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Nostoc
Cyanobacteria
Taxonomic position
• Kingdom : bacteria
• Phylum : cyanobacteria
• Class: cyanophyceae
• Order : nostocales
• Family: nostocaceae
• Genus : Nostoc
Occurrence
Common in fresh water ponds
The large colonies are free floating
Appears as circular balls
They may be attached or submerges
It can also be found in soil, or moist rocks, at
the bottom of lakes and springs ( fresh and
salt water) , but rarely in marine habitat
It can also show symbiosis , with plant tissues
like in hornworts , and provide nitrogen to its
host through heterocyst
It may also found as a part of lichen
Plant body
Colony
Cell structure
Cell wall
Pigments
Nucleoplasm
Reserve food material
Colony
Many twisted trichomes arrogate in a
gelatinous matrix to form a ball like globular
colony which ranges from greenish to bluish
green in color
The colony is externally bounded by a tough ,
firm and pellicle membrane , that provides a
definite shape to this.
Cell structure
It is prokaryotic type
The cells are without any mitochondria ,
endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus
It has following characteristics
Cell wall, pigments, nucleoplasm
Cell wall
It is made up of cellulose and it surrounds
the proplast
Pigments
Plastids are absent
The pigments are present inside
chromatoplasm
The cells are blue in color due to presence of
phyccocyanine ( blue pigment)
Other pigments include : chlorophyll ,
carotene and phycorythrin
Nucleoplasm
A definite nucleus is absent ,
And nuclear material is present as central
body
It lacks nucleolus
Reserve food material
It is in the form of sugars , glycogens, and
proteinaceous material called cyanophycin
Reproduction
It reproduces by following methods
A: colony fragmentation
B: hormogonia formation
C: Akinites
D: arthrospores
E: endospores
Colony fragmentation
The colony breaks down in to two or more
fragments accidently or due to some
physiological reason.
Each fragment grows into a new colony
Hormogonia
It is the most common method in Nostoc
The filament is broken down into many short
length pieces the are called as hormogonia
These fragments are formed due to
development of heterocyst or death of any
vegetative cell
These hormogonia come out of the colony by
piercing the colonial sheath
Each develops its own sheath and aggregate
to form a new colony
Akinites
These are also called resting spores
A vegetative cell enlarges and secretes a
thick wall around . Then stores a large
amount of food and functions as Akinites
They are usually present adjacent to the
heterocyst, singly or in chains
They help plant during unfavorable
conditions
When conditions become favorable these
Akinites release their contents through a
pore that germinate into a new filament
Arthrospores
The resting Akinites are called arthrospores
Endospores
In some species like Nostoc microscopium
and N. commune , heterocyst contents divide
to produce endospores.
These spores are released into new filaments

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Nostoc

  • 2. Taxonomic position • Kingdom : bacteria • Phylum : cyanobacteria • Class: cyanophyceae • Order : nostocales • Family: nostocaceae • Genus : Nostoc
  • 3. Occurrence Common in fresh water ponds The large colonies are free floating Appears as circular balls They may be attached or submerges It can also be found in soil, or moist rocks, at the bottom of lakes and springs ( fresh and salt water) , but rarely in marine habitat It can also show symbiosis , with plant tissues like in hornworts , and provide nitrogen to its host through heterocyst It may also found as a part of lichen
  • 4. Plant body Colony Cell structure Cell wall Pigments Nucleoplasm Reserve food material
  • 5. Colony Many twisted trichomes arrogate in a gelatinous matrix to form a ball like globular colony which ranges from greenish to bluish green in color The colony is externally bounded by a tough , firm and pellicle membrane , that provides a definite shape to this.
  • 6. Cell structure It is prokaryotic type The cells are without any mitochondria , endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus It has following characteristics Cell wall, pigments, nucleoplasm
  • 7. Cell wall It is made up of cellulose and it surrounds the proplast
  • 8. Pigments Plastids are absent The pigments are present inside chromatoplasm The cells are blue in color due to presence of phyccocyanine ( blue pigment) Other pigments include : chlorophyll , carotene and phycorythrin
  • 9. Nucleoplasm A definite nucleus is absent , And nuclear material is present as central body It lacks nucleolus
  • 10. Reserve food material It is in the form of sugars , glycogens, and proteinaceous material called cyanophycin
  • 11. Reproduction It reproduces by following methods A: colony fragmentation B: hormogonia formation C: Akinites D: arthrospores E: endospores
  • 12. Colony fragmentation The colony breaks down in to two or more fragments accidently or due to some physiological reason. Each fragment grows into a new colony
  • 13. Hormogonia It is the most common method in Nostoc The filament is broken down into many short length pieces the are called as hormogonia These fragments are formed due to development of heterocyst or death of any vegetative cell These hormogonia come out of the colony by piercing the colonial sheath Each develops its own sheath and aggregate to form a new colony
  • 14. Akinites These are also called resting spores A vegetative cell enlarges and secretes a thick wall around . Then stores a large amount of food and functions as Akinites They are usually present adjacent to the heterocyst, singly or in chains They help plant during unfavorable conditions When conditions become favorable these Akinites release their contents through a pore that germinate into a new filament
  • 15. Arthrospores The resting Akinites are called arthrospores
  • 16. Endospores In some species like Nostoc microscopium and N. commune , heterocyst contents divide to produce endospores. These spores are released into new filaments