
http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/hrpolicy/Publications/LGBT_en.pdf
59
Organization of American States
American Convention on Human Rights
Article 1. Obligation to Respect Rights
1. The States Parties to this Convention undertake to respect the rights and freedoms
recognized herein and to ensure to all persons subject to their jurisdiction the free
and full exercise of those rights and freedoms, without any discrimination for reasons
of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social
origin, economic status, birth, or any other social condition.
Article 5. Right to Humane Treatment
1. Every person has the right to have his physical, mental, and moral integrity
respected.
Article 7. Right to Personal Liberty
1. Every person has the right to personal liberty and security.
cont’d…
60
American Convention on Human Rights … cont’d …
Article 13. Freedom of Thought and Expression
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought and expression. This right includes
freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of
frontiers, either orally, in writing, in print, in the form of art, or through any other
medium of one's choice.
Article 24. Right to Equal Protection
All persons are equal before the law. Consequently, they are entitled, without
discrimination, to equal protection of the law.
61
- American Convention on Human Rights “Pact of San Jose, Costa Rica” (B-32), Treaty Series, No.
36, 1969 [came into force 1978],
http://www.oas.org/dil/treaties_B-32_American_Convention_on_Human_Rights.htm
Organization of American States
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
“Plan of Action 4.6. – Other Thematic Areas
i. The Rights of LGTBI Communities
This Plan of Action will establish the conceptual basis, substantive content and process
for preparing a report on sexual identity and human rights in the hemisphere by
December 2013, process cases on discrimination and provide specialized advice to the
States in relation to the rights of lesbian, gay, trans, bisexual and intersex persons
(LGTBI).” [Executive Summary]
“Plan of Action 4.6. – Other Thematic Areas
Under this Plan of Action, the IACHR will develop reports on sexual identity-derived
human rights problems in the American States. The reports will focus on de jure and de
facto discrimination and give visibility to the problems faced by lesbian gay, trans,
bisexual and intersex persons at the regional and international level…. This need has
been recognized by the Member States of the OAS, who have exhorted the IACHR to
prepare a study concerning the rights of the members of LGBTI communities in the
Americas (vide, AG/RES. 2600 (XL-O/10).”
cont’d…
62
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights … cont’d…
“Third, building on the OAS General Assembly resolutions since 2008 concerning human
rights and sexual orientation, the Commission “as consultative organ of the
Organization” will formulate and provide specialized technical advice in relation to the
annual resolution, providing comments and recommendations to the political bodies in
the process of the preparation and negotiation of the said resolution and its follow-up.”
[Part II. Programs and Action Plans]
63
In 2011 a “Unit on the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex (LGBTI)
Persons” was created that became a “Rapporteurship” under the same name in 2013, “to
give specialized attention” to the work of the IACHR on the promotion and protection of
the rights of LGBTI persons in the Americas.
… cont’d…
- Strategic Plan 2011-2015 [2011?], www.oas.org/en/iachr/docs/pdf/IACHRStrategicPlan20112015.pdf;
“IACHR Creates Unit on the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Intersex Persons,” Nov. 2011,
www.oas.org/en/iachr/media_center/PReleases/2011/115.asp
Rapporteurship on the Rights of LGBTI Persons
Rapporteurship on the Rights of LGBTI Persons… cont’d…
“Gay, lesbian, bisexuals, trans and intersex persons have historically been discriminated
against on the basis of their sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, and
body diversity, and continue to be victims of discrimination, violence, persecution and
other abuses; which infringes on their human rights protected by international and inter-
American instruments….
The Rapporteurship continues the main lines of work of the LGBTI Unit addressing issues
of sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, and body diversity.”
64
- “The IACHR creates Rapporteurship to address issues of Sexual Orientation, Gender
Identity, Gender Expression, and Body Diversity,” Nov. 2013,
www.oas.org/en/iachr/media_center/PReleases/2013/094.asp
“Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Persons” [2014?],
www.oas.org/en/iachr/lgtbi/default.asp
1) Constitutional and legislative – other national
(selected)
• Republic of South Africa, 1996
• Federal Constitution of Mexico, 2001, 2003
• United States Constitution, 1791, 1868
Republic of South Africa
- Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, Chapter 2: Bill of Rights,
www.gov.za/documents/constitution/1996/a108-96.pdf
9. Equality.—(l) Everyone is equal before the law and has the right to equal
protection and benefit of the law.
(2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and
freedoms. To promote the achievement of equality, legislative and other
measures designed to protect or advance persons, or categories of persons,
disadvantaged by unfair discrimination may be taken.
(3) The state may not unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against
anyone on one or more grounds, including race, gender, sex, pregnancy,
marital status, ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability,
religion, conscience, belief, culture, language and birth.
66
Federal Constitution of Mexico
Article 1. All types of discrimination whether it be for ethnic origin, national
origin, gender, age, different capacities, social condition, health condition,
religion, opinions, sexual preferences, or civil state or any other which attacks
human dignity and has as an objective to destroy the rights and liberties of the
people are forbidden. [amended 2001]
Article 84. The Council to Prevent Discrimination will promote non-
discriminatory behaviour at public institutions through sensitivity workshops
and specific campaigns. [amended 2003]
----
The anti-gay words "puñal" and "maricones" are not protected as freedom of
expression under the Constitution, allowing people offended by the terms to
sue for moral damages. [Supreme Court of Mexico, 2013]
United States Constitution
Bill of Rights and Constitutional Amendments
1. Freedoms, Petitions, Assembly
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the
people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
4. Search and Arrest
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against
unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but
upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place
to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
14. Section 1: Civil Rights
All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof,
are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or
enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United
States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process
of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
- U.S. Congress, 1791; 1868 (Amendment 14)
•Constitutional and legislative – national
• Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982
• Canadian Human Rights Act, 1985 – includes sexual orientation but
not gender identity
• Criminal Code of Canada
• Supreme Court of Canada cases – Vriend [AB]; Surrey School Board
[BC]; Jubran [BC]; Kemperling [BC]; Little Sister’s Bookstore [BC]
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms*
1. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the rights and
freedoms set out in it subject only to such reasonable limits prescribed by law
as can be demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society.
2. Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms:
(a) freedom of conscience and religion;
(b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of
the press and other media of communication;
(c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and
(d) freedom of association.
15. (1) Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the
equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in
particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin,
colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.
* 1982, s. 15 came into force in 1985
70
http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/const/page-16.html#docCont
Canadian Human Rights Act, 1985
2. The purpose of this Act is to extend the laws in Canada to give effect,
within the purview of matters coming within the legislative authority of
Parliament, to the principle that all individuals should have an opportunity
equal with other individuals to make for themselves the lives that they are
able and wish to have and to have their needs accommodated, consistent
with their duties and obligations as members of society, without being
hindered in or prevented from doing so by discriminatory practices based
on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual
orientation, marital status, family status, disability or conviction for an
offence for which a pardon has been granted or in respect of which a record
suspension has been ordered.
3. (1) For all purposes of this Act, the prohibited grounds of discrimination
are race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual
orientation, marital status, family status, disability and conviction for an
offence for which a pardon has been granted or in respect of which a record
suspension has been ordered.
http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/h-6/page-1.html#h-3
71
Supreme Court of Canada
The Supreme Court has affirmed that
schools, boards, and officials are subject to
Charter scrutiny. In the balancing of rights,
educators have a positive duty to provide all
students with a safe, caring, and
discrimination-free learning environment.
While school libraries would perforce be subject
to Charter scrutiny under the Supreme Court
educational sector affirmation, no cases involving
public or post-secondary libraries have been
heard in Canada.
Supreme Court of Canada and
the Surrey [B.C.] School District, 2002
Learning about tolerance is … learning that other
people’s entitlement to respect from us does not
depend on whether their views accord with our view.
Children cannot learn this unless they are exposed to
views that differ from those they are taught at home….
Tolerance is always age appropriate. [my emphasis]
- Chamberlain v. Surrey School District No. 36, 2002, par. 66,69
Postscript: Through successive legal appeals by the Surrey School
District over several years, the three children’s picture books at issue in
the Chamberlain challenge cost the taxpayers of Surrey at least
$600,000 per title and possibly $3 million for all three!
(Taxpayers will never know the full amount.)
• Constitutional and legislative –
provincial and territorial
• Every province and territory has human rights
legislation prohibiting discrimination on sexual
orientation grounds; some also mention gender
identity and/or gender expression, but transgender
people are still vulnerable.
• Education acts mandate safe and caring school
environments for “all students.”
• Only Ontario, Manitoba, and Alberta mandate that
students have the right to create a Gay Straight
Alliance and so name it if they wish to do so – not,
however, without bitter resistance in every instance, it should be
noted.
• Some 90 GSAs were established in Alberta before the
2015 legislation mandated student rights.
• Constitutional and legislative –
Alberta
• Alberta Human Rights Act – lists sexual orientation
as a protected ground and as of 2015 gender identity
and gender expression.
• Alberta Vital Statistics Act – provides for
amendment of birth and marriage records on a change
of “anatomical sex structure” [part 4].
• Alberta School Act 2013 – mandates school boards
to “ensure each student is provided with a safe and
caring environment that fosters and maintains
respectful and responsible behaviours [s. 45.1.8].
• Alberta Bill of Rights – amended in 2015 to add
sexual orientation, sex, gender identity, and gender
expression.
• Constitutional and legislative –
Ontario
• Ontario Education Act 2012 – introduced legislative
changes to fight bullying and cyberbullying and to foster
safer school communities, with students having the right
to a “safe, inclusive and accepting learning
environment.”
- The Act also requires school boards to conduct
voluntary and anonymous school climate
surveys, and to establish annual professional
development programs on bullying prevention
and strategies for fostering a positive school
climate.
Policy Framework
2) Administration of justice, policing
• Hate and bias crimes unit
• Sexuality and gender diversity advisory boards
• LGBTQ* police-community liaison committees,
e.g., Calgary Police Service Sexuality and Gender
Diversity Chief’s Advisory Board
• Alberta Hate Crimes Committee, 2002
• Alberta Hate Crimes Awareness Day, May 2010
• Edmonton Police Services Chief Mike Boyd held
the first annual Pride Week police services
reception June 17, 2008
Policy Framework
3) Public schools – local school board stand-
alone policies on sexual orientation and gender
identity; GSAs
• Vancouver School Board policy on sexual orientation
and gender identity, 2004; draft policy revisions
emphasize that LGBTQ* students and families should
see themselves and their lives positively reflected in
the curriculum and explicitly lay out the rights of trans
students [2014]
• One-third of BC school boards have sexual orientation
and gender identity (SOGI) policies
• At least 4 Alberta school boards have SOGI policies:
Edmonton Public School Board (2011), St. Albert Public
School Board policy (2012), Wild Rose (Drayton Valley), and
Canadian Rockies (Canmore)
Edmonton Public School Board
Policy on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
The EPSB is committed to establishing and maintaining a safe, inclusive,
equitable, and welcoming learning and teaching environment for all members of
the school community. This includes those students, staff, and families who
identify or are perceived as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, two-
spirit, queer or questioning their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender
expression.
All members of the school community have the right to learn and work in an
environment free of discrimination, prejudice, and harassment. This right is
guaranteed under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Alberta Human
Rights Act, and Alberta School Act.
The Board will not tolerate harassment, bullying, intimidation, or discrimination
on the basis of a person’s actual or perceived sexual orientation, gender identity,
or gender expression.
Edmonton Public Schools, 2011, www.epsb.ca/policy/ifa.bp.shtml
Policy Framework
• Teachers’ associations
• Alberta Teachers’ Association Code of
Professional Conduct – first teachers’ association in
Canada to include sexual orientation 1999; gender
identity for students 2003; gender identity for teachers
2004
• Safe Spaces Initiative
• ATA Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
resources
• PRISM Toolkit for Safe and Caring Discussions
About Sexual and Gender Minorities
teachers.ab.ca/For%20Members/Professional%20Development/Diversity%2
0and%20Human%20Rights/Sexual%20Orientation/Pages/Index.aspx
Alberta Teachers’Association
Code of Professional Conduct
The teacher teaches in a manner that respects the
dignity and rights of all persons without prejudice
as to race, religious beliefs, colour, gender, sexual
orientation, gender identity, physical
characteristics, disability, marital status, family
status, age, ancestry, place of origin, place of
residence, socioeconomic background or
linguistic background.
81
Policy Framework
4) Library Associations – international; other
national; national; provincial and territorial
The policy documents of many library associations
do not specifically reference sexual orientation or
gender identity, but all of them enjoin librarians to
provide inclusive services to “all people” and to avoid
viewpoint discrimination and discriminatory
censorship.
Association codes of ethics echo these principles of
inclusivity and unencumbered access.
• Library Associations – international
• IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and
Institutions)
– “Glasgow Declaration on Libraries, Information Services and
Intellectual Freedom,” 2002 – explicitly prohibits discrimination on
the basis of “gender or sexual preference”
IFLA
The Glasgow Declaration on Libraries,
Information Services and Intellectual Freedom
IFLA proclaims the fundamental right of human beings both to access and to
express information without restriction.
IFLA and its worldwide membership support, defend and promote intellectual
freedom as expressed in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human
Rights. This intellectual freedom encompasses the wealth of human knowledge,
opinion, creative thought and intellectual activity.
IFLA asserts that a commitment to intellectual freedom is a core responsibility
of the library and information profession worldwide, expressed through codes of
ethics and demonstrated through practice.
IFLA affirms that:
Libraries and information services provide access to information, ideas and
works of imagination in any medium and regardless of frontiers. They serve as
gateways to knowledge, thought and culture, offering essential support for
…cont’d…84
The Glasgow Declaration on Libraries, Information
Services and Intellectual Freedom… cont’d …
independent decision-making, cultural development, research and lifelong
learning by both individuals and groups.
Libraries and information services contribute to the development and
maintenance of intellectual freedom and help to safeguard democratic values and
universal civil rights. Consequently, they are committed to offering their clients
access to relevant resources and services without restriction and to opposing any
form of censorship.
Libraries and information services shall acquire, preserve and make available
the widest variety of materials, reflecting the plurality and diversity of society. The
selection and availability of library materials and services shall be governed by
professional considerations and not by political, moral and religious views.
…cont’d…
85
The Glasgow Declaration on Libraries, Information
Services and Intellectual Freedom… cont’d …
Libraries and information services shall make materials, facilities and services
equally accessible to all users. There shall be no discrimination for any reason
including race, national or ethnic origin, gender or sexual preference, age,
disability, religion, or political beliefs.
Libraries and information services shall protect each user's right to privacy and
confidentiality with respect to information sought or received and resources
consulted, borrowed, acquired or transmitted.
IFLA therefore calls upon libraries and information services and their staff to
uphold and promote the principles of intellectual freedom and to provide
uninhibited access to information.
- IFLA Governing Board, 2002; IFLA Council, 2002, www.ifla.org/publications/the-glasgow-
declaration-on-libraries--information-services-and-intellectual-freedom
86
• Library Associations – international
• IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and
Institutions)
– Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/ Questioning
Users Special Interest Group [LGBTQ Users SIG]
“As part of our professional commitment to provide access to
information, librarians are charged to support the full range of users’
informational needs including those of lesbians, gay, bisexual,
transgender, queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people.
That said, substantial discussions of issues related to library
services for LGBTQ community members have not taken place at IFLA.
The LGBTQ Users SIG will address this gap in professional knowledge by
offering opportunities to engage in discussions about this often invisible
user group.
…cont’d…
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/ Questioning
Users Special Interest Group [LGBTQ Users SIG] …cont’d…
This SIG will enable libraries to consider topics including professional
attitudes, outreach, privacy, programming, and effective practice in acquiring
and collecting materials of importance to LGBTQ people and allies. This
includes literature, academic texts, materials of importance to LGTBQ youth
and families, and other works that encourage thinking critically about issues
of sexuality and gender identity.”
– sponsored by the Acquisition and Collection Development Section, approved by the
IFLA Professional Committee, December 2013, http://www.ifla.org/lgbtq
…cont’d…
LGBTQ Users SIG …cont’d…
LGBTQ Users SIG – presentations at IFLA on the theme of Addressing
the Silence: How Libraries can Serve Their LGBTQ Users
“I’ve never really thought about it”: librarians’ attitudes to the provision of LGBT-related
fiction to children and young people in English public libraries
Gay Marriage and Homoaffective Union: a terminological analysis of the social values of
libraries as a source for an ethical subject representation and dissemination in Brazil
“Don’t Say Gay” in Tennessee: Libraries as Virtual Spaces of Resistance and Protectors
of Human Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) People
Reducing the Suicide Risk of LGBTQ Library Users
Public Libraries: Creating Safe Spaces for Homeless LGBTQ Youth
The Rainbow Library at Umeå City Library and The Swedish Network for LGBTQ Issues
at Libraries
Power and community: organizational and cultural LGBT responses against homophobia
and promotion of inclusion values
Information-seeking behaviour of LGBTQ health professionals: New data to inform
inclusive practice
- first session hosted by the SIG at the IFLA World Library and Information Congress, Lyon,
France, August 19, 2014, http://conference.ifla.org/past-wlic/2014//ifla80/node/367.html
• Library Associations – Other National – United States
– American Library Association (ALA)
– “Access to Library Resources and Services Regardless of Sex, Gender
Identity, Gender Expression, or Sexual Orientation,” 1993, 2004, 2008
– “Resolution on Threats to Library Materials Related to Sex, Gender Identity, or
Sexual Orientation” – adopted to counter recent legislative proposals in the United
States that would restrict or prohibit access to materials related to sexual orientation
within publicly-funded libraries, 2005
– “Combating Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination”– “commits its
programs and resources to those efforts that combat prejudice, stereotyping, and
discrimination against individuals and groups in the library profession and in library
user populations on the basis of race, age, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity,
gender expression, creed, color, religious background, national origin, language of
origin or disability.” - B.3.3 of Diversity B.3, ALA Policy Manual, 2013
– American Association of Law Libraries (AALL)
– Standing Committee for Lesbian and Gay Issues – founded in 1985
American Library Association
Access to Library Resources and Services Regardless of
Sex, Gender Identity, Gender Expression, or Sexual
Orientation
The American Library Association stringently and unequivocally maintains that libraries and
librarians have an obligation to resist efforts that systematically exclude materials dealing
with any subject matter, including sex, gender identity, gender expression, or sexual
orientation….
…The Association affirms that books and other materials coming from gay, lesbian, bisexual,
and/or transgendered presses, gay, lesbian, bisexual and/or transgendered authors or other
creators, and materials regardless of format or services dealing with gay, lesbian, bisexual
and/or transgendered life are protected by the Library Bill of Rights. Librarians are obligated
by the Library Bill of Rights to endeavor to select materials without regard to the sex, gender
identity, or sexual orientation of their creators by using the criteria identified in their written,
approved selection policies (ALA policy 53.1.5).
Library services, materials, and programs representing diverse points of view on sex, gender
identity, gender expression, or sexual orientation should be considered for
…cont’d…
Access to Library Resources and Services Regardless of Sex,
Gender Identity, Gender Expression, or Sexual Orientation
…cont’d…
purchase and inclusion in library collections and programs. (ALA policies 53.1.1, 53.1.9, and
53.1.11). The Association affirms that attempts to proscribe or remove materials dealing with
gay, lesbian, bisexual, and/or transgendered life without regard to the written, approved
selection policy violate this tenet and constitute censorship.
Article V of the Library Bill of Rights mandates that library services, materials, and programs
be available to all members of the community the library serves, without regard to sex, gender
identity, gender expression, or sexual orientation. This includes providing youth with
comprehensive sex education literature ( ALA Policy 52.5.2).
The American Library Association holds that any attempt, be it legal or extra-legal, to regulate
or suppress library services, materials, or programs must be resisted in order that protected
expression is not abridged. Librarians have a professional obligation to ensure that all library
users have free and equal access to the entire range of library services, materials, and
programs. Therefore, the Association strongly opposes any effort to limit access to
information and ideas. The Association also encourages librarians to proactively support the
First Amendment rights of all library users, regardless of sex, gender identity, gender
expression, or sexual orientation.
- ALA Council, 1993, 2004, 2008,
www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/librarybill/interpretations/accesslibrary
American Library Association
Resolution on Threats to Library Materials Related to Sex,
Gender Identity, or Sexual Orientation
WHEREAS, some elected officials of federal, state, and local governments have proposed
to restrict or prohibit access to materials related to sexual orientation within their publicly
funded libraries; and...
WHEREAS, "The American Library Association stringently and unequivocally maintains
that libraries and librarians have an obligation to resist efforts that systematically exclude
materials dealing with any subject matter, including sex, gender identity, or sexual
orientation" (Policy 53.1.15, " Access to Library Resources and Services Regardless of Sex,
Gender Identity, or Sexual Orientation"); and
WHEREAS, libraries have an obligation under the Library Bill of Rights to disseminate
information representing all points of view on the topic of gay rights (Policy 54.17, " Gay
Rights"); and
WHEREAS, the American Library Association is committed to combating prejudice,
stereotyping, and discrimination against individuals and groups in library services because
of sexual orientation (Policy 60.2, " Combating Prejudice, Stereotyping, and
Discrimination"); and…
…cont’d…
Resolution on Threats to Library Materials Related to Sex,
Gender Identity, or Sexual Orientation …cont’d…
WHEREAS, the American Library Association recognizes the right and responsibility of
parents to pass on their values by monitoring their child's access to library materials; and…
WHEREAS, the American Library Association affirms the important role of local library boards,
librarians, and library workers as promoters of the American values of inclusiveness,
tolerance, and mutual respect within their communities; now, therefore, be it
RESOLVED, that the American Library Association affirms the inclusion in library collections
of materials that reflect the diversity of our society, including those related to sex, gender
identity, or sexual orientation; and be it further
RESOLVED, that the American Library Association encourages all American Library
Association chapters to take active stands against all legislative or other government attempts
to proscribe materials related to sex, gender identity, or sexual orientation; and be it further
RESOLVED, that the American Library Association encourages all libraries to acquire and
make available materials representative of all the people in our society.
- ALA Council, 2005, www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/statementspols/ifresolutions/threats
• Library Associations – United States – American
Library Association (ALA)
– ALA Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Round Table
(GLBTRT) – founded as the Task Force on Gay Liberation in 1970, with
extensive resources listed at “Professional Tools,” www.ala.org/glbtrt/tools
ALA GLBTRT Resources
The website of the ALA GLBTRT is a unique resource, with a wealth of information on a
wide range of topics, at “Professional Tools,” http://www.ala.org/glbtrt/tools
96
Stonewall Book Awards
GLBTQ Bookstores - map
GLBTQ Libraries and Archives – Map
GLBT News
GLBT Reviews
Bibliography for Gay Teens
GLBT Resources for Children: A
Bibliography
Rainbow Project Book List
Rainbow Book List: LGBTQ Books for
Children and Teen Readers
Resources for Children and Teens
Seeing Myself in the Mirror: An LGBTQ
Literature Annotated Bibliography with
Diverse Characters
Soldier Girls and Dancing Boys: Gender
Exploration in Resources for Children,
Teens, and Caring Adults
Over the Rainbow: A Book List for Adult
Readers
African American LGBT Books Post-2007
An Annotated Bibliography of Books, DVDs,
and Internet Resources on GLBT Latinos
and Latinas
Gay Holocaust
Hate Crimes
Race and Diversity
Nonbinary Gender Identities in Media: An
Annotated Bibliography
ALA GLBTRT Resources (2)
97
Christian Traditions - General Survey of
LGBTQ Christian Experiences 2011-
Christian Traditions - LGBTQ Christian
Memoirs and Biographies 2011-
GLBT Religion and Spirituality - A Selective
Bibliography
LGBT Issues in Religion
LGBTQ Christian Experiences – Protestant
Traditions 2011-
LGBTQ Christian Experiences – Roman
Catholicism 2011-
Same-Sex Marriage: Bibliography; Selected
Resources
Same-Sex Parenting
TRANScending Identities
Best practices for asking questions to
identify transgender and other gender
minority respondents on pop’n surveys
GLBT Controlled Vocabularies and
Classification Schemes
Collection Development Policies
Evaluating the Treatment of Gay Themes in
Books for Children and Younger Adults
Equal Access to Public Restrooms
Gender Neutral Bathrooms in Libraries
Restroom Access for Transgender
Employees
Out in the Library: Materials, Displays and
Services for the GLBT Community
Safe in the Stacks: Community Spaces for
Homeless LGBTQ Youth
Transgender-inclusive Library Card
Applications: Issues and
Recommendations
Gay-Straight Alliance Resources Guide
Speaking OUT Against Bullying
Ways that U.S. Colleges and Universities
Meet the Day-to-Day Needs of Transgender
Students
The American Library Association affirms that all libraries are forums for information
and ideas….
I. Books and other library resources should be provided for the interest, information,
and enlightenment of all people of the community the library serves. Materials should
not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to
their creation.
II. Libraries should provide materials and information presenting all points of view on
current and historical issues. Materials should not be proscribed or removed because
of partisan or doctrinal disapproval.
III. Libraries should challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility to
provide information and enlightenment….
V. A person’s right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin,
age, background, or views.
VI. Libraries which make exhibit spaces and meeting rooms available to the public
they serve should make such facilities available on an equitable basis, regardless of
the beliefs or affiliations of individuals or groups requesting their use.
- ALA Council, 1939, 1944, 1948, 1961, inclusion of “age” reaffirmed 1996, 1967, 1980,
http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/librarybill/
American Library Association
Library Bill of Rights
98
We believe … that what people read is deeply
important; that ideas can be dangerous; but
that the suppression of ideas is fatal to a
democratic society. Freedom itself is a
dangerous way of life, but it is ours.
American Library Association
Freedom to Read Statement
99
- ALA Council and the Association of American Publishers Freedom to Read Committee,
1953, 1972, 1991, 2000, 2004,
www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/statementspols/freedomreadstatement
• Library Associations – national
• Canadian Library Association
– Statement on Intellectual Freedom / Énoncé sur la liberté
intellectuelle, 1985
– Statement on Diversity and Inclusion / Énoncé sur la
diversité et l’inclusion, 2008
Canadian Library Association
Statement on Intellectual Freedom /
Énoncé sur la liberté intellectuelle
All persons in Canada have the fundamental right, as embodied in
the nation's Bill of Rights and the Canadian Charter of Rights and
Freedoms, to have access to all expressions of knowledge, creativity
and intellectual activity, and to express their thoughts publicly. This right
to intellectual freedom, under the law, is essential to the health and
development of Canadian society.
Libraries have a basic responsibility for the development and
maintenance of intellectual freedom.
It is the responsibility of libraries to guarantee and facilitate access
to all expressions of knowledge and intellectual activity, including those
which some elements of society may consider to be unconventional,
unpopular or unacceptable. To this end, libraries shall acquire and make
available the widest variety of materials.
…cont’d… 101
It is the responsibility of libraries to guarantee the right of free
expression by making available all the library's public facilities and
services to all individuals and groups who need them.
Libraries should resist all efforts to limit the exercise of these
responsibilities while recognizing the right of criticism by individuals and
groups.
Both employees and employers in libraries have a duty, in addition to
their institutional responsibilities, to uphold these principles.
102
Statement on Intellectual Freedom /
Énoncé sur la liberté intellectuelle …cont’d…
- CLA Executive Council, 1974, 1983, 1985,
www.cla.ca/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Position_Statements
&Template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=3047
The Canadian Library Association believes that a diverse and pluralistic
society is central to our country’s identity. Libraries have a responsibility to
contribute to a culture that recognizes diversity and fosters social inclusion.
Libraries strive to deliver inclusive service. Canada’s libraries recognize and
energetically affirm the dignity of those they serve, regardless of heritage,
education, beliefs, race, religion, gender, age, sexual orientation, gender
identity, physical or mental capabilities, or income.
Libraries understand that an acceptance of differences can place individual
and collective values in conflict. Libraries are committed to tolerance and
understanding. Libraries act to ensure that people can enjoy services free from
any attempt by others to impose values, customs or beliefs.
Canadian Library Association
Statement on Diversity and Inclusion /
Énoncé sur la diversité et l’inclusion
- CLA Executive Council, May 25, 2008,
http://www.cla.ca/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Position_Statements&Template=/CM/Co
ntentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=4713
• Library Associations – provincial
– British Columbia Library Association – LGBTQ Interest
Group – formed in 2011 as a forum for discussion and an environment
for learning about the needs of the LGBTQ library community and
population at large
- serve as “out” role models for LGBTQ librarians and library workers in BC
and act as a contact for LGBTQ librarians new to the profession or the area
- respond to LGBTQ issues in the library and as appropriate the broader
community as they arise
- host information tables at BC Library Conferences
- share information via our listserv
- sponsor occasional seminars and workshops
- propose conference sessions for the BC Library Conference
- organize social gatherings
- liaise with similar groups in other library associations such as the ALA GLBT
Roundtable and encourage a focus by our national association on such
issues
www.bcla.bc.ca/lgbtq/default.aspx
1) library staff values, beliefs, and service attitudes – uneven
and unpredictable reactions to LGBTQ*-related inquiries and users
2) materials access – limited and outdated LGBTQ* collections
3) subject access – search difficulty in locating LGBTQ* materials
4) Internet access and filtering – prejudicial filtering software that
censors LGBTQ* websites and information
5) reference and research services – no generalizable LGBTQ*-
focused studies
6) library information needs research – very small body of
LGBTQ* research 105
Access Challenges in Meeting
LGBTQ* Library Information Needs
1) Library Staff Values, Beliefs, and
Service Attitudes
Key observations: LGBTQ* interactions with library staff play a
powerful role in helping or hindering the provision of effective
collections and services to LGBTQ* minorities, and in shaping
perceptions of library inclusivity and effectiveness.
Unfortunately, staff attitudes are variable and unpredictable
across libraries and even within libraries, informed by personal
beliefs, professional values, general service attitudes, and
institutional policies and practices.
Staff beliefs, values, and attitudes represent a continuum from
the very negative to the very positive – from outright homophobia and
disrespect for library user confidentiality and privacy (with user fear of being
outed), to indifference and tokenism, to positive support, promotion, and
advocacy.
Library Staff Training
In addition to library policies and strategies for supporting
LGBTQ* minorities, systematic staff training and regular
workshops about library service values and expectations are
essential.
Such education is needed not only for an understanding of
LGBTQ* communities in meeting their wide-ranging library
information needs, but as well for awareness and
appreciation of broader library core values of intellectual
freedom and access – for, in a nutshell, and concurrently, LGBTQ*
cultural competency, professional socialization, and institutional
mission.
Many LGBTQ* youth and adults have turned to libraries to
discover more about their identity and reality. Allies too.
ALA Gay and Lesbian Task Force banner,
1992 San Francisco Gay Pride Parade
Almost 25 years ago ...
American Libraries received several
homophobic letters from the library
community condemning this
photograph on the cover of its
July/August 1992 issue, but there
were also some supportive letters
and editorials critical of the
hostility.
“The point is clear: librarianship is
not an especially welcoming place
to gays and lesbians.”
- “A Lesbigay Gender Perplex: Sexual
Stereotyping and Professional Ambiguity in
Librarianship,” by Christine L. Williams. In James
V. Carmichael, Jr., ed., Daring to Find Our Names,
McFarland, 1998, p. 38.
108
Why our library doesn’t have LGBTQ*-related materials…
• My library doesn’t cater to specialized needs.
• Only heterosexuals live in the area my library serves.
• Lesbians, gay men, etc., don’t seem to use my library.
• It’s too difficult to identify worthwhile LGBTQ* materials.
• I don’t feel qualified to order these materials.
• Can’t people just use the Internet or interlibrary loan to get these materials instead
of me having to buy them?
• Buying LGBTQ* materials would be promoting gender or sexual nonconformity.
• I’m personally uncomfortable with exposing myself to what some of these
materials describe.
• That stuff doesn’t belong in my library.
• I don’t approve of people who don’t conform to conventional behaviors or
reading/listening/viewing interests.
• My library can’t afford these materials.
• Buying materials for these library users endorses the way these people live.
…cont’d…
• I don’t approve of homosexuality or of homosexuals.
• Young library users aren’t searching for gay and lesbian materials.
• Aren’t most of those materials too technical for most libraries?
• My library’s vendor doesn’t handle those items.
• It’s too difficult to find reviews of these materials. How can I tell what’s worthless
and what’s worthwhile? And those materials require ordering form special vendors.
• The library’s books about AIDS adequately address the information needs of its
gay and lesbian patrons.
• We don’t need special booklists or indexes; gays and lesbians can use the
catalogue and periodical indexes like anyone else.
• We simply haven’t yet found the time to devote attention to covering this particular
subject area.
Why our library doesn’t have …cont’d…
- “Barriers to Selecting Materials about Sexual and Gender Diversity,” by Cal Gough and Ellen Greenblatt.
In E. Greenblatt, ed. Serving LGBTIQ Library and Archives Users: Essays on Outreach, Service,
Collections and Access, 2011, pp. 165-173.
An earlier version appeared in Gay and Lesbian Library Service,
eds. Cal Gough and Ellen Greenblatt (1990).
111
The Transformative Power of
Principled and Knowledgeable
Library Staff to Help Save
LGBTQ* Lives
“A life-altering library experience…”
• Libraries are so often how we learn about
who we are – not family, etc.
• My feelings sent me to the “symbolic world
of language” in the library.
• That sent me back to feelings, and to
people. And then to more books.
• It was a life-altering experience to learn of
the category “lesbian” in the library – and
not only that, lesbian was a library subject
heading!
• “We will never know how many have found
validation on the shelves of libraries and in
LCSH.”
- paraphrasing Alison Bechdel’s acceptance speech at the 2007 Stonewall Book Awards for Fun Home,
American Library Association Annual Conference, 2007
“Looking for myself in the word”
I went to the library to look for myself in the word….
I was disappointed because I thought I would
always be able to find myself in the library, because
everything is in the library, everything…. Librarians
have individual power. The librarian watches and
sees and guides.
– paraphrasing Jewelle Gomez in “Reaching Out: Library Services for Lesbian, Gay,
Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth,” a film/DVD by Lynne Barnes, 2004
114
As a new teen librarian in a small town, I was invited to speak with the Gay
Straight Alliance to talk about some of the great books available for teens
looking beyond the hetero relationship viewpoint. They were seeking
alternative perspectives, answers, solidarity. Many of the students had never
met another gay person or told friends or family.
They shared experiences browsing the stacks or searching the online
catalog, not knowing how to begin and not finding what they wanted, nor not
feeling comfortable approaching a librarian. I was thrilled I could provide a
service to fill this need. First it started with a bookmark, then a booklist on
the library website's readers' advisory page linking directly to the catalog
with book descriptions, availability, and the hold option.
For years, this method worked great until all the books listed on the website
were challenged by the larger community. And consequently the kids felt
challenged.
… cont’d…
“Thanks to the resources I had as a teen…”
115
“Geography Club” was just one of the many books that underwent public
scrutiny by censors in our town. Cries of pornography and deviance
sounded in public meetings.
In our case, the students rallied together and found support from others in
the community, and these words made them stronger. But this is not always
the situation. Sometimes the words stick. Sometimes the books are
removed. Sometimes the kids are shamed.
I still keep in touch with a few of the students who were active in the GSA
during the 2009 book challenge. I've asked them how it affected them five
years later, and one wrote back:
I was able to go into college with high self-esteem and confidence to
enter into same-sex relationships. I had already gone through the
process of coming out and finding out what being LGBTQ meant for me.
… cont’d…
“Thanks to the resources I had as a teen…” …cont’d…
116
Thanks to those books and those who were part of my life in high school, I
came to college with a strong sense of identity. I got to focus
on college, unlike some of my peers who had to find their sexual identity and
research what that meant for them in college at the same time as trying to
survive freshman classes. I can't tell you how many girls I had to teach about
female condoms my freshman year or books that would help them try to
come out to their families. I am very grateful for the resources I had as a teen.
Every day more and more authors and publishers are providing books for students
who feel like the minority. Teens by definition are discovering who they are. And I
consider myself a successful librarian if they are turning to books to figure
themselves out. I want books with every single perspective and character jammed
onto the shelves of libraries. I want every single different kind of kid -- deaf, left-
handed or gay -- to find themselves staring back from the pages of a book.
- paraphrasing “Why Gay Characters Matter,” by Kristin Pekoll, HuffPost
Gay Voices, 22 September 2014, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kristin-
pekoll/why-gay-characters-matter_b_5851516.html?utm_hp_ref=gay-
voices&ir=Gay+Voices
“Thanks to the resources I had as a teen…” …cont’d…
117
Libraries are powerful places. One of my most memorable
experiences that speaks to the importance of libraries was when one of the
student shared a completely unexpected and heartfelt story of
transformation and empowerment.
She was a first year student from a rural area, new to the city and this
big campus. She came to the library and through serendipity and chance
discovery by browsing the shelves she discovered the books on
lesbianism and sexuality. It was a revelation for her. She had never read
about herself in this way before. Never realized she was not alone or
different. Never knew that her sexuality was normal. It was such a matter-
of-fact telling of such a transformative moment in this woman’s life.
I think of the story often. It reminds me our work is so much more than
all the things we do day to day. To even be able to create a space for this
kind of life-changing moment to happen for even one person is amazing.”
– paraphrasing Carol Shepstone, formerly librarian at the
University of Saskatchewan Library, TAL Tales, May 2011
“A story of transformation and empowerment …
“Our presence created beneficial networking opportunities
…We are glad to provide LGBTQ resources and support …”
118
In 2010, we noticed more calls from the public re LGBTQ activities so I
became a point of contact. SPL connections and outreach activities to the
LGBTQ community have grown and continue to develop.
Surrey Pride invited us to have a presence at the 2012 Pride Festival
and two librarians participated and will continue to be part of this essential
event, with a branch technician added to staffing at the table. We offered a
prize draw for guessing the number of jelly beans in a mason jar – a
surprisingly successful event that brought a lot more people and attention
to our table. The jelly bean prize draw will become a regular feature.
Our presence has also created some beneficial networking
opportunities with the various local LGBTQ organizations, e.g., we learned
of “Our City of Colours,” which raises visibility of LGBTQ+ issues in
diverse communities, and we distributed to all branches their series of
excellent posters.
- cont’d…
Our presence … - cont’d…
119
I also discovered and connected with staff from HIM, a health initiative
for gay men, which will supply us with print information for distribution as
needed.
Further we have created LGBTQ booklists that we update frequently for
use at the Festival, online and in the branches for adults, teens and
children.
We are glad to provide resources and support the LGBTQ community
through current efforts, and look forward to the future as new
opportunities arise.
- paraphrasing Laurie J. Cooke, Manager, Fleetwood and
Cloverdale Branches, Surrey Public Library, 2014
120
An interesting tidbit that says a lot about serving the public. Lots of
people take our LGBTQ* reading lists, but this summer we had two
people ask to speak to a supervisor about the Pride list.
The first person said that they objected to our use of the phrase
Gay Pride on the cover of the list, as they said it is not inclusive
enough, and doesn’t reflect the diversity in the LGBTQ* community.
The second person also asked to speak to a supervisor, and they
objected to our inclusion of a photo of a transgendered person on the
list, as, according to them, “they are tired of the Gay community having
to include every sexual difference.”
We took both comments as wins, of course, and were thrilled that
people were concerned enough to talk to us about it!!
- paraphrasing, Julie Spurrell, Chief Librarian,
Westminster Public Library, 2014
“We are thrilled that people are concerned
enough to talk to us!”
There’s something in my library
to offend everybody.
- t-shirt, British Columbia Library Association
Intellectual Freedom Committee
Core Professional Values
Many of my personal values come from the fact that I am a
librarian.
We are the only profession whose value to society resides in a
faith that people have the ability to make personal decisions that
are good for them when – and if – they also have free and open
access to all of the information that they might need.
Our belief in the ability of people to form their own opinions
trumps everything that we might personally think. This, to me,
makes us remarkable.
122
- paraphrasing Ken Roberts, “Keeping True to the Faith: Incoming
CLA President Ken Roberts’ Inaugural Address,” Vancouver, BC,
May 28, 2008, Feliciter 54.4, 2008:144-145
2) Materials Access
Materials Availability and “Checklist” Analysis Studies
Key observations: LGBTQ* titles are underrepresented in
Canadian school and public library collections, with wide
variation across libraries.
Only a few large urban public libraries having adequate
resources, and even among them LGBTQ* coverage differs
substantially. Self-censorship is indicated, but hard to
corroborate.
123
LGBTQ Fiction for Teens in
Canadian Urban Public Libraries
LGBTQ Teen Titles
Number (/35) Percent
Edmonton 32 91%
Vancouver 32 91%
Toronto 30 86
Ottawa 28 80
Saskatoon 28 80
Halifax 23 66
Regina 22 63
Winnipeg 22 63
Victoria 21 60
- “Recent Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender Fiction for Teens: Are Canadian Public Libraries
Providing Adequate Collections?” by Michele Hilton Boon and Vivian Howard. Collection
Building, 23.3 (2004): 133–138.
LGBTQ* Fiction for Teens and Children in
Alberta Public Libraries
LGBTQ Teen and Children’s Titles
Number (/52) Percent
Edmonton 38 73%
Calgary 38 73
Grande Prairie 34 65
8 other urban centres 26 50
- “‘I thought I’d find myself at the library’: LGBTQ services and collections in public and
school libraries,” by Alvin M. Schrader. PNLA Quarterly 72.1 (2007): 4-9,
pnla.org/quarterly/Fall2007/PNLA_Fall07.pdf
LGBTQ* Fiction for Teens and Children in
Alberta Public Libraries
• True Believer (63 libraries = 60%*)
• Bad Boy (58 = 55%)
• Touch of the Clown (53 = 50%)
• The Game (44 = 42%)
• The Misfits (31 = 30%)
• Postcards from No Man’s Land (31 = 30%)
• The Perks of Being a Wallflower (30 = 29%)
* n=105 libraries serving 1,200+ populations
- “‘I thought I’d find myself at the library’: LGBTQ services and collections in public and
school libraries,” by Alvin M. Schrader. PNLA Quarterly 72.1 (2007): 4-9,
pnla.org/quarterly/Fall2007/PNLA_Fall07.pdf
LGBTQ* Titles Challenged in
Canadian Libraries, 2006-2014
• Daddy's Roommate, picture book
• And Tango Makes Three, picture book
• King and King, picture book
• My Princess Boy, picture book
• The Sissy Duckling, picture book
• Uncle Bobby's Wedding, picture book
• Hard and Fast, adult short stories
• How Evan Broke His Head and Other
Secrets, adult
• Snowbound in Nowhere, adult e-book
• Coming Out of Homosexuality: New
Freedom for Men and Women, adult non-
fiction
• Xtra! news magazines
- “CLA Annual Survey of Challenges,” Canadian Library Association,
cla.ca/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Resources&Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=14046
• Coming Out of Homosexuality: New
Freedom for Men and Women, adult non-
fiction
• Xtra! news magazines
• “Angels in America,” video
• “Brazil,” video
• “Brüno,” video
• “The Girl Who Played with Fire,” video
• “I Love You Phillip Morris,” video
• “Killer Joe,” video
• “A Single Man,” video
• Donovan’s Big Day, picture book
- Unshelved, July 18, 2009
and in the U.S….
128
LGBTQ* Titles Challenged in
U.S. Libraries and Classrooms, 2001-2014
Since 2001 as many as three LGBTQ*-themed titles were challenged annually among
the top 10 titles reported, except for 2001 and 2013
• The Perks of Being a Wallflower, YA novel
[2014, 2013, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2004]
• And Tango Makes Three, picture book [2014,
2012, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006]
• The Kite Runner, adult novel [2012]
• Revolutionary Voices, adult non-fiction
[2010]
• My Sister’s Keeper, adult novel [2009]
• Uncle Bobby's Wedding, picture book [2008]
• The Color Purple, adult novel [2007]
- The State of America’s Libraries 2015: A Report from the American Library Association, ed. Kathy Rosa.
American Library Association, 2015, http://www.ala.org/news/state-americas-libraries-report-2015
“Frequently challenged books of the 21st century” [2001-2013], American Library Association,
http://www.ala.org/bbooks/frequentlychallengedbooks/top10
• Gossip Girls (series), YA novels [2003]
• Athletic Shorts: Six Short Stories, YA
novel [2006]
• It’s Perfectly Normal: Changing Bodies,
Growing Up, Sex, and Sexual Health,
children’s non-fiction [2005, 2003]
• King & King, picture book [2004]
• I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, adult
novel [2004]
• Alice (series), YA novels [2002]
80
3) Subject Access
Key observations: Cultural bias and structural discrimination
in library resource description, e.g., Library of Congress
Subject Headings, is a ubiquitous historical problem, reflecting
mainstream Euro-American, white, male, Christian,
heteronormative, and other 18th and 19th century norms,
values, prejudices, bigotries, intolerances, and biases.
The words we use to define and express ourselves are the
foundations of cultural and social and political identity. When
those words are organized – classified – into a system for
showing relationships among the terms, they become even
more important to group and individual identity.
Values and hence identity are at the base of all classificatory
systems.
130
Subject access and organization of information
about LGBTQ* minorities in
library classification systems in the
1960s and 1970s
What I encountered in my MLS program in
1973….
131
Sexual perversion (HQ71-78)
sa Exhibitionism
Homosexuality
Lesbianism
Nymphomania
Sadism
Sex crimes
Transvestism
x Perversion, Sexual
Sex perversion
xx Sex crimes
Sodomy
sa Trials (Sodomy)
x Bestiality
Pederasty
xx Homosexuality
Sex crimes
Library of Congress Subject Headings, 7th ed. 1966
Homosexuality (Direct) (Medical
jurisprudence, RA1141; Neuropsychiatry,
RC558; Social pathology, HQ76
Works on the criminal manifestation of
homosexuality are entered under the
heading Sodomy.
sa Bisexuality
Lesbianism
Sodomy
xx Sexual perversion
Bisexuality
xx Hermaphroditism
Homosexuality
Sex (Psychology)
Lesbianism (Direct) (HQ73)
x Lesbian love
xx Homosexuality
Sexual perversion 132
Dewey Subject Headings, 1970
301. Sociology
301.415 7-301.415 8 Abnormal sexual relations
Class comprehensive works in 301.45
.415 7 Homosexuality
.415 8 Other abnormal sexual relations
Incest, bestiality, sadism, masochism
Sears List of Subject Headings, 9th ed., 1965
Homosexuality and lesbianism entirely invisible –
no subject access at all.
133
Sanford Berman’s groundbreaking Prejudices and
Antipathies (1971) revealed systemic discrimination in
LCSH against minorities and marginalized groups –
discrimination that was, variously, homophobic, sexist,
racist, obsolete, and misleading.
Berman’s research stimulated a growing literature on
the cultural construction of knowledge organization
systems.
- See “The Treatment of LGBTIQ Concepts in the Library of Congress Subject Headings,”
by Ellen Greenblatt in Serving LGBTIQ Library and Archives Users (2011);
“Inflexible Bodies” by K.R. Roberto, Journal of Information Ethics 20.2 (Fall 2011): 56-64;
“A Hidden History of Queer Subject Access,” by Matt Johnson in Radical Cataloging:
Essays at the Front, ed. K.R. Roberto, McFarland (2008): 18-27.
134
Discriminatory Subject Access
‘Gays’ as an umbrella term in LCSH
was not sanctioned to replace the
medically-charged descriptor
‘homosexuality’ until 1987.
‘Lesbians’ as a grouping is still
subsumed under ‘gays’.
135
In addition to structural bias, access to LGBTQ*-related titles in
libraries is impeded by wide variations in the helpfulness (specificity
and relevance) of subject headings that are used in catalogue
records.
Hit and miss subject headings – Half or fewer of LGBTQ* fiction
titles have relevant subject headings, and half of those use the
culturally-charged (medical) terms ‘homosexuality’ or
‘homosexuality – juvenile literature’.
Vague and unreliable subject access hinders discovery of the
breadth and the depth of LGBTQ*-related materials in library
collections.
Another barrier to subject access is the deliberate relocation –
misclassification – of materials intended for children and youth into
higher age levels or in a “parents’ collection.”
136
Flawed and Inadequate Subject Access
Subject Access: Subject Headings reflecting
LGBTQ* Content
Bisexuality – Fiction
Gay teenagers – Juvenile Fiction
Gay men – Fiction
Gay Parents – Fiction
Gay youth – New York (State) – New
York – Fiction
Homosexuality – Fiction
Homosexuality – Juvenile Fiction
Lesbians – Fiction
Lesbians – Juvenile Fiction
Lesbianism – Fiction
Lesbianism – Juvenile Fiction
- “‘I thought I’d find myself at the library’: LGBTQ services and collections in public and
school libraries,” by Alvin M. Schrader. PNLA Quarterly 72.1 (2007): 4-9.
pnla.org/quarterly/Fall2007/PNLA_Fall07.pdf
Subject Access: Subject Headings not reflecting
LGBTQ Content
Coming of Age – Fiction
Conduct of life – Fiction
Emotions – Fiction
Erotic Stories
Friendship – Fiction
High Schools – Fiction
Identity – Fiction
Interpersonal Relationships –
Fiction
Love Stories
Schools – Juvenile Fiction
Self-Realization – Fiction
Sex – Fiction
Teenage Boys -- Fiction
- “‘I thought I’d find myself at the library’: LGBTQ services and collections in public and
school libraries,” by Alvin M. Schrader. PNLA Quarterly 72.1 (2007): 4-9.
pnla.org/quarterly/Fall2007/PNLA_Fall07.pdf
89
Subject Access to Teen Fiction reflecting
LGBTQ* Content, EPL Catalogue
• Almost half of the LGBTQ* titles used the subject
heading ‘homosexuality – juvenile literature’ (52 of 119,
or 44%)
• 21 different LGBTQ* subject headings were used for
92 titles
• 1 out of 4 LGBTQ* titles had no LGBTQ* subject
access (27 of 119, or 23%)
- personal communication, Lindy Pratch, Edmonton Public Library, 2009
4) Internet Access and Filtering
Key observations: Radical inconsistency describes filtering practices
among libraries, in general. Substandard Internet access is the filtering norm for
poor and rural areas, which disproportionately impacts LGBTQ* students (and
adults).
Filtering regimes by agenda-driven vendors deliberately prevent access to
information and websites about LGBTQ* minorities. Internet filters censor
access, silence LGBTQ* voices, render them digitally invisible, and perpetuate
LGBTQ*-phobia.
The most vulnerable LGBTQ* adolescents are the very young those living in
poverty, those living in rural areas, and those everywhere living in homophobic
families.
Discriminatory access to the Internet solely through filters at school and in
libraries is dangerous to the mental, spiritual, and physical health and well-
being of LGBTQ* youth. Viewpoint discrimination harms young people and
especially LGBTQ* minorities and allies – the Internet is their critical source of
information in the 21st century. 140
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare
Nowhere to turn   part 1 - 2015 - slideshare

More Related Content

What's hot

A comparison of LGBT rights globally and in India
A comparison of LGBT rights globally and in IndiaA comparison of LGBT rights globally and in India
A comparison of LGBT rights globally and in India
Centre for Public Policy Research
 
LGBT RIGHTS
LGBT RIGHTSLGBT RIGHTS
LGBT RIGHTS
Poulami Dasgupta
 
Lgbt final
Lgbt finalLgbt final
Lgbt final
Sherilynnhunt
 
homosexuality-in-india-sociological-perspective
homosexuality-in-india-sociological-perspectivehomosexuality-in-india-sociological-perspective
homosexuality-in-india-sociological-perspective
Anjali Verma
 
PassingTheTorch08
PassingTheTorch08PassingTheTorch08
PassingTheTorch08
Roberto Bonaccorso
 
Colorblind' Admissions Proccess in Universities
Colorblind' Admissions Proccess in Universities Colorblind' Admissions Proccess in Universities
Colorblind' Admissions Proccess in Universities
KristopherKeach
 
Women and LGBT Rights Webinar
Women and LGBT Rights WebinarWomen and LGBT Rights Webinar
Women and LGBT Rights Webinar
AIUSA_Youth
 
Pen or pencil slides
Pen or pencil slidesPen or pencil slides
Pen or pencil slides
Jagjit Kaur
 
Mass incarceration and the cradle to prison pipeline
Mass incarceration and the cradle to prison pipelineMass incarceration and the cradle to prison pipeline
Mass incarceration and the cradle to prison pipeline
Terri Stewart
 
Decriminalisation of Section 377 of IPC, 1860
Decriminalisation of Section 377 of IPC, 1860 Decriminalisation of Section 377 of IPC, 1860
Decriminalisation of Section 377 of IPC, 1860
Swasti Chaturvedi
 
Gay Rights
Gay  RightsGay  Rights
Gay Rights
johnnychang2010
 
Lexi's Gay Relationships PowerPoint
Lexi's Gay Relationships PowerPointLexi's Gay Relationships PowerPoint
Lexi's Gay Relationships PowerPoint
nailtech444
 
social work with LGBT
social work with LGBTsocial work with LGBT
social work with LGBT
AbubakkarSidhiqSa
 
Gay Marriage: An ESLR Presentation
Gay Marriage: An ESLR PresentationGay Marriage: An ESLR Presentation
Gay Marriage: An ESLR Presentation
thatotherliam
 
Same Sex Marriage in thePhilippines
Same Sex Marriage in thePhilippinesSame Sex Marriage in thePhilippines
Same Sex Marriage in thePhilippines
iamnotangelica
 
Affirmative action perspectives documents
Affirmative action perspectives documentsAffirmative action perspectives documents
Affirmative action perspectives documents
Shelby Jones
 
Homosexuality
HomosexualityHomosexuality
Homosexuality
Monyna Vergara
 
Against Adoption of Homosexuality and For Defending the Institution of Family...
Against Adoption of Homosexuality and For Defending the Institution of Family...Against Adoption of Homosexuality and For Defending the Institution of Family...
Against Adoption of Homosexuality and For Defending the Institution of Family...
Center for Ecological Audit,Social Inclusion and Governance
 
Vogel_04-20-12
Vogel_04-20-12Vogel_04-20-12
Vogel_04-20-12
Pamela Vogel
 
Prof.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 16-education
Prof.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 16-educationProf.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 16-education
Prof.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 16-education
Prof. Dr. Halit Hami Öz
 

What's hot (20)

A comparison of LGBT rights globally and in India
A comparison of LGBT rights globally and in IndiaA comparison of LGBT rights globally and in India
A comparison of LGBT rights globally and in India
 
LGBT RIGHTS
LGBT RIGHTSLGBT RIGHTS
LGBT RIGHTS
 
Lgbt final
Lgbt finalLgbt final
Lgbt final
 
homosexuality-in-india-sociological-perspective
homosexuality-in-india-sociological-perspectivehomosexuality-in-india-sociological-perspective
homosexuality-in-india-sociological-perspective
 
PassingTheTorch08
PassingTheTorch08PassingTheTorch08
PassingTheTorch08
 
Colorblind' Admissions Proccess in Universities
Colorblind' Admissions Proccess in Universities Colorblind' Admissions Proccess in Universities
Colorblind' Admissions Proccess in Universities
 
Women and LGBT Rights Webinar
Women and LGBT Rights WebinarWomen and LGBT Rights Webinar
Women and LGBT Rights Webinar
 
Pen or pencil slides
Pen or pencil slidesPen or pencil slides
Pen or pencil slides
 
Mass incarceration and the cradle to prison pipeline
Mass incarceration and the cradle to prison pipelineMass incarceration and the cradle to prison pipeline
Mass incarceration and the cradle to prison pipeline
 
Decriminalisation of Section 377 of IPC, 1860
Decriminalisation of Section 377 of IPC, 1860 Decriminalisation of Section 377 of IPC, 1860
Decriminalisation of Section 377 of IPC, 1860
 
Gay Rights
Gay  RightsGay  Rights
Gay Rights
 
Lexi's Gay Relationships PowerPoint
Lexi's Gay Relationships PowerPointLexi's Gay Relationships PowerPoint
Lexi's Gay Relationships PowerPoint
 
social work with LGBT
social work with LGBTsocial work with LGBT
social work with LGBT
 
Gay Marriage: An ESLR Presentation
Gay Marriage: An ESLR PresentationGay Marriage: An ESLR Presentation
Gay Marriage: An ESLR Presentation
 
Same Sex Marriage in thePhilippines
Same Sex Marriage in thePhilippinesSame Sex Marriage in thePhilippines
Same Sex Marriage in thePhilippines
 
Affirmative action perspectives documents
Affirmative action perspectives documentsAffirmative action perspectives documents
Affirmative action perspectives documents
 
Homosexuality
HomosexualityHomosexuality
Homosexuality
 
Against Adoption of Homosexuality and For Defending the Institution of Family...
Against Adoption of Homosexuality and For Defending the Institution of Family...Against Adoption of Homosexuality and For Defending the Institution of Family...
Against Adoption of Homosexuality and For Defending the Institution of Family...
 
Vogel_04-20-12
Vogel_04-20-12Vogel_04-20-12
Vogel_04-20-12
 
Prof.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 16-education
Prof.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 16-educationProf.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 16-education
Prof.dr. halit hami öz sociology-chapter 16-education
 

Similar to Nowhere to turn part 1 - 2015 - slideshare

LIS590SJL: Social Justice in Information Professions: Catching Up to the Present
LIS590SJL: Social Justice in Information Professions: Catching Up to the PresentLIS590SJL: Social Justice in Information Professions: Catching Up to the Present
LIS590SJL: Social Justice in Information Professions: Catching Up to the Present
Melissa Cardenas-Dow
 
Intellectual Freedom Fin
Intellectual Freedom FinIntellectual Freedom Fin
Intellectual Freedom Fin
melinda livas
 
CRC Link May 2014
CRC Link May 2014CRC Link May 2014
CRC Link May 2014
Melissa Baker
 
Helping The Homeless
Helping The HomelessHelping The Homeless
Helping The Homeless
LHPeaden
 
Remembering the Pink Triangle by Dr. Lisa Van Zwoll
Remembering the Pink Triangle by Dr. Lisa Van ZwollRemembering the Pink Triangle by Dr. Lisa Van Zwoll
Remembering the Pink Triangle by Dr. Lisa Van Zwoll
Lisa Van Zwoll
 
Lgbtq fina lppt
Lgbtq fina lpptLgbtq fina lppt
Lgbtq fina lppt
HannahMarcoplos
 
LGBT History: Laws and Court Cases
LGBT History: Laws and Court CasesLGBT History: Laws and Court Cases
LGBT History: Laws and Court Cases
Rob Darrow
 
FAIR Act and Supporting LGBT Youth
FAIR Act and Supporting LGBT YouthFAIR Act and Supporting LGBT Youth
FAIR Act and Supporting LGBT Youth
Rob Darrow
 
Understanding Global Diversity 2024 Greg DeShields.pptx
Understanding Global Diversity 2024 Greg DeShields.pptxUnderstanding Global Diversity 2024 Greg DeShields.pptx
Understanding Global Diversity 2024 Greg DeShields.pptx
Gregory DeShields
 
Youth Justice Coalition: Decarceration and Community Reinvestment
Youth Justice Coalition: Decarceration and Community ReinvestmentYouth Justice Coalition: Decarceration and Community Reinvestment
Youth Justice Coalition: Decarceration and Community Reinvestment
Kim McGill
 
Embracing yourselffinal
Embracing yourselffinalEmbracing yourselffinal
Embracing yourselffinal
guest0c0b0
 
Recognition of LGBT in the international sphere, Dr Miriam Estrada
Recognition of LGBT in the international sphere, Dr Miriam EstradaRecognition of LGBT in the international sphere, Dr Miriam Estrada
Recognition of LGBT in the international sphere, Dr Miriam Estrada
Jus Humanis
 
GLBTQ patrons still matter (April 2012)
GLBTQ patrons still matter (April 2012)GLBTQ patrons still matter (April 2012)
GLBTQ patrons still matter (April 2012)
Liesl Seborg
 
British Media Reporting in response to the British government's Counter-Extre...
British Media Reporting in response to the British government's Counter-Extre...British Media Reporting in response to the British government's Counter-Extre...
British Media Reporting in response to the British government's Counter-Extre...
Carys Moseley
 
LGTB COMMUNITY' HUMAN RIGHTS ANALYSIS
LGTB COMMUNITY' HUMAN RIGHTS ANALYSISLGTB COMMUNITY' HUMAN RIGHTS ANALYSIS
LGTB COMMUNITY' HUMAN RIGHTS ANALYSIS
Dr Miriam Estrada-Castillo
 
Scottish Gypsy Travellers: the last bastion of respectable racism? S32
Scottish Gypsy Travellers: the last bastion of respectable racism? S32Scottish Gypsy Travellers: the last bastion of respectable racism? S32
Scottish Gypsy Travellers: the last bastion of respectable racism? S32
Sophie40
 
Oif faife religion
Oif faife religionOif faife religion
Oif faife religion
angelamaycock
 
Fair Policing For All
Fair Policing For AllFair Policing For All
Fair Policing For All
TalkingTransitionSlides
 
Fair Policing
Fair PolicingFair Policing
Discussion Personal and Professional Social Work ValuesHeterose.docx
Discussion Personal and Professional Social Work ValuesHeterose.docxDiscussion Personal and Professional Social Work ValuesHeterose.docx
Discussion Personal and Professional Social Work ValuesHeterose.docx
duketjoy27252
 

Similar to Nowhere to turn part 1 - 2015 - slideshare (20)

LIS590SJL: Social Justice in Information Professions: Catching Up to the Present
LIS590SJL: Social Justice in Information Professions: Catching Up to the PresentLIS590SJL: Social Justice in Information Professions: Catching Up to the Present
LIS590SJL: Social Justice in Information Professions: Catching Up to the Present
 
Intellectual Freedom Fin
Intellectual Freedom FinIntellectual Freedom Fin
Intellectual Freedom Fin
 
CRC Link May 2014
CRC Link May 2014CRC Link May 2014
CRC Link May 2014
 
Helping The Homeless
Helping The HomelessHelping The Homeless
Helping The Homeless
 
Remembering the Pink Triangle by Dr. Lisa Van Zwoll
Remembering the Pink Triangle by Dr. Lisa Van ZwollRemembering the Pink Triangle by Dr. Lisa Van Zwoll
Remembering the Pink Triangle by Dr. Lisa Van Zwoll
 
Lgbtq fina lppt
Lgbtq fina lpptLgbtq fina lppt
Lgbtq fina lppt
 
LGBT History: Laws and Court Cases
LGBT History: Laws and Court CasesLGBT History: Laws and Court Cases
LGBT History: Laws and Court Cases
 
FAIR Act and Supporting LGBT Youth
FAIR Act and Supporting LGBT YouthFAIR Act and Supporting LGBT Youth
FAIR Act and Supporting LGBT Youth
 
Understanding Global Diversity 2024 Greg DeShields.pptx
Understanding Global Diversity 2024 Greg DeShields.pptxUnderstanding Global Diversity 2024 Greg DeShields.pptx
Understanding Global Diversity 2024 Greg DeShields.pptx
 
Youth Justice Coalition: Decarceration and Community Reinvestment
Youth Justice Coalition: Decarceration and Community ReinvestmentYouth Justice Coalition: Decarceration and Community Reinvestment
Youth Justice Coalition: Decarceration and Community Reinvestment
 
Embracing yourselffinal
Embracing yourselffinalEmbracing yourselffinal
Embracing yourselffinal
 
Recognition of LGBT in the international sphere, Dr Miriam Estrada
Recognition of LGBT in the international sphere, Dr Miriam EstradaRecognition of LGBT in the international sphere, Dr Miriam Estrada
Recognition of LGBT in the international sphere, Dr Miriam Estrada
 
GLBTQ patrons still matter (April 2012)
GLBTQ patrons still matter (April 2012)GLBTQ patrons still matter (April 2012)
GLBTQ patrons still matter (April 2012)
 
British Media Reporting in response to the British government's Counter-Extre...
British Media Reporting in response to the British government's Counter-Extre...British Media Reporting in response to the British government's Counter-Extre...
British Media Reporting in response to the British government's Counter-Extre...
 
LGTB COMMUNITY' HUMAN RIGHTS ANALYSIS
LGTB COMMUNITY' HUMAN RIGHTS ANALYSISLGTB COMMUNITY' HUMAN RIGHTS ANALYSIS
LGTB COMMUNITY' HUMAN RIGHTS ANALYSIS
 
Scottish Gypsy Travellers: the last bastion of respectable racism? S32
Scottish Gypsy Travellers: the last bastion of respectable racism? S32Scottish Gypsy Travellers: the last bastion of respectable racism? S32
Scottish Gypsy Travellers: the last bastion of respectable racism? S32
 
Oif faife religion
Oif faife religionOif faife religion
Oif faife religion
 
Fair Policing For All
Fair Policing For AllFair Policing For All
Fair Policing For All
 
Fair Policing
Fair PolicingFair Policing
Fair Policing
 
Discussion Personal and Professional Social Work ValuesHeterose.docx
Discussion Personal and Professional Social Work ValuesHeterose.docxDiscussion Personal and Professional Social Work ValuesHeterose.docx
Discussion Personal and Professional Social Work ValuesHeterose.docx
 

Recently uploaded

How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdfREASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
giancarloi8888
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
nitinpv4ai
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
TechSoup
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
haiqairshad
 
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
RidwanHassanYusuf
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Denish Jangid
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
Mohammad Al-Dhahabi
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
RamseyBerglund
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
zuzanka
 
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
ImMuslim
 
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
IsmaelVazquez38
 
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsxData Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Prof. Dr. K. Adisesha
 
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
iammrhaywood
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
EduSkills OECD
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
GeorgeMilliken2
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
سمير بسيوني
 
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.pptLevel 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Henry Hollis
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
 
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdfREASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
 
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
 
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
 
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
 
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsxData Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
 
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
 
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
 
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.pptLevel 3 NCEA - NZ: A  Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
Level 3 NCEA - NZ: A Nation In the Making 1872 - 1900 SML.ppt
 

Nowhere to turn part 1 - 2015 - slideshare

  • 1. “Nowhere to Turn, Nowhere to Go” Inclusive Library Services for LGBTQ* Minorities Part 1: Library Service and Collection Policies and Strategies Alvin M. Schrader, PhD Professor Emeritus, University of Alberta, and Adjunct Professor, iSMSS
  • 2. ~ email me at alvin.schrader@ualberta.ca with suggested corrections and additions This version has been expanded to incorporate recent research and professional events. It is divided into two separate SlideShare files: 1. Library Service and Collection Policies and Strategies for Supporting LGBTQ* Communities 2. Being a More Visible Support for LGBTQ* Communities – What Some Canadian Libraries are Doing to Promote LGBTQ* Services, Inclusivity, and Community Engagement Based on a presentation to the MLIS Course LIS 541 “LIS Services in Culturally Diverse Society,” School of Library and Information Studies, University of Alberta (Sept. 15, 2014), and revised from Slideshare Sept. 27, 2013 upload
  • 3. This work is dedicated to those who lost their way because they had nowhere to turn, nowhere to go, and to the librarians and the teachers who give them hope The presentation title comes from keynote speaker Glen Murray, first gay mayor of Winnipeg, who told us at the 2006 British Columbia Library Conference about the importance of libraries to LGBTQ* youth and about a boyhood friend who had committed suicide when they were 14 years of age because there was nowhere to turn, nowhere to go, to be able to talk about his feelings and his fears.
  • 4. Librarians are catalysts for social change and personal transformation.
  • 5. 5 I hope this presentation affords a pathway. The focus is principally on Alberta and Canada because this context is what I know best. But there are many commonalities across countries and cultures in what LGBTQ* communities experience and in how librarians and libraries can position themselves as service providers, supporters, and advocates to create an ethno- cultural climate of respect and resilience in society, grounded in an ethos of human rights and social justice. But first come professional due diligence and careful study to learn about the LGBTQ* communities, their diverse histories, local and global, and their wide-ranging library information needs. The context is then established for developing and enhancing strategies, policies, procedures, and action plans that will support local LGBTQ* communities.
  • 6. Framings of previous presentations: Opening the Closet Door --- The Last Taboo --- I Thought I’d Find Myself in the Library --- Challenging Silence, Challenging Censorship, Building Resilience
  • 7. PART 1 Library Service and Collection Policies and Strategies for Supporting LGBTQ* Communities • The Status of LGBTQ* rights around the world – from death, violence, discrimination, and oppression to legality, equality, and respect … 9 • The LGBTQ* rainbow umbrella – breaking through the binary to understand the spectrum … 25 • Library service and collection policies and strategies for supporting LGBTQ* communities … 46 • Policy framework for supporting LGBTQ* communities … 48 – constitutional and legislative … 50 – administrative of justice, policing … 77 – public schools … 78 – teachers’ associations … 80 – library associations … 82 7
  • 8. PART 1 …cont’d… • Access challenges in meeting LGBTQ* library information needs … 105 – library staff values, beliefs, and service attitudes … 106 – materials access … 123 – subject access … 130 – Internet access and filtering … 140 – reference and research services … 164 – library information needs research … 165 • In summary … 167 • Professional resources to support LGBTQ* communities and library users – all media … 171 • With thanks … 218 8
  • 9. The Status of LGBTQ* Rights around the World – from Death, Violence, Discrimination, and Oppression to Legality, Equality, and Respect 9
  • 10. The Canadian version of U.S. McCathyism involved a highly secret political and police campaign of systemic repression against perceived gay men and lesbians as national security risks. The campaign involved millions of taxpayer dollars and included not only police surveillance, intimidation, blackmail, and entrapment, but bogus research into a “fruit machine” for “detecting” homosexuals. 10 Canadian-style Oppression of LGBTQ* Minorities in the 1950s and the 1960s
  • 11. George Klippert was the last person in Canada to be imprisoned, in 1965, for homosexual acts (“gross indecency”). He was further sentenced to “preventive detention” and imprisoned for life as a “dangerous sexual offender.” In 1967, the Supreme Court of Canada denied his appeal – even though it recognized that his sexual relationships had always been entirely consensual and free of violence. In spite of the decriminalization of homosexual acts in 1969, Klippert remained in prison until 1971. 11 A shameful chapter in Canadian democracy… - “A Brief Canadian History of Laws Affecting Gays and Lesbians” [1965-2005], by Charmaine Spencer, Vancouver, 2008 (?), http://www.canadianelderlaw.ca/Gay%20Timeline.htm; “PRIDE! 18 Dates to Remember in Canadian LGBTIQ History,” by Meagan Perry, June 27, 2014, http://rabble.ca/news/2014/06/pride-18-dates-to-remember-canadian-lgbtiq-history
  • 12. 1969 – federal decriminalization of some same-sex relationships 1977 – Quebec first province to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation; 2002 civil unions and parental rights 1982 – Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (s. 15 equality rights in force 1985) 1992 – Canadian military ended anti-gay policies 1992 – first openly gay politician in Alberta, Michael Phair, Edmonton City Council 1995 – sexual orientation “read in” to s. 15 of the Charter by the Supreme Court as a prohibited ground of discrimination 1996 – sexual orientation added to the Canadian Human Rights Act 1998 – Supreme Court read in sexual orientation to the Alberta Individual Rights Protection Act [Delwin Vriend fired 1991 for being gay] 2003 – Ontario first province to legally recognize marriage equality 2005 – federal marriage equality Milestones in the Struggle for LGBTQ* Human Rights in Canada 12
  • 13. But Key Challenges Remain for Canadian LGBTQ* Minorities Canada does not explicitly prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity and gender expression. This is an urgent and simple legislative remedy. Canada has not outlawed the “homosexual panic” defence in murder trials – a homophobic ruse never available to women, lesbian or straight. This must be prohibited. Canada provides millions of taxpayer $$ in aid to virulently homophobic countries around the world. This must change. Canada impedes LGBTQ* refugee and asylum seekers. This must stop.
  • 14. 1962 – Illinois first state to decriminalize homosexuality 1969 – Stonewall Inn, New York City, 3-day riots against policy brutality 1973 – American Psychiatric Association delisted homosexuality as a mental illness 1982 – Wisconsin first state to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination 2000 – Vermont first state to legalize same-sex civil unions 2003 – Sodomy decriminalized by Supreme Court (Lawrence v. Texas) 2004 – Massachusetts court ruled gay marriage ban unconstitutional 2010 – U.S. Senate repealed “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” the openly gay military service ban 2013 – Supreme Court ruled Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional; also dismissed Proposition 8 appeal against marriage equality in California Milestones in the Struggle for LGBTQ* Human Rights in the U.S. 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. Spain 88% Germany 87 Canada 80 Czech Rep. 80 Australia 79 France 77 Britain 76 Argentina 74 Italy 74 Philippines 73 Chile 68 Mexico 61 Brazil 60 United States 60 Japan 54 Greece 53 Societal Acceptance of Homosexuality in 39 Countries Venezuela 51% Bolivia 43 Poland 42 Israel 40 S. Korea 39 El Salvador 34 South Africa 32 China 21 Lebanon 18 Russia 16 Less than 10% Malaysia, Turkey, Pal. Ter., Uganda, Jordan, Indonesia, Senegal, Egypt, Ghana, Pakistan, Tunisia, Nigeria - The Global Divide on Homosexuality, Pew Research Center, 2013 www.pewglobal.org/2013/06/04/the-global-divide-on-homosexuality/ 16
  • 17. • Brunei • Iran • Maldives • Mauritania Death Penalty in 13 States for Being Gay* * Technically, the death penalty in most of these countries (or parts of countries) is for homosexual “acts.” • Nigeria • Qatar • Saudi Arabia • Somalia • Sudan • Tonga • United Arab Emirates • Uganda • Yemen - “78 countries where homosexuality is illegal,” January 16, 2015, http://76crimes.com/76-countries-where-homosexuality-is-illegal/ State-sponsored homophobia, by Lucas Paoli Itaborahy and Jingshu Zhu, ILGA, May 2013; The Curious Case of Countries Where Being Gay Is a Crime, by James Kirchick, 2014, www.thedailybeast.com/; Criminalization around the World, Human Rights Campaign Foundation, December 17, 2014 17 Less barbarous but still reprehensible anti-homosexuality laws exist in 79 other countries (including Russia). All of these human rights violators are members of the United Nations.
  • 18. 18 Former British Territories Embrace the Most Repugnant of 19th Century Imperialist Practices - “International Law and the Uncertainty of Rights for LGBT People,” by Graeme Reid, JURIST-Hotline, September 6, 2014, http://jurist.org/hotline/2014/09/graeme-reid-lgbt-rights.php
  • 19. Marriage Equality 19 1. Netherlands 2001 2. Belgium 2003 3. Spain 2005 4. Canada 2005 5. South Africa 2006 6. Norway 2009 7. Sweden 2009 8. Portugal 2010 9. Iceland* 2010 10. Argentina 2010 11. Denmark 2012 12. England 2013 13. Wales 2013 14. Brazil 2013 15. France 2013 16. New Zealand 2013 17. Uruguay 18. Scotland 2014 19. Luxembourg 2014 20. Finland 2014 21. Slovenia 2015 22. Vietnam 2015 23. Ireland ? [referendum May 2015] * In 2009 elected the world’s first openly lesbian head of government, Johanna Sigurdardottir - Marriage Equality around the World, Human Rights Campaign Foundation, January 5, 2015
  • 21. • Some within-country jurisdictions - U.S. – more than half of U.S. states (37 states since 2003, as of March 2015), D.C., and 22 American Indian tribes – but LGBTQ* minorities still lack varying degrees of workplace, housing, health care, education, public service, public accommodation, and other protections in more than half of U.S. states, with transgender people the latest, most vicious, and most vulnerable targets of discriminatory legislation - “Two Americas for LGBT People,” by Brynn Tannehill, HuffPost Gay Voices, March 3, 2015, www.huffingtonpost.com/brynn-tannehill/two-americas-for-lgbt-people- _b_6842066.html?ncid=newsltushpmg00000003 - Mexico – Coahuila (state) 2007, Mexico City (federal district) 2009, states of Quintana Roo 2011, Oaxaca 2013, Colima 2013, Yucatán 2013, Chihuahua 2013 - Japan – Tokyo 2015 Marriage Equality 21
  • 22. Postscript: Historically, many countries, and many regions, municipalities, or cities within some countries (e.g., 160+ in Italy), have sanctioned same-sex “civil unions” (civil, domestic, or registered partnerships). In some countries same-sex marriages from other countries are recognized as civil partnerships, e.g., Israel, and within some countries same-sex marriages performed in one within-country state or county are recognized by others, e.g., in Mexico. Civil unions have led to full equality, e.g., Denmark in 2012, the first country to sanction civil unions in 1989. The further step of secular marriage, however, has often been opposed by vitriolic minorities suddenly concerned about the intolerable sins of LGBTQ* immorality, abnormality, disease, decay, depravity, deviance, disaster, etc., ad nauseum. Marriage Equality and Civil Union 22
  • 23. faggot – 12 million tweets/year* no homo – 3 million tweets/year so gay – 3 million tweets/year dyke – 1 million tweets/year All 4 terms – 20 million tweets/year * Monthly average over 32 months July 2012 to February 2015, www.nohomophobes.com “Casual Homophobia” Homophobic Language on Twitter 23
  • 24. 24- Screenshot,16 March 2015, www.nohomophobes.com dyke so gay no homo faggot “Casual Homophobia” — Worldwide
  • 25. The LGBTQ* Rainbow Umbrella Breaking through the Binary to Understand the Spectrum ~ deconstructing gender identity, gender expression, biological sex, sexual orientation, and romantic attraction 25 Facebook expanded gender identity in February 2014 and now has 59 options. When in doubt about preferred names and pronouns, it’s okay to ask.
  • 27. The LGBTQ* Rainbow Umbrella Heterogeneity, Commonality, Terminology 27 The rainbow umbrella embraces a multitude of LGBTQ* communities, historically fragmented and fractionalized, with disparate histories, and wide-ranging library information needs. These communities are heterogeneous and nuanced – all overlaid by variations across multiple demographic constructs and other intersectionalities: heritage, education, race, religion, gender, age, physical and mental capabilities, occupation, economic status, etc. In spite of fragmentation, the rainbow communities bleed into each other, all sharing experiences of stigma, stereotyping, bullying, name-calling, violence, harassment, disparagement, condescension, victimization, discrimination, oppression, internalized LGBTQ*-phobia, exclusion, marginalization, denial, invisibility, and being cast, and cast out, as the “Other.”
  • 28. • Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans*, Trans-Identified, Transgender, Transsexual, Transman, Transwoman, Transvestite, Two Spirit, Intersex, Pansexual, Queer, Questioning, Asexual • Sexual and Gender (SGM), Sexual Minority and Gender Variant (SMGV), Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI), Same Gender Loving (SGL) • Genderfluid, Genderqueer, Gender-Creative, Gender Nonconforming, Third Sex, Third Gender, Non-Binary, Bi- Gender, Genderf*ck, Non-Gendered, Agender, Genderless • Initialisms: LGBT, LGBTQ, LGBTQ*, LGBTQ+, LGBTI, LGBTQ2S, GLBT, GLBTQ, LGBTQQIA, LGBTQQIAAP, LGBTTI2QQ, LGBPTTQQIIAA+, LGBTTIQQ2SA*, LGBTTTIQQAAPK, Q2GQIAASCP(GSM). Etc. Rainbow Umbrella Terminology life *** healing sunlight nature serenity spirit ***Alternate colour meanings for the Rainbow Flag: acceptance, tolerance, happiness, harmony, peace, spirit 28
  • 29. The Rainbow Umbrella also includes* …. - For many of these ideas, I am indebted to Emily Lloyd, “Serving Our GLBTQ Customers (at the Library).” SlideShare November 17, 2010, www.slideshare.net/elloyd74/serving-our-glbtq-customers-at-the-library 29 • children of LGBTQ* parents • parents, grandparents, other relatives of LGBTQ* children • heterosexual spouses and children of LGBTQ* people who may be coming out later in life • anyone linked in a close way to an LGBTQ* person who may be seeking LGBTQ*-related resources for personal or research reasons • allies of all persuasions
  • 30. Not All Minorities are Visible • Sexual, gender, and trans-identified minorities are invisible • Questions about identity are confusing, bewildering, and impenetrable • “Generation queer” youth are coming out at younger ages, especially trans-identifying kids – average coming-out age is 15 to 17, but of first self-awareness, 10 or younger • Coming out is revealing one’s sexuality or gender identity to another person, a lifelong process repeated with every new person one meets – not to be confused with “outing” • Fewer than half of gay men are out to their doctors • LGBTQ* members of newcomer communities are at higher risk and even more vulnerable 30
  • 31. Like the historically negative practices of libraries and of journalism, far worse than stereotyping, scapegoating, ridicule, and caricature, the greatest enemy of public truth in Hollywood movies has been invisibility. 31
  • 32. The Perils of Invisibility When those who have power to name and to socially construct reality choose not to see you or hear you … when someone with the authority of a teacher, say, describes the world and you are not in it, there is a moment of psychic disequilibrium, as if you looked into a mirror and saw nothing. It takes some strength of soul – not just individual strength, but collective understanding – to resist this void, this nonbeing, into which you are thrust, and to stand up, demanding to be seen and heard. - Adrienne Rich, Blood, Bread and Poetry, 1986, p.199 (from “Invisibility in Academe,” 1984) 32
  • 33. Not All Minorities are Safe • LGBTQ* students in Canada are disproportionately targeted for name- calling, bullying, and violence.  2/3 of LGBTQ* students feel unsafe in schools  75% of trans students are verbally harassed — Every Class in Every School, 2011 • LGBTQ* youth are disproportionately homeless, banished by LGBTQ*-phobic parents who fail both moral and legal standards of parental responsibility. • Lesbian, gay, and bisexual Asian youth are 30 times more likely to face harassment than heterosexual peers. 33
  • 34. • One LGBTQ* person was murdered every month in Canada 1990-2004. • At least twice as many were victims of violent assaults. • Disproportionate number of victims were trans-identified. • Most perpetrators were young men. - Pink Blood: Homophobic Violence in Canada, by Douglas Victor Janoff (2005) 34
  • 36. In the U.S. …cont’d… 36
  • 37. In the U.S. …cont’d… 37
  • 38. Verbal disrespect through “casual homophobia” is widespread, toxic, and prejudicial. LGBTQ*-phobia promotes a social climate of irrational fear and bullying. 38 “I was bullied growing up, and the scars are still there. But look at me now – I’ve got the last laugh.” – Susan Boyle, 2009 winner, “Britain’s Got Talent” “The health of the LGBTQ community is a barometer of the entire community.” – Edmonton Mayor Stephen Mandel, Mayor’s Pride Brunch, 2007 “To be represented is to be humanized.” – Kerry Washington Not All Minorities are Respected A Toxic Social Climate
  • 39. • Stereotyping is lazy thinking. • Stereotypes aren’t bad because they are false or wrong – but because they are profoundly incomplete and reductionistic, erase multiple complexities, and crush full personhood into a singular binary • Equal treatment and access are not the same as equitable treatment and access – librarians must acknowledge difference and embrace diversity to achieve equitable service • Fear is the enemy of rationality – stereotyping and ignorance trigger fear and fear triggers discrimination, oppression, bullying, and violence. • Silence is complicity; intolerance flourishes in silence; silence is a text easy to misread. 39 Not All Minorities are Respected
  • 41. • Freedom from homophobic, biphobic, and transphobic oppression is acutely linked to freedom from ignorance around gender norms, misogyny, sexism, double standards, unhealthy masculinity, heteronormativity, and gendered privilege and power. • Sexism and misogyny are the ubiquitous weapons of LGBTQ*-phobia – girlie men, economic girlie men [Arnold Schwarzenegger, denigrating political opponents], girl, sissy, effeminate, momma’s boy, henpecked, “pink government” [Silvio Berlusconi, referring to a new Spanish government], pansification, man up, don’t be a pussy, bitch, slut, boys don’t cry, crybaby. • Homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia are the misogynistic male’s fear that gay men will treat him the way he treats women, and that lesbians will treat other women better than he does. • Women’s liberation and gay liberation are inseparable oppressions and struggles. …cont’d… Hierarchies of Oppression Balancing Equality Rights 41
  • 42. • There can be no hierarchy of oppression. The struggle against one form of injustice is the struggle against them all. Truth to power has many voices. • But just as there is no hierarchy of oppression, there can be no hierarchy of equality and equality rights, and so the larger struggle for a reasonable balance among competing human rights continues on many fronts. • States – and societies – must live up to the universalist promises to all marginalized minorities inherent in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as well as in numerous other international agreements, which they have signed and are thus legally binding signatories. • On top of this international framework of human rights guarantees to which Canada is a signatory, Canada must live up to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Canadian Human Rights Act, and provincial and territorial human rights acts. …cont’d… Hierarchies of Oppression …cont’d… 42
  • 43. “Both women’s and trans liberation have presented me with two important tasks. One is to join the fight to strip away the discriminatory and oppressive values attached to masculinity and femininity. The other is to defend gender freedom – the right of each individual to express their gender in any way they choose, whether feminine, androgynous, masculine, or any point on the spectrum between. And that includes the right to gender ambiguity and gender contradiction. It’s equally important that each person have the right to define, determine, or change their sex in any way they choose – whether female, male, or any point on the spectrum between. And that includes the right to physical ambiguity and contradiction. ” - TRANSgender Warriors, by Leslie Feinberg, Beacon Press, Boston, 1996, p. 103. Hierarchies of Oppression …cont’d… 43
  • 44. On a personal note, I have never been able to understand homophobic women. Is it self-hatred at not being born as a privileged male? – religious indoctrination? – cultural desensitization? Or is it just oblivious naivety about how intimately linked homophobia is to misogyny and sexism? How can it be that any self-respecting and spiritual adult woman could feel herself entitled  to tell a 5-year-old that a queer loved one is going to burn in hell,  to bully a queer teen,  to choose religious doctrine over their own queer child,  to disown a queer child and kick them out of their home – all the while thinking she herself is acting self-righteously free of personal, emotional, moral, spiritual, and societal consequences? Hierarchies of Oppression Homophobic Women 44
  • 45. 45 Homophobic Women …cont’d… A message to her, and to like-minded men: If a parent is among those who reject abortion but refuse to love their LGBTQ* child, they are not “pro-life.” No sacred text can justify persecution and violence against vulnerable minorities. Homophobia is a choice – regardless of whether homosexuality is. - Several points in this series are from Rev. J.P. Mokgethi-Health (Sweden) at the 2014 International AIDS Conference, Melbourne, Australia, July 20-25, 2014, as quoted in “'Homophobia is a Choice, not Homosexuality': Inter-faith Message,” by Bobby Ramakant, Citizen News Service, July 21, 2014
  • 46. Library Service and Collection Policies and Strategies for Supporting LGBTQ* Communities  Board Policies and Legislation – Policy is protection!  Community Development  Professional Networking  Selection Criteria  Challenges and Reconsideration of Materials  Collection Development  Collection Access …cont’d…
  • 47. Policies and Strategies …cont’d…  Web Access  Library Access  Promotion and Marketing  Community Advocacy  Professional Development  Evaluation – monitoring and accountability  Library Service Charter Seize the teachable moment to educate your community!
  • 48. Policy Framework for Supporting LGBTQ* Communities Principles and Values in a Human Rights and Social Justice Framework • non-discrimination • inclusion • safety • respect • duty of care (schools) • freedom of access • freedom of expression Policy informs, guides, and protects everybody!
  • 49. 1) Constitutional and legislative – international; other national; national; provincial and territorial; local 2) Administration of justice, policing 3) Public schools 4) Teachers’ associations 5) Library associations 52 Policy Framework Sources of Principles and Values in a Human Rights and Social Justice Framework
  • 50. Policy Framework 1) Constitutional and legislative – international • Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations, 1948 • Convention on the Rights of the Child, United Nations, 1989 • Resolution on Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, United Nations Human Rights Council, 2011, 2014 • Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 2001; Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, 2010 • American Convention on Human Rights, Organization of American States, 1969; Rapporteurship on the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex (LGBTI) Persons, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 2011, 2013
  • 51. Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. 18. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. 19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. - United Nations, December 10, 1948, www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/51
  • 52. Convention on the Rights of the Child Article 2 1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. 2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child's parents, legal guardians, or family members. Article 13 1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child's choice. cont’d…52
  • 53. Convention on the Rights of the Child … cont’d … Article 14 1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Article 17 States Parties recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall ensure that the child has access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health. Article 19 1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child. - United Nations, November 1989, 1995 (2002), www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CRC.aspx53
  • 54. The United Nations and LGBTQ* Rights 54 • UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, 2010: Written message to event on ending violence and criminal sanctions based on sexual orientation and gender identity. • UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2011: first report “Discriminatory laws and practices and acts of violence against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender identity.” • UN Human Rights Council, 2011: first resolution on human rights, sexual orientation, and gender identity • UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, 2011: “To those who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender, let me say: You are not alone. Your struggle for an end to violence and discrimination is a shared struggle. Any attack on you is an attack on the universal values the United Nations and I have sworn to defend and uphold.” • Born Free and Equal: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in International Human Rights Law, UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2012. • UN Human Rights Council, 2012: first formal debate on ending violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. cont’d…
  • 55. The United Nations and LGBTQ* Rights … cont’d… • UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay, 2012: “When I raise the issue of violence and discrimination against individuals based on their sexual orientation or gender identity, some complain that I’m pushing for “new rights” or “special rights”. But there is nothing new or special about the right to life and security of person, the right to freedom from discrimination. These and other rights are universal: enshrined in international law but denied to many of our fellow human beings simply because of their sexual orientation or gender identity.” • Resolution on Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, UN Human Rights Council, endorsed by 94 countries, 2014: Grave concern at acts of violence and discrimination because of sexual orientation and gender identity and requesting the UN High Commissioner to report on rights abuses and on good practices for overcoming LGBTQ violence and discrimination, http://daccess-dds- ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G14/177/32/PDF/G1417732.pdf?OpenElement cont’d… 55
  • 56. The United Nations and LGBTQ* Rights … cont’d… • “Free and Equal Campaign,” a global education campaign for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights, UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2013, https://www.unfe.org • UN Special Rapporteur Maina Kiai, 2014: “A nation that can silence one group can silence all groups.” • UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, 2014: New policy to recognize same-sex marriages of all UN Secretariat staff worldwide and provide full benefits, regardless of whether their home country supports marriage equality – "I am proud to stand for greater equality for all staff, and I call on all members of our UN family to unite in rejecting homophobia as discrimination that can never be tolerated at our workplace.” 56
  • 57. European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 10. Freedom of thought, conscience and religion 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right includes freedom to change religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or in private, to manifest religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance. 11. Freedom of expression and information 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. 21. Non-discrimination 1. Any discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited. - Official Journal of the European Communities, 18.12.2000, European Parliament, 2000/C 364/01, 2000, www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/pdf/text_en.pdf- 57
  • 58. European Union Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 2. Under international law, all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Sexual orientation and gender identity are recognised as prohibited grounds for discrimination. According to the European Court of Human Rights, a difference in treatment is discriminatory if it has no objective and reasonable justification…. 5. Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity can be magnified on the basis of sex and gender, with lesbian, bisexual and transgender women, in particular, running an increased risk of violence. 13. Homophobia and transphobia have particularly serious consequences for young LGBT people. 16. Member states are called on to: ensure that the fundamental rights of LGBT people, including freedom of expression and freedom of assembly and association, are respected, in line with international human rights standards [16.1]; …cont’d… 58
  • 59. Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity … cont’d… recognise that lesbian, bisexual and transgender women face an increased risk of gender-based violence….[16.3]; condemn hate speech and discriminatory statements….[16.4]; ensure legal recognition of same-sex partnerships when national legislation envisages such recognition….[16.9]; provide the possibility for joint parental responsibility of each partner’s children, bearing in mind the interests of the children [16.10]; address the specific discrimination and human rights violations faced by transgender persons….[16.11]; recognise persecution of LGBT persons as a ground for granting asylum….[16.15]. - Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly, European Union, Resolution 1728 (2010), 29 April 29, 2010, http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/hrpolicy/Publications/LGBT_en.pdf 59
  • 60. Organization of American States American Convention on Human Rights Article 1. Obligation to Respect Rights 1. The States Parties to this Convention undertake to respect the rights and freedoms recognized herein and to ensure to all persons subject to their jurisdiction the free and full exercise of those rights and freedoms, without any discrimination for reasons of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, economic status, birth, or any other social condition. Article 5. Right to Humane Treatment 1. Every person has the right to have his physical, mental, and moral integrity respected. Article 7. Right to Personal Liberty 1. Every person has the right to personal liberty and security. cont’d… 60
  • 61. American Convention on Human Rights … cont’d … Article 13. Freedom of Thought and Expression 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought and expression. This right includes freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing, in print, in the form of art, or through any other medium of one's choice. Article 24. Right to Equal Protection All persons are equal before the law. Consequently, they are entitled, without discrimination, to equal protection of the law. 61 - American Convention on Human Rights “Pact of San Jose, Costa Rica” (B-32), Treaty Series, No. 36, 1969 [came into force 1978], http://www.oas.org/dil/treaties_B-32_American_Convention_on_Human_Rights.htm
  • 62. Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Human Rights “Plan of Action 4.6. – Other Thematic Areas i. The Rights of LGTBI Communities This Plan of Action will establish the conceptual basis, substantive content and process for preparing a report on sexual identity and human rights in the hemisphere by December 2013, process cases on discrimination and provide specialized advice to the States in relation to the rights of lesbian, gay, trans, bisexual and intersex persons (LGTBI).” [Executive Summary] “Plan of Action 4.6. – Other Thematic Areas Under this Plan of Action, the IACHR will develop reports on sexual identity-derived human rights problems in the American States. The reports will focus on de jure and de facto discrimination and give visibility to the problems faced by lesbian gay, trans, bisexual and intersex persons at the regional and international level…. This need has been recognized by the Member States of the OAS, who have exhorted the IACHR to prepare a study concerning the rights of the members of LGBTI communities in the Americas (vide, AG/RES. 2600 (XL-O/10).” cont’d… 62
  • 63. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights … cont’d… “Third, building on the OAS General Assembly resolutions since 2008 concerning human rights and sexual orientation, the Commission “as consultative organ of the Organization” will formulate and provide specialized technical advice in relation to the annual resolution, providing comments and recommendations to the political bodies in the process of the preparation and negotiation of the said resolution and its follow-up.” [Part II. Programs and Action Plans] 63 In 2011 a “Unit on the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex (LGBTI) Persons” was created that became a “Rapporteurship” under the same name in 2013, “to give specialized attention” to the work of the IACHR on the promotion and protection of the rights of LGBTI persons in the Americas. … cont’d… - Strategic Plan 2011-2015 [2011?], www.oas.org/en/iachr/docs/pdf/IACHRStrategicPlan20112015.pdf; “IACHR Creates Unit on the Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Intersex Persons,” Nov. 2011, www.oas.org/en/iachr/media_center/PReleases/2011/115.asp Rapporteurship on the Rights of LGBTI Persons
  • 64. Rapporteurship on the Rights of LGBTI Persons… cont’d… “Gay, lesbian, bisexuals, trans and intersex persons have historically been discriminated against on the basis of their sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, and body diversity, and continue to be victims of discrimination, violence, persecution and other abuses; which infringes on their human rights protected by international and inter- American instruments…. The Rapporteurship continues the main lines of work of the LGBTI Unit addressing issues of sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, and body diversity.” 64 - “The IACHR creates Rapporteurship to address issues of Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Gender Expression, and Body Diversity,” Nov. 2013, www.oas.org/en/iachr/media_center/PReleases/2013/094.asp “Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Persons” [2014?], www.oas.org/en/iachr/lgtbi/default.asp
  • 65. 1) Constitutional and legislative – other national (selected) • Republic of South Africa, 1996 • Federal Constitution of Mexico, 2001, 2003 • United States Constitution, 1791, 1868
  • 66. Republic of South Africa - Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, Chapter 2: Bill of Rights, www.gov.za/documents/constitution/1996/a108-96.pdf 9. Equality.—(l) Everyone is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law. (2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and freedoms. To promote the achievement of equality, legislative and other measures designed to protect or advance persons, or categories of persons, disadvantaged by unfair discrimination may be taken. (3) The state may not unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds, including race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language and birth. 66
  • 67. Federal Constitution of Mexico Article 1. All types of discrimination whether it be for ethnic origin, national origin, gender, age, different capacities, social condition, health condition, religion, opinions, sexual preferences, or civil state or any other which attacks human dignity and has as an objective to destroy the rights and liberties of the people are forbidden. [amended 2001] Article 84. The Council to Prevent Discrimination will promote non- discriminatory behaviour at public institutions through sensitivity workshops and specific campaigns. [amended 2003] ---- The anti-gay words "puñal" and "maricones" are not protected as freedom of expression under the Constitution, allowing people offended by the terms to sue for moral damages. [Supreme Court of Mexico, 2013]
  • 68. United States Constitution Bill of Rights and Constitutional Amendments 1. Freedoms, Petitions, Assembly Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 4. Search and Arrest The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 14. Section 1: Civil Rights All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. - U.S. Congress, 1791; 1868 (Amendment 14)
  • 69. •Constitutional and legislative – national • Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982 • Canadian Human Rights Act, 1985 – includes sexual orientation but not gender identity • Criminal Code of Canada • Supreme Court of Canada cases – Vriend [AB]; Surrey School Board [BC]; Jubran [BC]; Kemperling [BC]; Little Sister’s Bookstore [BC]
  • 70. Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms* 1. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the rights and freedoms set out in it subject only to such reasonable limits prescribed by law as can be demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society. 2. Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms: (a) freedom of conscience and religion; (b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication; (c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and (d) freedom of association. 15. (1) Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability. * 1982, s. 15 came into force in 1985 70 http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/const/page-16.html#docCont
  • 71. Canadian Human Rights Act, 1985 2. The purpose of this Act is to extend the laws in Canada to give effect, within the purview of matters coming within the legislative authority of Parliament, to the principle that all individuals should have an opportunity equal with other individuals to make for themselves the lives that they are able and wish to have and to have their needs accommodated, consistent with their duties and obligations as members of society, without being hindered in or prevented from doing so by discriminatory practices based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability or conviction for an offence for which a pardon has been granted or in respect of which a record suspension has been ordered. 3. (1) For all purposes of this Act, the prohibited grounds of discrimination are race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability and conviction for an offence for which a pardon has been granted or in respect of which a record suspension has been ordered. http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/h-6/page-1.html#h-3 71
  • 72. Supreme Court of Canada The Supreme Court has affirmed that schools, boards, and officials are subject to Charter scrutiny. In the balancing of rights, educators have a positive duty to provide all students with a safe, caring, and discrimination-free learning environment. While school libraries would perforce be subject to Charter scrutiny under the Supreme Court educational sector affirmation, no cases involving public or post-secondary libraries have been heard in Canada.
  • 73. Supreme Court of Canada and the Surrey [B.C.] School District, 2002 Learning about tolerance is … learning that other people’s entitlement to respect from us does not depend on whether their views accord with our view. Children cannot learn this unless they are exposed to views that differ from those they are taught at home…. Tolerance is always age appropriate. [my emphasis] - Chamberlain v. Surrey School District No. 36, 2002, par. 66,69 Postscript: Through successive legal appeals by the Surrey School District over several years, the three children’s picture books at issue in the Chamberlain challenge cost the taxpayers of Surrey at least $600,000 per title and possibly $3 million for all three! (Taxpayers will never know the full amount.)
  • 74. • Constitutional and legislative – provincial and territorial • Every province and territory has human rights legislation prohibiting discrimination on sexual orientation grounds; some also mention gender identity and/or gender expression, but transgender people are still vulnerable. • Education acts mandate safe and caring school environments for “all students.” • Only Ontario, Manitoba, and Alberta mandate that students have the right to create a Gay Straight Alliance and so name it if they wish to do so – not, however, without bitter resistance in every instance, it should be noted. • Some 90 GSAs were established in Alberta before the 2015 legislation mandated student rights.
  • 75. • Constitutional and legislative – Alberta • Alberta Human Rights Act – lists sexual orientation as a protected ground and as of 2015 gender identity and gender expression. • Alberta Vital Statistics Act – provides for amendment of birth and marriage records on a change of “anatomical sex structure” [part 4]. • Alberta School Act 2013 – mandates school boards to “ensure each student is provided with a safe and caring environment that fosters and maintains respectful and responsible behaviours [s. 45.1.8]. • Alberta Bill of Rights – amended in 2015 to add sexual orientation, sex, gender identity, and gender expression.
  • 76. • Constitutional and legislative – Ontario • Ontario Education Act 2012 – introduced legislative changes to fight bullying and cyberbullying and to foster safer school communities, with students having the right to a “safe, inclusive and accepting learning environment.” - The Act also requires school boards to conduct voluntary and anonymous school climate surveys, and to establish annual professional development programs on bullying prevention and strategies for fostering a positive school climate.
  • 77. Policy Framework 2) Administration of justice, policing • Hate and bias crimes unit • Sexuality and gender diversity advisory boards • LGBTQ* police-community liaison committees, e.g., Calgary Police Service Sexuality and Gender Diversity Chief’s Advisory Board • Alberta Hate Crimes Committee, 2002 • Alberta Hate Crimes Awareness Day, May 2010 • Edmonton Police Services Chief Mike Boyd held the first annual Pride Week police services reception June 17, 2008
  • 78. Policy Framework 3) Public schools – local school board stand- alone policies on sexual orientation and gender identity; GSAs • Vancouver School Board policy on sexual orientation and gender identity, 2004; draft policy revisions emphasize that LGBTQ* students and families should see themselves and their lives positively reflected in the curriculum and explicitly lay out the rights of trans students [2014] • One-third of BC school boards have sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) policies • At least 4 Alberta school boards have SOGI policies: Edmonton Public School Board (2011), St. Albert Public School Board policy (2012), Wild Rose (Drayton Valley), and Canadian Rockies (Canmore)
  • 79. Edmonton Public School Board Policy on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity The EPSB is committed to establishing and maintaining a safe, inclusive, equitable, and welcoming learning and teaching environment for all members of the school community. This includes those students, staff, and families who identify or are perceived as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, two- spirit, queer or questioning their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression. All members of the school community have the right to learn and work in an environment free of discrimination, prejudice, and harassment. This right is guaranteed under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Alberta Human Rights Act, and Alberta School Act. The Board will not tolerate harassment, bullying, intimidation, or discrimination on the basis of a person’s actual or perceived sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression. Edmonton Public Schools, 2011, www.epsb.ca/policy/ifa.bp.shtml
  • 80. Policy Framework • Teachers’ associations • Alberta Teachers’ Association Code of Professional Conduct – first teachers’ association in Canada to include sexual orientation 1999; gender identity for students 2003; gender identity for teachers 2004 • Safe Spaces Initiative • ATA Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity resources • PRISM Toolkit for Safe and Caring Discussions About Sexual and Gender Minorities teachers.ab.ca/For%20Members/Professional%20Development/Diversity%2 0and%20Human%20Rights/Sexual%20Orientation/Pages/Index.aspx
  • 81. Alberta Teachers’Association Code of Professional Conduct The teacher teaches in a manner that respects the dignity and rights of all persons without prejudice as to race, religious beliefs, colour, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, physical characteristics, disability, marital status, family status, age, ancestry, place of origin, place of residence, socioeconomic background or linguistic background. 81
  • 82. Policy Framework 4) Library Associations – international; other national; national; provincial and territorial The policy documents of many library associations do not specifically reference sexual orientation or gender identity, but all of them enjoin librarians to provide inclusive services to “all people” and to avoid viewpoint discrimination and discriminatory censorship. Association codes of ethics echo these principles of inclusivity and unencumbered access.
  • 83. • Library Associations – international • IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) – “Glasgow Declaration on Libraries, Information Services and Intellectual Freedom,” 2002 – explicitly prohibits discrimination on the basis of “gender or sexual preference”
  • 84. IFLA The Glasgow Declaration on Libraries, Information Services and Intellectual Freedom IFLA proclaims the fundamental right of human beings both to access and to express information without restriction. IFLA and its worldwide membership support, defend and promote intellectual freedom as expressed in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This intellectual freedom encompasses the wealth of human knowledge, opinion, creative thought and intellectual activity. IFLA asserts that a commitment to intellectual freedom is a core responsibility of the library and information profession worldwide, expressed through codes of ethics and demonstrated through practice. IFLA affirms that: Libraries and information services provide access to information, ideas and works of imagination in any medium and regardless of frontiers. They serve as gateways to knowledge, thought and culture, offering essential support for …cont’d…84
  • 85. The Glasgow Declaration on Libraries, Information Services and Intellectual Freedom… cont’d … independent decision-making, cultural development, research and lifelong learning by both individuals and groups. Libraries and information services contribute to the development and maintenance of intellectual freedom and help to safeguard democratic values and universal civil rights. Consequently, they are committed to offering their clients access to relevant resources and services without restriction and to opposing any form of censorship. Libraries and information services shall acquire, preserve and make available the widest variety of materials, reflecting the plurality and diversity of society. The selection and availability of library materials and services shall be governed by professional considerations and not by political, moral and religious views. …cont’d… 85
  • 86. The Glasgow Declaration on Libraries, Information Services and Intellectual Freedom… cont’d … Libraries and information services shall make materials, facilities and services equally accessible to all users. There shall be no discrimination for any reason including race, national or ethnic origin, gender or sexual preference, age, disability, religion, or political beliefs. Libraries and information services shall protect each user's right to privacy and confidentiality with respect to information sought or received and resources consulted, borrowed, acquired or transmitted. IFLA therefore calls upon libraries and information services and their staff to uphold and promote the principles of intellectual freedom and to provide uninhibited access to information. - IFLA Governing Board, 2002; IFLA Council, 2002, www.ifla.org/publications/the-glasgow- declaration-on-libraries--information-services-and-intellectual-freedom 86
  • 87. • Library Associations – international • IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) – Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/ Questioning Users Special Interest Group [LGBTQ Users SIG] “As part of our professional commitment to provide access to information, librarians are charged to support the full range of users’ informational needs including those of lesbians, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning (LGBTQ) people. That said, substantial discussions of issues related to library services for LGBTQ community members have not taken place at IFLA. The LGBTQ Users SIG will address this gap in professional knowledge by offering opportunities to engage in discussions about this often invisible user group. …cont’d…
  • 88. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer/ Questioning Users Special Interest Group [LGBTQ Users SIG] …cont’d… This SIG will enable libraries to consider topics including professional attitudes, outreach, privacy, programming, and effective practice in acquiring and collecting materials of importance to LGBTQ people and allies. This includes literature, academic texts, materials of importance to LGTBQ youth and families, and other works that encourage thinking critically about issues of sexuality and gender identity.” – sponsored by the Acquisition and Collection Development Section, approved by the IFLA Professional Committee, December 2013, http://www.ifla.org/lgbtq …cont’d…
  • 89. LGBTQ Users SIG …cont’d… LGBTQ Users SIG – presentations at IFLA on the theme of Addressing the Silence: How Libraries can Serve Their LGBTQ Users “I’ve never really thought about it”: librarians’ attitudes to the provision of LGBT-related fiction to children and young people in English public libraries Gay Marriage and Homoaffective Union: a terminological analysis of the social values of libraries as a source for an ethical subject representation and dissemination in Brazil “Don’t Say Gay” in Tennessee: Libraries as Virtual Spaces of Resistance and Protectors of Human Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) People Reducing the Suicide Risk of LGBTQ Library Users Public Libraries: Creating Safe Spaces for Homeless LGBTQ Youth The Rainbow Library at Umeå City Library and The Swedish Network for LGBTQ Issues at Libraries Power and community: organizational and cultural LGBT responses against homophobia and promotion of inclusion values Information-seeking behaviour of LGBTQ health professionals: New data to inform inclusive practice - first session hosted by the SIG at the IFLA World Library and Information Congress, Lyon, France, August 19, 2014, http://conference.ifla.org/past-wlic/2014//ifla80/node/367.html
  • 90. • Library Associations – Other National – United States – American Library Association (ALA) – “Access to Library Resources and Services Regardless of Sex, Gender Identity, Gender Expression, or Sexual Orientation,” 1993, 2004, 2008 – “Resolution on Threats to Library Materials Related to Sex, Gender Identity, or Sexual Orientation” – adopted to counter recent legislative proposals in the United States that would restrict or prohibit access to materials related to sexual orientation within publicly-funded libraries, 2005 – “Combating Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination”– “commits its programs and resources to those efforts that combat prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination against individuals and groups in the library profession and in library user populations on the basis of race, age, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, creed, color, religious background, national origin, language of origin or disability.” - B.3.3 of Diversity B.3, ALA Policy Manual, 2013 – American Association of Law Libraries (AALL) – Standing Committee for Lesbian and Gay Issues – founded in 1985
  • 91. American Library Association Access to Library Resources and Services Regardless of Sex, Gender Identity, Gender Expression, or Sexual Orientation The American Library Association stringently and unequivocally maintains that libraries and librarians have an obligation to resist efforts that systematically exclude materials dealing with any subject matter, including sex, gender identity, gender expression, or sexual orientation…. …The Association affirms that books and other materials coming from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and/or transgendered presses, gay, lesbian, bisexual and/or transgendered authors or other creators, and materials regardless of format or services dealing with gay, lesbian, bisexual and/or transgendered life are protected by the Library Bill of Rights. Librarians are obligated by the Library Bill of Rights to endeavor to select materials without regard to the sex, gender identity, or sexual orientation of their creators by using the criteria identified in their written, approved selection policies (ALA policy 53.1.5). Library services, materials, and programs representing diverse points of view on sex, gender identity, gender expression, or sexual orientation should be considered for …cont’d…
  • 92. Access to Library Resources and Services Regardless of Sex, Gender Identity, Gender Expression, or Sexual Orientation …cont’d… purchase and inclusion in library collections and programs. (ALA policies 53.1.1, 53.1.9, and 53.1.11). The Association affirms that attempts to proscribe or remove materials dealing with gay, lesbian, bisexual, and/or transgendered life without regard to the written, approved selection policy violate this tenet and constitute censorship. Article V of the Library Bill of Rights mandates that library services, materials, and programs be available to all members of the community the library serves, without regard to sex, gender identity, gender expression, or sexual orientation. This includes providing youth with comprehensive sex education literature ( ALA Policy 52.5.2). The American Library Association holds that any attempt, be it legal or extra-legal, to regulate or suppress library services, materials, or programs must be resisted in order that protected expression is not abridged. Librarians have a professional obligation to ensure that all library users have free and equal access to the entire range of library services, materials, and programs. Therefore, the Association strongly opposes any effort to limit access to information and ideas. The Association also encourages librarians to proactively support the First Amendment rights of all library users, regardless of sex, gender identity, gender expression, or sexual orientation. - ALA Council, 1993, 2004, 2008, www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/librarybill/interpretations/accesslibrary
  • 93. American Library Association Resolution on Threats to Library Materials Related to Sex, Gender Identity, or Sexual Orientation WHEREAS, some elected officials of federal, state, and local governments have proposed to restrict or prohibit access to materials related to sexual orientation within their publicly funded libraries; and... WHEREAS, "The American Library Association stringently and unequivocally maintains that libraries and librarians have an obligation to resist efforts that systematically exclude materials dealing with any subject matter, including sex, gender identity, or sexual orientation" (Policy 53.1.15, " Access to Library Resources and Services Regardless of Sex, Gender Identity, or Sexual Orientation"); and WHEREAS, libraries have an obligation under the Library Bill of Rights to disseminate information representing all points of view on the topic of gay rights (Policy 54.17, " Gay Rights"); and WHEREAS, the American Library Association is committed to combating prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination against individuals and groups in library services because of sexual orientation (Policy 60.2, " Combating Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination"); and… …cont’d…
  • 94. Resolution on Threats to Library Materials Related to Sex, Gender Identity, or Sexual Orientation …cont’d… WHEREAS, the American Library Association recognizes the right and responsibility of parents to pass on their values by monitoring their child's access to library materials; and… WHEREAS, the American Library Association affirms the important role of local library boards, librarians, and library workers as promoters of the American values of inclusiveness, tolerance, and mutual respect within their communities; now, therefore, be it RESOLVED, that the American Library Association affirms the inclusion in library collections of materials that reflect the diversity of our society, including those related to sex, gender identity, or sexual orientation; and be it further RESOLVED, that the American Library Association encourages all American Library Association chapters to take active stands against all legislative or other government attempts to proscribe materials related to sex, gender identity, or sexual orientation; and be it further RESOLVED, that the American Library Association encourages all libraries to acquire and make available materials representative of all the people in our society. - ALA Council, 2005, www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/statementspols/ifresolutions/threats
  • 95. • Library Associations – United States – American Library Association (ALA) – ALA Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Round Table (GLBTRT) – founded as the Task Force on Gay Liberation in 1970, with extensive resources listed at “Professional Tools,” www.ala.org/glbtrt/tools
  • 96. ALA GLBTRT Resources The website of the ALA GLBTRT is a unique resource, with a wealth of information on a wide range of topics, at “Professional Tools,” http://www.ala.org/glbtrt/tools 96 Stonewall Book Awards GLBTQ Bookstores - map GLBTQ Libraries and Archives – Map GLBT News GLBT Reviews Bibliography for Gay Teens GLBT Resources for Children: A Bibliography Rainbow Project Book List Rainbow Book List: LGBTQ Books for Children and Teen Readers Resources for Children and Teens Seeing Myself in the Mirror: An LGBTQ Literature Annotated Bibliography with Diverse Characters Soldier Girls and Dancing Boys: Gender Exploration in Resources for Children, Teens, and Caring Adults Over the Rainbow: A Book List for Adult Readers African American LGBT Books Post-2007 An Annotated Bibliography of Books, DVDs, and Internet Resources on GLBT Latinos and Latinas Gay Holocaust Hate Crimes Race and Diversity Nonbinary Gender Identities in Media: An Annotated Bibliography
  • 97. ALA GLBTRT Resources (2) 97 Christian Traditions - General Survey of LGBTQ Christian Experiences 2011- Christian Traditions - LGBTQ Christian Memoirs and Biographies 2011- GLBT Religion and Spirituality - A Selective Bibliography LGBT Issues in Religion LGBTQ Christian Experiences – Protestant Traditions 2011- LGBTQ Christian Experiences – Roman Catholicism 2011- Same-Sex Marriage: Bibliography; Selected Resources Same-Sex Parenting TRANScending Identities Best practices for asking questions to identify transgender and other gender minority respondents on pop’n surveys GLBT Controlled Vocabularies and Classification Schemes Collection Development Policies Evaluating the Treatment of Gay Themes in Books for Children and Younger Adults Equal Access to Public Restrooms Gender Neutral Bathrooms in Libraries Restroom Access for Transgender Employees Out in the Library: Materials, Displays and Services for the GLBT Community Safe in the Stacks: Community Spaces for Homeless LGBTQ Youth Transgender-inclusive Library Card Applications: Issues and Recommendations Gay-Straight Alliance Resources Guide Speaking OUT Against Bullying Ways that U.S. Colleges and Universities Meet the Day-to-Day Needs of Transgender Students
  • 98. The American Library Association affirms that all libraries are forums for information and ideas…. I. Books and other library resources should be provided for the interest, information, and enlightenment of all people of the community the library serves. Materials should not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation. II. Libraries should provide materials and information presenting all points of view on current and historical issues. Materials should not be proscribed or removed because of partisan or doctrinal disapproval. III. Libraries should challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility to provide information and enlightenment…. V. A person’s right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin, age, background, or views. VI. Libraries which make exhibit spaces and meeting rooms available to the public they serve should make such facilities available on an equitable basis, regardless of the beliefs or affiliations of individuals or groups requesting their use. - ALA Council, 1939, 1944, 1948, 1961, inclusion of “age” reaffirmed 1996, 1967, 1980, http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/librarybill/ American Library Association Library Bill of Rights 98
  • 99. We believe … that what people read is deeply important; that ideas can be dangerous; but that the suppression of ideas is fatal to a democratic society. Freedom itself is a dangerous way of life, but it is ours. American Library Association Freedom to Read Statement 99 - ALA Council and the Association of American Publishers Freedom to Read Committee, 1953, 1972, 1991, 2000, 2004, www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/statementspols/freedomreadstatement
  • 100. • Library Associations – national • Canadian Library Association – Statement on Intellectual Freedom / Énoncé sur la liberté intellectuelle, 1985 – Statement on Diversity and Inclusion / Énoncé sur la diversité et l’inclusion, 2008
  • 101. Canadian Library Association Statement on Intellectual Freedom / Énoncé sur la liberté intellectuelle All persons in Canada have the fundamental right, as embodied in the nation's Bill of Rights and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, to have access to all expressions of knowledge, creativity and intellectual activity, and to express their thoughts publicly. This right to intellectual freedom, under the law, is essential to the health and development of Canadian society. Libraries have a basic responsibility for the development and maintenance of intellectual freedom. It is the responsibility of libraries to guarantee and facilitate access to all expressions of knowledge and intellectual activity, including those which some elements of society may consider to be unconventional, unpopular or unacceptable. To this end, libraries shall acquire and make available the widest variety of materials. …cont’d… 101
  • 102. It is the responsibility of libraries to guarantee the right of free expression by making available all the library's public facilities and services to all individuals and groups who need them. Libraries should resist all efforts to limit the exercise of these responsibilities while recognizing the right of criticism by individuals and groups. Both employees and employers in libraries have a duty, in addition to their institutional responsibilities, to uphold these principles. 102 Statement on Intellectual Freedom / Énoncé sur la liberté intellectuelle …cont’d… - CLA Executive Council, 1974, 1983, 1985, www.cla.ca/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Position_Statements &Template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=3047
  • 103. The Canadian Library Association believes that a diverse and pluralistic society is central to our country’s identity. Libraries have a responsibility to contribute to a culture that recognizes diversity and fosters social inclusion. Libraries strive to deliver inclusive service. Canada’s libraries recognize and energetically affirm the dignity of those they serve, regardless of heritage, education, beliefs, race, religion, gender, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, physical or mental capabilities, or income. Libraries understand that an acceptance of differences can place individual and collective values in conflict. Libraries are committed to tolerance and understanding. Libraries act to ensure that people can enjoy services free from any attempt by others to impose values, customs or beliefs. Canadian Library Association Statement on Diversity and Inclusion / Énoncé sur la diversité et l’inclusion - CLA Executive Council, May 25, 2008, http://www.cla.ca/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Position_Statements&Template=/CM/Co ntentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=4713
  • 104. • Library Associations – provincial – British Columbia Library Association – LGBTQ Interest Group – formed in 2011 as a forum for discussion and an environment for learning about the needs of the LGBTQ library community and population at large - serve as “out” role models for LGBTQ librarians and library workers in BC and act as a contact for LGBTQ librarians new to the profession or the area - respond to LGBTQ issues in the library and as appropriate the broader community as they arise - host information tables at BC Library Conferences - share information via our listserv - sponsor occasional seminars and workshops - propose conference sessions for the BC Library Conference - organize social gatherings - liaise with similar groups in other library associations such as the ALA GLBT Roundtable and encourage a focus by our national association on such issues www.bcla.bc.ca/lgbtq/default.aspx
  • 105. 1) library staff values, beliefs, and service attitudes – uneven and unpredictable reactions to LGBTQ*-related inquiries and users 2) materials access – limited and outdated LGBTQ* collections 3) subject access – search difficulty in locating LGBTQ* materials 4) Internet access and filtering – prejudicial filtering software that censors LGBTQ* websites and information 5) reference and research services – no generalizable LGBTQ*- focused studies 6) library information needs research – very small body of LGBTQ* research 105 Access Challenges in Meeting LGBTQ* Library Information Needs
  • 106. 1) Library Staff Values, Beliefs, and Service Attitudes Key observations: LGBTQ* interactions with library staff play a powerful role in helping or hindering the provision of effective collections and services to LGBTQ* minorities, and in shaping perceptions of library inclusivity and effectiveness. Unfortunately, staff attitudes are variable and unpredictable across libraries and even within libraries, informed by personal beliefs, professional values, general service attitudes, and institutional policies and practices. Staff beliefs, values, and attitudes represent a continuum from the very negative to the very positive – from outright homophobia and disrespect for library user confidentiality and privacy (with user fear of being outed), to indifference and tokenism, to positive support, promotion, and advocacy.
  • 107. Library Staff Training In addition to library policies and strategies for supporting LGBTQ* minorities, systematic staff training and regular workshops about library service values and expectations are essential. Such education is needed not only for an understanding of LGBTQ* communities in meeting their wide-ranging library information needs, but as well for awareness and appreciation of broader library core values of intellectual freedom and access – for, in a nutshell, and concurrently, LGBTQ* cultural competency, professional socialization, and institutional mission. Many LGBTQ* youth and adults have turned to libraries to discover more about their identity and reality. Allies too.
  • 108. ALA Gay and Lesbian Task Force banner, 1992 San Francisco Gay Pride Parade Almost 25 years ago ... American Libraries received several homophobic letters from the library community condemning this photograph on the cover of its July/August 1992 issue, but there were also some supportive letters and editorials critical of the hostility. “The point is clear: librarianship is not an especially welcoming place to gays and lesbians.” - “A Lesbigay Gender Perplex: Sexual Stereotyping and Professional Ambiguity in Librarianship,” by Christine L. Williams. In James V. Carmichael, Jr., ed., Daring to Find Our Names, McFarland, 1998, p. 38. 108
  • 109. Why our library doesn’t have LGBTQ*-related materials… • My library doesn’t cater to specialized needs. • Only heterosexuals live in the area my library serves. • Lesbians, gay men, etc., don’t seem to use my library. • It’s too difficult to identify worthwhile LGBTQ* materials. • I don’t feel qualified to order these materials. • Can’t people just use the Internet or interlibrary loan to get these materials instead of me having to buy them? • Buying LGBTQ* materials would be promoting gender or sexual nonconformity. • I’m personally uncomfortable with exposing myself to what some of these materials describe. • That stuff doesn’t belong in my library. • I don’t approve of people who don’t conform to conventional behaviors or reading/listening/viewing interests. • My library can’t afford these materials. • Buying materials for these library users endorses the way these people live. …cont’d…
  • 110. • I don’t approve of homosexuality or of homosexuals. • Young library users aren’t searching for gay and lesbian materials. • Aren’t most of those materials too technical for most libraries? • My library’s vendor doesn’t handle those items. • It’s too difficult to find reviews of these materials. How can I tell what’s worthless and what’s worthwhile? And those materials require ordering form special vendors. • The library’s books about AIDS adequately address the information needs of its gay and lesbian patrons. • We don’t need special booklists or indexes; gays and lesbians can use the catalogue and periodical indexes like anyone else. • We simply haven’t yet found the time to devote attention to covering this particular subject area. Why our library doesn’t have …cont’d… - “Barriers to Selecting Materials about Sexual and Gender Diversity,” by Cal Gough and Ellen Greenblatt. In E. Greenblatt, ed. Serving LGBTIQ Library and Archives Users: Essays on Outreach, Service, Collections and Access, 2011, pp. 165-173. An earlier version appeared in Gay and Lesbian Library Service, eds. Cal Gough and Ellen Greenblatt (1990).
  • 111. 111 The Transformative Power of Principled and Knowledgeable Library Staff to Help Save LGBTQ* Lives
  • 112. “A life-altering library experience…” • Libraries are so often how we learn about who we are – not family, etc. • My feelings sent me to the “symbolic world of language” in the library. • That sent me back to feelings, and to people. And then to more books. • It was a life-altering experience to learn of the category “lesbian” in the library – and not only that, lesbian was a library subject heading! • “We will never know how many have found validation on the shelves of libraries and in LCSH.” - paraphrasing Alison Bechdel’s acceptance speech at the 2007 Stonewall Book Awards for Fun Home, American Library Association Annual Conference, 2007
  • 113. “Looking for myself in the word” I went to the library to look for myself in the word…. I was disappointed because I thought I would always be able to find myself in the library, because everything is in the library, everything…. Librarians have individual power. The librarian watches and sees and guides. – paraphrasing Jewelle Gomez in “Reaching Out: Library Services for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth,” a film/DVD by Lynne Barnes, 2004
  • 114. 114 As a new teen librarian in a small town, I was invited to speak with the Gay Straight Alliance to talk about some of the great books available for teens looking beyond the hetero relationship viewpoint. They were seeking alternative perspectives, answers, solidarity. Many of the students had never met another gay person or told friends or family. They shared experiences browsing the stacks or searching the online catalog, not knowing how to begin and not finding what they wanted, nor not feeling comfortable approaching a librarian. I was thrilled I could provide a service to fill this need. First it started with a bookmark, then a booklist on the library website's readers' advisory page linking directly to the catalog with book descriptions, availability, and the hold option. For years, this method worked great until all the books listed on the website were challenged by the larger community. And consequently the kids felt challenged. … cont’d… “Thanks to the resources I had as a teen…”
  • 115. 115 “Geography Club” was just one of the many books that underwent public scrutiny by censors in our town. Cries of pornography and deviance sounded in public meetings. In our case, the students rallied together and found support from others in the community, and these words made them stronger. But this is not always the situation. Sometimes the words stick. Sometimes the books are removed. Sometimes the kids are shamed. I still keep in touch with a few of the students who were active in the GSA during the 2009 book challenge. I've asked them how it affected them five years later, and one wrote back: I was able to go into college with high self-esteem and confidence to enter into same-sex relationships. I had already gone through the process of coming out and finding out what being LGBTQ meant for me. … cont’d… “Thanks to the resources I had as a teen…” …cont’d…
  • 116. 116 Thanks to those books and those who were part of my life in high school, I came to college with a strong sense of identity. I got to focus on college, unlike some of my peers who had to find their sexual identity and research what that meant for them in college at the same time as trying to survive freshman classes. I can't tell you how many girls I had to teach about female condoms my freshman year or books that would help them try to come out to their families. I am very grateful for the resources I had as a teen. Every day more and more authors and publishers are providing books for students who feel like the minority. Teens by definition are discovering who they are. And I consider myself a successful librarian if they are turning to books to figure themselves out. I want books with every single perspective and character jammed onto the shelves of libraries. I want every single different kind of kid -- deaf, left- handed or gay -- to find themselves staring back from the pages of a book. - paraphrasing “Why Gay Characters Matter,” by Kristin Pekoll, HuffPost Gay Voices, 22 September 2014, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kristin- pekoll/why-gay-characters-matter_b_5851516.html?utm_hp_ref=gay- voices&ir=Gay+Voices “Thanks to the resources I had as a teen…” …cont’d…
  • 117. 117 Libraries are powerful places. One of my most memorable experiences that speaks to the importance of libraries was when one of the student shared a completely unexpected and heartfelt story of transformation and empowerment. She was a first year student from a rural area, new to the city and this big campus. She came to the library and through serendipity and chance discovery by browsing the shelves she discovered the books on lesbianism and sexuality. It was a revelation for her. She had never read about herself in this way before. Never realized she was not alone or different. Never knew that her sexuality was normal. It was such a matter- of-fact telling of such a transformative moment in this woman’s life. I think of the story often. It reminds me our work is so much more than all the things we do day to day. To even be able to create a space for this kind of life-changing moment to happen for even one person is amazing.” – paraphrasing Carol Shepstone, formerly librarian at the University of Saskatchewan Library, TAL Tales, May 2011 “A story of transformation and empowerment …
  • 118. “Our presence created beneficial networking opportunities …We are glad to provide LGBTQ resources and support …” 118 In 2010, we noticed more calls from the public re LGBTQ activities so I became a point of contact. SPL connections and outreach activities to the LGBTQ community have grown and continue to develop. Surrey Pride invited us to have a presence at the 2012 Pride Festival and two librarians participated and will continue to be part of this essential event, with a branch technician added to staffing at the table. We offered a prize draw for guessing the number of jelly beans in a mason jar – a surprisingly successful event that brought a lot more people and attention to our table. The jelly bean prize draw will become a regular feature. Our presence has also created some beneficial networking opportunities with the various local LGBTQ organizations, e.g., we learned of “Our City of Colours,” which raises visibility of LGBTQ+ issues in diverse communities, and we distributed to all branches their series of excellent posters. - cont’d…
  • 119. Our presence … - cont’d… 119 I also discovered and connected with staff from HIM, a health initiative for gay men, which will supply us with print information for distribution as needed. Further we have created LGBTQ booklists that we update frequently for use at the Festival, online and in the branches for adults, teens and children. We are glad to provide resources and support the LGBTQ community through current efforts, and look forward to the future as new opportunities arise. - paraphrasing Laurie J. Cooke, Manager, Fleetwood and Cloverdale Branches, Surrey Public Library, 2014
  • 120. 120 An interesting tidbit that says a lot about serving the public. Lots of people take our LGBTQ* reading lists, but this summer we had two people ask to speak to a supervisor about the Pride list. The first person said that they objected to our use of the phrase Gay Pride on the cover of the list, as they said it is not inclusive enough, and doesn’t reflect the diversity in the LGBTQ* community. The second person also asked to speak to a supervisor, and they objected to our inclusion of a photo of a transgendered person on the list, as, according to them, “they are tired of the Gay community having to include every sexual difference.” We took both comments as wins, of course, and were thrilled that people were concerned enough to talk to us about it!! - paraphrasing, Julie Spurrell, Chief Librarian, Westminster Public Library, 2014 “We are thrilled that people are concerned enough to talk to us!”
  • 121. There’s something in my library to offend everybody. - t-shirt, British Columbia Library Association Intellectual Freedom Committee
  • 122. Core Professional Values Many of my personal values come from the fact that I am a librarian. We are the only profession whose value to society resides in a faith that people have the ability to make personal decisions that are good for them when – and if – they also have free and open access to all of the information that they might need. Our belief in the ability of people to form their own opinions trumps everything that we might personally think. This, to me, makes us remarkable. 122 - paraphrasing Ken Roberts, “Keeping True to the Faith: Incoming CLA President Ken Roberts’ Inaugural Address,” Vancouver, BC, May 28, 2008, Feliciter 54.4, 2008:144-145
  • 123. 2) Materials Access Materials Availability and “Checklist” Analysis Studies Key observations: LGBTQ* titles are underrepresented in Canadian school and public library collections, with wide variation across libraries. Only a few large urban public libraries having adequate resources, and even among them LGBTQ* coverage differs substantially. Self-censorship is indicated, but hard to corroborate. 123
  • 124. LGBTQ Fiction for Teens in Canadian Urban Public Libraries LGBTQ Teen Titles Number (/35) Percent Edmonton 32 91% Vancouver 32 91% Toronto 30 86 Ottawa 28 80 Saskatoon 28 80 Halifax 23 66 Regina 22 63 Winnipeg 22 63 Victoria 21 60 - “Recent Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender Fiction for Teens: Are Canadian Public Libraries Providing Adequate Collections?” by Michele Hilton Boon and Vivian Howard. Collection Building, 23.3 (2004): 133–138.
  • 125. LGBTQ* Fiction for Teens and Children in Alberta Public Libraries LGBTQ Teen and Children’s Titles Number (/52) Percent Edmonton 38 73% Calgary 38 73 Grande Prairie 34 65 8 other urban centres 26 50 - “‘I thought I’d find myself at the library’: LGBTQ services and collections in public and school libraries,” by Alvin M. Schrader. PNLA Quarterly 72.1 (2007): 4-9, pnla.org/quarterly/Fall2007/PNLA_Fall07.pdf
  • 126. LGBTQ* Fiction for Teens and Children in Alberta Public Libraries • True Believer (63 libraries = 60%*) • Bad Boy (58 = 55%) • Touch of the Clown (53 = 50%) • The Game (44 = 42%) • The Misfits (31 = 30%) • Postcards from No Man’s Land (31 = 30%) • The Perks of Being a Wallflower (30 = 29%) * n=105 libraries serving 1,200+ populations - “‘I thought I’d find myself at the library’: LGBTQ services and collections in public and school libraries,” by Alvin M. Schrader. PNLA Quarterly 72.1 (2007): 4-9, pnla.org/quarterly/Fall2007/PNLA_Fall07.pdf
  • 127. LGBTQ* Titles Challenged in Canadian Libraries, 2006-2014 • Daddy's Roommate, picture book • And Tango Makes Three, picture book • King and King, picture book • My Princess Boy, picture book • The Sissy Duckling, picture book • Uncle Bobby's Wedding, picture book • Hard and Fast, adult short stories • How Evan Broke His Head and Other Secrets, adult • Snowbound in Nowhere, adult e-book • Coming Out of Homosexuality: New Freedom for Men and Women, adult non- fiction • Xtra! news magazines - “CLA Annual Survey of Challenges,” Canadian Library Association, cla.ca/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Resources&Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=14046 • Coming Out of Homosexuality: New Freedom for Men and Women, adult non- fiction • Xtra! news magazines • “Angels in America,” video • “Brazil,” video • “Brüno,” video • “The Girl Who Played with Fire,” video • “I Love You Phillip Morris,” video • “Killer Joe,” video • “A Single Man,” video • Donovan’s Big Day, picture book
  • 128. - Unshelved, July 18, 2009 and in the U.S…. 128
  • 129. LGBTQ* Titles Challenged in U.S. Libraries and Classrooms, 2001-2014 Since 2001 as many as three LGBTQ*-themed titles were challenged annually among the top 10 titles reported, except for 2001 and 2013 • The Perks of Being a Wallflower, YA novel [2014, 2013, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2004] • And Tango Makes Three, picture book [2014, 2012, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006] • The Kite Runner, adult novel [2012] • Revolutionary Voices, adult non-fiction [2010] • My Sister’s Keeper, adult novel [2009] • Uncle Bobby's Wedding, picture book [2008] • The Color Purple, adult novel [2007] - The State of America’s Libraries 2015: A Report from the American Library Association, ed. Kathy Rosa. American Library Association, 2015, http://www.ala.org/news/state-americas-libraries-report-2015 “Frequently challenged books of the 21st century” [2001-2013], American Library Association, http://www.ala.org/bbooks/frequentlychallengedbooks/top10 • Gossip Girls (series), YA novels [2003] • Athletic Shorts: Six Short Stories, YA novel [2006] • It’s Perfectly Normal: Changing Bodies, Growing Up, Sex, and Sexual Health, children’s non-fiction [2005, 2003] • King & King, picture book [2004] • I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, adult novel [2004] • Alice (series), YA novels [2002] 80
  • 130. 3) Subject Access Key observations: Cultural bias and structural discrimination in library resource description, e.g., Library of Congress Subject Headings, is a ubiquitous historical problem, reflecting mainstream Euro-American, white, male, Christian, heteronormative, and other 18th and 19th century norms, values, prejudices, bigotries, intolerances, and biases. The words we use to define and express ourselves are the foundations of cultural and social and political identity. When those words are organized – classified – into a system for showing relationships among the terms, they become even more important to group and individual identity. Values and hence identity are at the base of all classificatory systems. 130
  • 131. Subject access and organization of information about LGBTQ* minorities in library classification systems in the 1960s and 1970s What I encountered in my MLS program in 1973…. 131
  • 132. Sexual perversion (HQ71-78) sa Exhibitionism Homosexuality Lesbianism Nymphomania Sadism Sex crimes Transvestism x Perversion, Sexual Sex perversion xx Sex crimes Sodomy sa Trials (Sodomy) x Bestiality Pederasty xx Homosexuality Sex crimes Library of Congress Subject Headings, 7th ed. 1966 Homosexuality (Direct) (Medical jurisprudence, RA1141; Neuropsychiatry, RC558; Social pathology, HQ76 Works on the criminal manifestation of homosexuality are entered under the heading Sodomy. sa Bisexuality Lesbianism Sodomy xx Sexual perversion Bisexuality xx Hermaphroditism Homosexuality Sex (Psychology) Lesbianism (Direct) (HQ73) x Lesbian love xx Homosexuality Sexual perversion 132
  • 133. Dewey Subject Headings, 1970 301. Sociology 301.415 7-301.415 8 Abnormal sexual relations Class comprehensive works in 301.45 .415 7 Homosexuality .415 8 Other abnormal sexual relations Incest, bestiality, sadism, masochism Sears List of Subject Headings, 9th ed., 1965 Homosexuality and lesbianism entirely invisible – no subject access at all. 133
  • 134. Sanford Berman’s groundbreaking Prejudices and Antipathies (1971) revealed systemic discrimination in LCSH against minorities and marginalized groups – discrimination that was, variously, homophobic, sexist, racist, obsolete, and misleading. Berman’s research stimulated a growing literature on the cultural construction of knowledge organization systems. - See “The Treatment of LGBTIQ Concepts in the Library of Congress Subject Headings,” by Ellen Greenblatt in Serving LGBTIQ Library and Archives Users (2011); “Inflexible Bodies” by K.R. Roberto, Journal of Information Ethics 20.2 (Fall 2011): 56-64; “A Hidden History of Queer Subject Access,” by Matt Johnson in Radical Cataloging: Essays at the Front, ed. K.R. Roberto, McFarland (2008): 18-27. 134 Discriminatory Subject Access
  • 135. ‘Gays’ as an umbrella term in LCSH was not sanctioned to replace the medically-charged descriptor ‘homosexuality’ until 1987. ‘Lesbians’ as a grouping is still subsumed under ‘gays’. 135
  • 136. In addition to structural bias, access to LGBTQ*-related titles in libraries is impeded by wide variations in the helpfulness (specificity and relevance) of subject headings that are used in catalogue records. Hit and miss subject headings – Half or fewer of LGBTQ* fiction titles have relevant subject headings, and half of those use the culturally-charged (medical) terms ‘homosexuality’ or ‘homosexuality – juvenile literature’. Vague and unreliable subject access hinders discovery of the breadth and the depth of LGBTQ*-related materials in library collections. Another barrier to subject access is the deliberate relocation – misclassification – of materials intended for children and youth into higher age levels or in a “parents’ collection.” 136 Flawed and Inadequate Subject Access
  • 137. Subject Access: Subject Headings reflecting LGBTQ* Content Bisexuality – Fiction Gay teenagers – Juvenile Fiction Gay men – Fiction Gay Parents – Fiction Gay youth – New York (State) – New York – Fiction Homosexuality – Fiction Homosexuality – Juvenile Fiction Lesbians – Fiction Lesbians – Juvenile Fiction Lesbianism – Fiction Lesbianism – Juvenile Fiction - “‘I thought I’d find myself at the library’: LGBTQ services and collections in public and school libraries,” by Alvin M. Schrader. PNLA Quarterly 72.1 (2007): 4-9. pnla.org/quarterly/Fall2007/PNLA_Fall07.pdf
  • 138. Subject Access: Subject Headings not reflecting LGBTQ Content Coming of Age – Fiction Conduct of life – Fiction Emotions – Fiction Erotic Stories Friendship – Fiction High Schools – Fiction Identity – Fiction Interpersonal Relationships – Fiction Love Stories Schools – Juvenile Fiction Self-Realization – Fiction Sex – Fiction Teenage Boys -- Fiction - “‘I thought I’d find myself at the library’: LGBTQ services and collections in public and school libraries,” by Alvin M. Schrader. PNLA Quarterly 72.1 (2007): 4-9. pnla.org/quarterly/Fall2007/PNLA_Fall07.pdf 89
  • 139. Subject Access to Teen Fiction reflecting LGBTQ* Content, EPL Catalogue • Almost half of the LGBTQ* titles used the subject heading ‘homosexuality – juvenile literature’ (52 of 119, or 44%) • 21 different LGBTQ* subject headings were used for 92 titles • 1 out of 4 LGBTQ* titles had no LGBTQ* subject access (27 of 119, or 23%) - personal communication, Lindy Pratch, Edmonton Public Library, 2009
  • 140. 4) Internet Access and Filtering Key observations: Radical inconsistency describes filtering practices among libraries, in general. Substandard Internet access is the filtering norm for poor and rural areas, which disproportionately impacts LGBTQ* students (and adults). Filtering regimes by agenda-driven vendors deliberately prevent access to information and websites about LGBTQ* minorities. Internet filters censor access, silence LGBTQ* voices, render them digitally invisible, and perpetuate LGBTQ*-phobia. The most vulnerable LGBTQ* adolescents are the very young those living in poverty, those living in rural areas, and those everywhere living in homophobic families. Discriminatory access to the Internet solely through filters at school and in libraries is dangerous to the mental, spiritual, and physical health and well- being of LGBTQ* youth. Viewpoint discrimination harms young people and especially LGBTQ* minorities and allies – the Internet is their critical source of information in the 21st century. 140