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Importance of a Common Philosophy
               School Wide: Positive Behavior
                         Supports
                                                                                                         • Prevents misunderstandings
                                                                                                         • Ensures that all professionals approach
                                       Presented
                                          by                                                               student behavior in a consistent and
                                 Angela Searcy, M.S.                                                       appropriate manner
                         Simple Solutions Educational Services
                                                                                                         • Articulates the “what” and “how”
                   www.overtherainbowsimplesolutions.com
                              asearcya@aol.com                                                           • The steps of a process Matter and are
                                                                                                           grounded in evidence-based research

                  708-845-2343/866-660-3899
                                                                                                                                                     4




     Angela Searcy asearcya@aol.com 708-845-2343                                                                   Questions!
•   Angela Searcy M.S., D.T. holds a B.A. degree in English and secondary education with
    teacher certification though the state of Illinois and a M.S. degree in early childhood
                                                                                                     • What happens when parents don’t follow
    development from Erikson Institute, with a specialization in Infant Studies and a credential
    in developmental therapy. Angela is a Diversifying in Higher Education in Illinois Fellow          through?
    at Argosy University in the Doctor of Education Program
                                                                                                     • Are we catering to children?
•   Angela is the owner and founder of Simple Solutions Educational Services, has over 20
    years of experience in the field of education, is an approved professional development
    provider by the Illinois State Board of Education, and Texas ECI. She acts as an
                                                                                                     • Why are we rewarding children who
    educational consultant for the Multisensory Training Institute (MTI) in Needham, MA,
    Lakeshore Learning, Carson CA and Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations                   misbehave?
    for Early Learning (CSEFEL) at Vanderbilt University. Angela is also a professor at
    Rasmussen College and a PDI coach with the Ounce of Prevention                                   • Why am I wasting my time when my work is
•   A former associate at the Neuropsychology Diagnostic Center in Orland Park, Illinois,              undone in a weekend?
    Angela has specialized training in the neurosciences and is a nationally recognized speaker
    with extensive experience working with professionals, young children, and their families as
    an early childhood teacher, child development specialist, staff developer, mental health         • What if this child doesn’t belong in this setting?
    consultant, parent educator, language arts teacher, college professor and tutor. Her expertise
    encompasses developing behavior modification programs from a neuropsychological
    perspective, and creating professional development grounded in neuroscience research related
                                                                                                     • Are we going to talk about consequences?
    to adult learning.
                                                                                                     • What if a child is dangerous to self and others?
•   She has been featured on Chicago Public Radio’s Chicago Matters, Chicago Parent and
    Chicago Baby Magazines and is a regular speaker for the Learning and the Brain
    Conference Sponsored by Harvard, Yale and Stanford Universities.




              National Centers &
                  Resources                                                                                             Concerns
         •    Center on the Social and Emotional
              Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) -
              www.vanderbilt.edu/csefel                                                                  • I am not trained to work with kids like
         •    Technical Assistance Center for Social                                                       this…
              Emotional Intervention (TACSEI)
              www.challengingbehavior.org                                                                • The other children are not getting what
        •    Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional                                             they deserve…
             Learning                                                                                    • This child is out to get me…
        •    www.CASEL.org
                                                                                                         • Children don’t have respect anymore.
        •    edutopia.org
        •    The Center for Effective collaboration and
             Practice www.cecp.air.org




                                                                                                                                                            1
• It is not evidence-based!
                                                  • Would you want to take medicine that was
              Punishment                            not proven to work?
  A stimulus or event occurs following a
  behavior, and the behavior decreases.
• Presentation of something unpleasant.
• Removal of positive reinforcement
  – Time Out (from reinforcement)
  – Response Cost (a fine – take away
    positive reinforcement already earned.)


                                              7




                                                               Few
       Problems with Punishment                              children


 • Doesn’t weaken the tendency to
   respond; just temporarily suppresses.               Children
                                                       at-risk
 • Or - Behavior might be suppressed only
   in the presence of the punisher.
                                                    All
 • Sometimes backfires – and the behavior         Children

   increases due to the attention it’s
   getting

                                              8




    More Problems With Punishment
 • Students’ self-esteem can suffer if the only
                                                         The Pyramid Model and RtI
   attention they are receiving is in the form
   of punishment.
 • Learned helplessness – “I can’t do
   anything right.”
 • Can discourage both unacceptable AND
   acceptable behaviors.
 • The punishment reinforces the behavior
 • It doesn’t address the environmental,
   social and cognitive reasons behind the
   behavior

                                              9




                                                                                               2
Challenging Behavior                               Process of Positive Behavior Support
• What we are referring to when we say
• “challenging behavior” is:
     • Any repeated pattern of behavior that interferes with
       learning or engagement in pro-social interactions with
                                                                     Step 1: Using peer coaches and identifying
       peers and adults                                                      goals
     • Behaviors that are not responsive to the use of
       developmentally appropriate guidance procedures.              Step 2: Gathering information (functional
                                                                             assessment)
     • Prolonged tantrums, physical and verbal aggression,
       disruptive vocal and motor behavior (e.g., screaming,         Step 3: Developing hypotheses (best guess)
       stereotypy), property destructions, self-injury,
       noncompliance, and withdrawal                                 Step 4: Designing behavior support plans
                                                                     Step 5: Implementing, monitoring, evaluating
                                                                              outcomes, and refining plan in natural
                                                                              environments




                Research on PBS                                         Who are Peer Coaches?
   • Effective for all ages of individuals with disabilities    Peer Coaches are NOT:        Peer Coaches ARE:
     2-50 years.                                                • Supervisors                • A tool to help you
   • Effective for diverse groups of individuals with           • There to judge you         • Your eyes and ears
     challenges: mental retardation, oppositional defiant       • To talk about you behind   • Data collectors
     disorder, autism, emotional behavioral disorders,            your back                  • There to help you reflect
     children at risk, etc.                                     • There to give you advise     on your problem and
   • PBS is the only comprehensive and                                                         support you
     evidence-based approach to address                                                      • Can provide resources
     challenging behavior within a variety
     of natural settings.




          Wrong Way – Right Way                                             Children Communicate
                                                                                in Many Ways:
Wrong Way                       Right Way
                                                                 • Forms of communication
• General intervention for      • Intervention matched to
                                                                    –   Words
  all behavior challenges         purpose of the behavior
                                                                    –   Sentences
• Intervention is reactive      • Intervention is proactive         –   Point to a picture
• Focus on behavior             • Focus on teaching new             –   Eye gaze
  reduction                       skills                            –   Pulling adult
• Quick fix                     • Long-term interventions           –   Crying
                                                                    –   Biting
                                                                    –   Tantrums
                                                                    –   ?




                                                                                                                           3
All Behavior has Meaning and it is Up to                             Functional Assessment
 the ADULTS to figure out the function
                                                    • Observe the child in target routines and
Functions of communication
 –   Request object, activity, person                 settings.
 –   Escape demands                                 • Collect data on child behavior, looking for
 –   Escape activity
                                                      situations that predict challenging behavior
 –   Escape a person
 –   Request help                                     and that are linked with appropriate behavior.
 –   Request social interaction                     • Interview persons most familiar with the child.
 –   Comment
 –   Request information                            • Review records.
 –   Request sensory stimulation
 –   Escape sensory stimulation
 –   TO GAIN or AVOID




 Process of Positive Behavior Support                                Everybody Helps

 Step 1: Establishing a collaborative team and
            identifying goals                                 •    Family collects data
 Step 2: Gathering information (functional                    •    Educational staff collects data
         assessment)
                                                              •    Therapists collect data
 Step 3: Developing hypotheses (best guess)
                                                              •    Collect data in ALL settings
 Step 4: Designing behavior support plans
 Step 5: Implementing, monitoring,
          evaluating outcomes, and
          refining plan in natural environments




                                                                        Sample
              Functional Assessment
                                                                  Setting Event Chart
                                                                             MON   TUES   WED   THURS   FRI   SAT   SUN
     • A process for developing an                                Slept      Yes    Yes   Yes    Yes    Yes   Yes   Yes
                                                    What
       understanding of a person’s challenging    happened
                                                                  Poorly     No     No    No     No     No    No    No


       behavior and, in particular, how the       the night
                                                   before?
                                                                  Mom on     Yes    Yes   Yes    Yes    Yes   Yes   Yes
                                                                  Midnight
       behavior is governed by environmental                       Shift
                                                                             No     No    No     No     No    No    No


       events.                                                    Tantrum    Yes    Yes   Yes    Yes    Yes   Yes   Yes
                                                  How was          in A.M.   No     No    No     No     No    No    No
     • Results in the identification of the          his
                                                  behavior?
       “purpose” or “function” of the                             Tantrum
                                                                   in P.M.
                                                                             Yes    Yes   Yes    Yes    Yes   Yes   Yes

                                                                             No     No    No     No     No    No    No
       challenging behavior.




                                                                                                                          4
Sample Setting
                                                 Event Chart                                                                                                            Child’s Name: ______________                  Week of: _________________
                                                                                                                                                                      Check the number of times the child is aggressive during the activity. Aggression
                                                                                                                                                                                includes: hits, pinches, pulls hair, bites, kicks, & scratches.
                                                                                                                                                                          Activity              Mon.               Tues.               Wed.               Thurs.                Fri.          Average
                                                                   Mon            Tues                 Wed               Thurs                  Fri                    Arrival             ___0 times          ___0 times          ___0 times         ___0 times           ___0 times       ___0 times
                                                                                                                                                                                           ___1-5 times        ___1-5 times        ___1-5 times       ___1-5 times         ___1-5 times     ___1-5 times
          How does                            Rides the                                  √                  √                 √                                                            ___5-10 times       ___5-10 times       ___5-10 times      ___5-10 times        ___5-10 times    ___510 times
                                                                                                                                                                                           ___10-15            ___10-15            ___10-15           ___10-15             ___10-15         ___10-15
          he come                             bus                                                                                                                                          ___15-20            ___15-20            ___15-20           ___15-20             ___15-20         ___15-20
                                                                                                                                                                                           ___+20              ___+20              ___+20             ___+20               ___+20           ___+20
          to                                  Mom                     √                                                                           √                    Circle              ___0 times          ___0 times          ___0 times         ___0 times           ___0 times       ___0 times
          school?                             brings                                                                                                                                       ___1-5 times        ___1-5 times        ___1-5 times       ___1-5 times         ___1-5 times     ___1-5 times
                                                                                                                                                                                           ___5-10 times       ___5-10 times       ___5-10 times      ___5-10 times        ___5-10 times    ___5-10 times
                                              Tantrum                                    √                  √                 √                                                            ___10-15
                                                                                                                                                                                           ___15-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ___10-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ___15-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ___10-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ___15-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ___10-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ___15-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ___10-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ___15-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ___10-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ___15-20
                                              at a.m.                                                                                                                                      ___+20              ___+20              ___+20             ___+20               ___+20           ___+20
                                              circle                                                                                                                   Lunch               ___0 times          ___0 times          ___0 times         ___0 times           ___0 times       ___0 times
                                                                                                                                                                                           ___1-5 times        ___1-5 times        ___1-5 times       ___1-5 times         ___1-5 times     ___1-5 times
          His       Tantrum                                           √                  √                                    √                                                            ___5-10 times
                                                                                                                                                                                           ___10-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ___5-10 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ___10-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ___5-10 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ___10-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ___5-10 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ___10-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ___5-10 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ___10-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ___5-10 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ___10-15
          behavior? at snack                                                                                                                                                               ___15-20            ___15-20            ___15-20           ___15-20             ___15-20         ___15-20
                                                                                                                                                                                           ___+20              ___+20              ___+20             ___+20               ___+20           ___+20
                                              Tantrum                                    √                  √                 √                                        Average             ___0 times          ___0 times          ___0 times         ___0 times           ___0 times       ___0 times
                                              at small                                                                                                                                     ___1-5 times
                                                                                                                                                                                           ___5-10 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ___1-5 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                               ___5-10 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ___1-5 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ___5-10 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ___1-5 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ___5-10 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ___1-5 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ___5-10 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ___1-5 times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ___5-10 times
                                              group                                                                                                                                        ___10-15            ___10-15            ___10-15           ___10-15             ___10-15         ___10-15
                                                                                                                                                                                           ___15-20            ___15-20            ___15-20           ___15-20             ___15-20         ___15-20
                                                                                                                                                                                           ___+20              ___+20              ___+20             ___+20               ___+20           ___+20




                                                       Scatter Plot                                                                                                       Child’s Name:          Tim           Observer: ___________________
                                                                                                                                                                      Check yes (Y) or no (N) at time one (T1) and time two (T2) to indicate whether
                                                                                                                                                                         the child is interacting with a peer at the time of observation. T1 and T2
              Student:            Rachel                                          Target Behavior:         Hitting Peers                                                              observations should be at least 5 minutes apart.
              Observer:           Maya                                            Using a scatter plot involves recording the times of day (and/or activities)       Activity               Date:____               Date:____               Date:____                Date:____              Date:____
                                                                                  in which the behavior does and does not occur to identify patterns over
              Dates:              10/1 through 10/12                              days or weeks                                                                      Centers                T1:        T2:          T1:         T2:         T1:         T2:          T1:        T2:         T1:       T2:
                                                                                                                                                      Behavior did                          x_Y       __Y           __Y        __Y          __Y        __Y           __Y       __Y          __Y      __Y
                                                                                     Dates                                                            not occur                             __N       x_N           __N        __N          __N        __N           __N       __N          __N      __N
       Time                        Activity         10/1   10/2     10/3   10/4   10/5       10/8   10/9     10/10   10/11   10/12
                                                                                                                                                      Behavior did
                                                                                                                                                      occur
7:30                   Arrival

                       Free Choice                                                                                                               NA   Did not        Lunch                  T1:        T2:          T1:         T2:         T1:         T2:          T1:        T2:         T1:       T2:
                                                                                                                                                      observe
9:00                   Planning                                                                                                                                                             __Y       __Y           __Y        __Y          __Y        __Y           __Y       __Y          __Y      __Y
9:30                   Centers                                                                                                                                                              x_N       x_N           __N        __N          __N        __N           __N       __N          __N      __N
10:30                  Snack

11:00                  Outside
                                                                                                                                                                     Outside                T1:        T2:          T1:         T2:         T1:         T2:          T1:        T2:         T1:       T2:
11:30                  Small Group
                                                                                                                                                                                            __Y       x_Y           __Y        __Y          __Y        __Y           __Y       __Y          __Y      __Y
12:00                  Lunch
                                                                                                                                                                                            x_N       __N           __N        __N          __N        __N           __N       __N          __N      __N
12:30                  Nap

1:30                   Outside
2:30                   P.M. Circle                                                                                                                                               Ratio:     __2__#yes               _____#yes               _____#yes                _____#yes              _____#yes
3:00                   Departure                                                                                                                                                            __6__total #            ____total #             ____total #              ____total #            ____total #
                                                                                                                                                                                            observed                observed                observed                 observed               observed




                                     Activity Analysis                                                                                                                                                  Amy’s Transition
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Week of: _________________
          Child: Rachel                                                                      Routine/Activity: House Center
                Activity Description                              Behavior Expectations                                      Problems                                                          Monday                   Tuesday               Wednesday                 Thursday                  Friday

        Steps:                                                                                                                                                                  Arrival
                                                                                                                                                                                               0 1 2 3                  0 1 2 3                  0 1 2 3                 0 1 2 3               0 1 2 3
        1. Select materials                                 1. Pick materials that no
                                                                                                                                                                                 Circle
                                                               one is using.                                                                                                                   0 1 2 3                  0 1 2 3                  0 1 2 3                 0 1 2 3               0 1 2 3
        2. Pretend in roles                                 2. Use materials
                                                                                                                                                                                   Nap
                                                               appropriately.                                                                                                                  0 1 2 3                  0 1 2 3                  0 1 2 3                 0 1 2 3               0 1 2 3
        3. Exchange materials                               3. Don’t take from peer.                            3. Takes materials from                                      Clean-up
           with peers                                                                                              others.                                                                     0 1 2 3                  0 1 2 3                  0 1 2 3                 0 1 2 3               0 1 2 3

                                                                                                                                                                     Other:
        4. Follow peers’ lead or  4. Maintain engagement.                                                       4. Ignores peers,                                    _Bus Ride_                0 1 2 3                  0 1 2 3                  0 1 2 3                 0 1 2 3               0 1 2 3
           accept role assignment                                                                                  interferes in play.
                                                                                                                                                                             Average        Average Score:           Average Score:           Average Score:          Average Score:        Average Score:
                                                                                                                                                                               Score              3                       2.2                      1.4                     1.4                    .8
        5. Clean-up                                         5. Put materials on shelf
                                                               in correct area.
                                                                                                                                                                       Rate the problem behavior:
                                                                                                                                                                       0 = no problems, 1 = whining, resisting, 2 = screaming, falling on floor, 3 = screaming, hitting, other aggression




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             5
Child’s Name: ______________________               Behavior: ____sitting______
                                                                                                                        Observation Card
           Week of: _________________ Average Duration for Week: ___9___ minutes
         Starting from the bottom, shade the number of boxes that represent the length of the
                                                                                                                                    Example
                          target behavior. Each box represents TWO minutes.
                                                                                                      Name: Karen                     Observer: teacher                Date: 1/22
          Monday           Tuesday           Wednesday             Thursday           Friday
             30               30                  30                  30                30            General Context: Choice time/art                                 Time: 10:00
             28               28                  28                  28                28            Social Context: Playing alone in house. Teacher comes over to Karen and asks her to
             26               26                  26                  26                26            come to the art table for art. When she doesn’t respond, the teacher tries to assist her by
             24               24                  24                  24                24            taking her arm to nudge her to stand.
             22               22                  22                  22                22
                                                                                                      Challenging Behavior: Karen pulls away and begins to protest by saying,
             20               20                  20                  20                20            “No! I not go to art!” as she pulls away from the teacher.
             18               18                  18                  18                18
             16               16                  16                  16                16
                                                                                                      Social Reaction: The teacher walks away and says, “I will be back in a few minutes to
             14               14                  14                  14                14            see if you are ready.”
             12               12                  12                  12                12
             10               10                  10                  10                10
             8                8                   8                    8                 8            POSSIBLE FUNCTION: Escape art
             6                6                   6                    6                 6
             4                4                   4                    4                 4
             2                2                   2                    2                 2




                        Activity Analysis                                                                                                “KIS”
      Child: Rachel                                               Routine/Activity: Snack
     Activity Description             Behavior Expectations                   Problems
Steps:
1. Sit in chair.                   1. Stay in seat.
2. Take food from plate            2. Take one item, wait for        2. Takes multiple items, puts
  when passed.                     turn.                               hand in bowl, grabs while     • “KIS it” (Keep It Simple)
                                                                       plate is passed.                - - Create simple, user-
3. Eat food on plate.              3. Eat from own plate.            3. Takes food from other
                                                                       children’s plates.
                                                                                                       friendly forms to collect
4. Drink juice from own cup.       4. Drink and put cup on
                                                                                                       information (e.g., rating
                                   table.                                                              scales, checklists).
5. Ask for more food.              5. Ask using please.              5. Grabs food when she
                                                                       wants more.
6. Wipe face with napkin.          6. Use napkin, not clothing.
7. Throw plate/cup/napkin          7. Clear place, throw in
  away when finished.              trash.




                             Observation Card                                                                           Home Observation Card

  Name:                              Observer:                       Date:
  General Context:                                                   Time:
  Social Context:


  Challenging Behavior:


  Social Reaction:




  POSSIBLE FUNCTION:




                                                                                                                                                                                                    6
Home Observation Card
                                                                                              Behavior support Plans
                                                                                       • This is a THREE tier approach to
                                                                                         dealing with challenging behaviors




           Process of Positive Behavior                                                          Behavior Support Plan
                     Support
                                                                                     • Behavior Hypotheses- Purpose of the behavior, your
                                                                                       best guess about why the behavior occurs
    Step 1: Establishing a collaborative team and
            identifying goals                                                        • Prevention Strategies- Ways to make events and
                                                                                       interactions that trigger challenging behavior easier for
    Step 2: Gathering information (functional                                          the child to manage
            assessment)
                                                                                     • Replacement Skills– New skills to teach throughout
    Step 3: Developing hypotheses (best guess)                                         the day to replace the challenging behavior
    Step 4: Designing behavior support plans                                         • Responses- What adults will do when the challenging
    Step 5: Implementing, monitoring, evaluating                                       behavior occurs to ensure that the challenging
            outcomes, and refining plan in                                             behavior is not maintained and the new skill is learned
            natural environments




                                                                                              Video 3b.2: Observation Vignette #2
  Tim’s Support Planning Chart- Hypothesis
        Trigger                  Behavior              Maintaining Consequence
• Group play: centers   Verbal aggression (threats),   • Peers give up toys/items
  and outside play      physical aggression (hit,      • Peers leave area
                        push, kick, punch), property   • Adults intervene with
                        destruction                      negative attention on Tim
                                 Function:
Setting Events (if
                               obtain toy/play
 applicable):
      Preventions               New Skills                  New Responses




                                                                                                                                                   7
Wait Baskets
Materials to Add!

Story blocks
Word blocks
Ball toss
Bubble wrap
jump
Sound jump
Letter Jump




                                  HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module
      Simple Solutions Support!




                                   Here a child is not yet using a
                                  functional grasp, so a materials
                                  adaptation is created by using a
                                  table easel to help her keep her
                                  hand in the appropriate position.




                                                    Right Way/Wrong Way




                                                                                     8
HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module
                                                                                                      Behavior Support Plan
    Environmental Support
                                                                                        • Behavior Hypotheses- Purpose of the behavior; your
                                                                                          best guess about why the behavior occurs
                                                                                        • Prevention Strategies- Ways to make events and
                                                                                          interactions that trigger challenging behavior easier for
                                                                                          the child to manage
                                                                                        • Replacement Skills– New skills to teach throughout
                                                                                          the day to replace the challenging behavior
                                                                                        • Responses- What adults will do when the challenging
                                                                                          behavior occurs to ensure that the challenging behavior
                                                                                          is not maintained and the new skill is learned




                  Step 3:
      Support Plan Development (cont.)
                                                                                       “If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.
     • Brainstorm Prevention Strategies                                                  If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.

         – Strategies to make routines or activities                                     If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.
           easier for the child                                                          If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.
         – Strategies to soften the triggers                                             If a child doesn’t know how to behave,
                                                                                          we…….....            …….teach?                       ……punish?
                                                                                       Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as
                                                                                       we do the others?”
                                                                                       Tom Herner (NASDE President ) Counterpoint 1998, p.2)

                                                                                                                                                           53




             Tim’s Support Planning Chart                                                         Identifying Teachable Moments
          Trigger                    Behavior             Maintaining Consequence
  • Group play: centers     Verbal aggression            • Peers give up toys/items
    and outside play with   (threats), physical          • Peers leave area
    peers                   aggression (hit, push, kick, • Adults intervene with
                            punch), property               negative attention to Tim
                            destruction
  Setting Events (if          Function: Obtain toy/play
   applicable):
       Preventions                  New Skills                New Responses
  • Pre-teach skills by                                   To Challenging
    role playing via                                       Behavior:
    scripted story
  • Use visual cards to
    help him remember
    lessons when in
    difficult situation                                   Use of New Skill:
  • Self-monitoring form
    to work on new skills                                                                                                                                  54




                                                                                                                                                                9
Turtle Technique
                                                             Feeling Dice/Feeling Wheel
  Recognize
                                        “Think”
  that you
                                          Stop.
  feel angry.




Go into shell.                          Come out
Take 3 deep                             of shell
breathes.                               when calm
And think                               and think of
calm, coping                            a solution.
thoughts.




                                                          Simple Solutions Adaptation
                    Centers!
                           Turtle Box




                                               19




                 Teach Rules in the
                Context of Routines
                                                                    Ask for a Break
                                                       Times to ask for a break:          • A short break could
                                                       • Sleepy                             help you come back
                                                       • Frustrated                         better to think through a
                                                       • Overwhelmed                        problem
                                                                                          • Ask for a drink of water,
                                                                                            go to the bathroom,
                                                                                            take three deep
                                                                                            breaths, do something
                                                                                            you like ( color for a few
                                                                                            minutes)
                                                                                          • Sometimes we need a
                                                                                            break from our friends

                                                                         Simple Solutions Educational Services © 2010 asearcya@aol.com   866-
                                                                                                        660-3899




                                                                                                                                                10
Lose a Game…Win a Friend!
                               • Being a sore loser
                                 can then led to not
                                 only losing the game
                                 but a friend!
                               • You can play and win
                                 another time
                               • Everyone should get
                                 a chance to win
                               • Win a friend by saying
                                 “good game”


         Simple Solutions Educational Services© 2010 asearcya@aol.com   866-




                                                                               11
The Solution Kit




                               28




      Logan Square!!




Room 13 at Uptown Uses a key
      Ring instead…




                                    12
Step 4:
    Support Plan Development (cont.)

   • Brainstorm ideas about what new skills
     should be taught to replace challenging
     behavior; write new skills on chart.




          Tim’s Support Planning Chart
        Trigger                    Behavior              Maintaining Consequence
• Group play: centers     Verbal aggression            • Peers give up toys/items
  and outside play with   (threats), physical          • Peers leave area
  peers                   aggression (hit, push, kick, • Adults intervene with
                          punch), property               negative attention to Tim
                          destruction
Setting Events (if
 applicable):               Function: Obtain toy/play

     Preventions                   New Skills                New Responses
• Pre-teach skills by role • Asking to play              To Challenging
  playing via scripted     • Everyone can play with       Behavior:
  story                      the toys
• Use visual cards to      • Asking for teacher’s help
  help him remember
  lessons when in                                        To Use o New Skill:
  difficult situation
• Self-monitoring form
  to work on new skills




                  Behavior Support Plan
• Behavior Hypotheses- Purpose of the behavior;
  your best guess about why the behavior occurs
• Prevention Strategies- Ways to make events and
  interactions that trigger challenging behavior easier
  for the child to manage
• Replacement Skills– New skills to teach throughout
  the day to replace the challenging behavior
• Responses- What adults will do when the
  challenging behavior occurs to ensure that the
  challenging behavior is not maintained and the new
  skill is learned




                                                                                     13
Simple Solutions Adaptation at
   Ezzard Charles Montessori




             Step 5:
Support Plan Development (cont.)

• Brainstorm ideas about how to respond
  to challenging behavior when it occurs;
  write new responses on chart.




                                            14
Tim’s Support Planning Chart
         Trigger                      Behavior              Maintaining Consequence
• Group play: centers        Verbal aggression (threats),   • Peers give up toys/items
  and outside play with      physical aggression (hit,      • Peers leave area
  peers                      push, kick, punch), property   • Adults intervene with
• Circle Time                destruction                      negative attention to Tim

                                      Function:
Setting Events (if                  Obtain toy/play
 applicable):
      Preventions                     New Skills                  New Responses
• Pre-teach skills by role   • Asking to play               To Challenging Behavior:
  playing via scripted       • Everyone can play with the   • Anticipate & cue to use new
  story                        toys                           skill: asking to play/help
• Use visual cards to        • Asking for teacher’s help    • Intervene to prevent harm
  help him remember                                           by providing
  lessons when in                                             attention/support to child
  difficult situation                                         who is attacked
• Teacher will subgroup                                     To Use of New Skill:
  during centers                                            • When asks, respond
• Teacher will change                                       • Provide certificate and
  location of circle time                                     acknowledge positive
• Teacher will allow Tim                                      behavior. Fade certificate.
  to ask for a break




        Simple Solutions Classroom
                    Kit!




                                                                                            15

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North adams august six slides

  • 1. Importance of a Common Philosophy School Wide: Positive Behavior Supports • Prevents misunderstandings • Ensures that all professionals approach Presented by student behavior in a consistent and Angela Searcy, M.S. appropriate manner Simple Solutions Educational Services • Articulates the “what” and “how” www.overtherainbowsimplesolutions.com asearcya@aol.com • The steps of a process Matter and are grounded in evidence-based research 708-845-2343/866-660-3899 4 Angela Searcy asearcya@aol.com 708-845-2343 Questions! • Angela Searcy M.S., D.T. holds a B.A. degree in English and secondary education with teacher certification though the state of Illinois and a M.S. degree in early childhood • What happens when parents don’t follow development from Erikson Institute, with a specialization in Infant Studies and a credential in developmental therapy. Angela is a Diversifying in Higher Education in Illinois Fellow through? at Argosy University in the Doctor of Education Program • Are we catering to children? • Angela is the owner and founder of Simple Solutions Educational Services, has over 20 years of experience in the field of education, is an approved professional development provider by the Illinois State Board of Education, and Texas ECI. She acts as an • Why are we rewarding children who educational consultant for the Multisensory Training Institute (MTI) in Needham, MA, Lakeshore Learning, Carson CA and Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations misbehave? for Early Learning (CSEFEL) at Vanderbilt University. Angela is also a professor at Rasmussen College and a PDI coach with the Ounce of Prevention • Why am I wasting my time when my work is • A former associate at the Neuropsychology Diagnostic Center in Orland Park, Illinois, undone in a weekend? Angela has specialized training in the neurosciences and is a nationally recognized speaker with extensive experience working with professionals, young children, and their families as an early childhood teacher, child development specialist, staff developer, mental health • What if this child doesn’t belong in this setting? consultant, parent educator, language arts teacher, college professor and tutor. Her expertise encompasses developing behavior modification programs from a neuropsychological perspective, and creating professional development grounded in neuroscience research related • Are we going to talk about consequences? to adult learning. • What if a child is dangerous to self and others? • She has been featured on Chicago Public Radio’s Chicago Matters, Chicago Parent and Chicago Baby Magazines and is a regular speaker for the Learning and the Brain Conference Sponsored by Harvard, Yale and Stanford Universities. National Centers & Resources Concerns • Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) - www.vanderbilt.edu/csefel • I am not trained to work with kids like • Technical Assistance Center for Social this… Emotional Intervention (TACSEI) www.challengingbehavior.org • The other children are not getting what • Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional they deserve… Learning • This child is out to get me… • www.CASEL.org • Children don’t have respect anymore. • edutopia.org • The Center for Effective collaboration and Practice www.cecp.air.org 1
  • 2. • It is not evidence-based! • Would you want to take medicine that was Punishment not proven to work? A stimulus or event occurs following a behavior, and the behavior decreases. • Presentation of something unpleasant. • Removal of positive reinforcement – Time Out (from reinforcement) – Response Cost (a fine – take away positive reinforcement already earned.) 7 Few Problems with Punishment children • Doesn’t weaken the tendency to respond; just temporarily suppresses. Children at-risk • Or - Behavior might be suppressed only in the presence of the punisher. All • Sometimes backfires – and the behavior Children increases due to the attention it’s getting 8 More Problems With Punishment • Students’ self-esteem can suffer if the only The Pyramid Model and RtI attention they are receiving is in the form of punishment. • Learned helplessness – “I can’t do anything right.” • Can discourage both unacceptable AND acceptable behaviors. • The punishment reinforces the behavior • It doesn’t address the environmental, social and cognitive reasons behind the behavior 9 2
  • 3. Challenging Behavior Process of Positive Behavior Support • What we are referring to when we say • “challenging behavior” is: • Any repeated pattern of behavior that interferes with learning or engagement in pro-social interactions with Step 1: Using peer coaches and identifying peers and adults goals • Behaviors that are not responsive to the use of developmentally appropriate guidance procedures. Step 2: Gathering information (functional assessment) • Prolonged tantrums, physical and verbal aggression, disruptive vocal and motor behavior (e.g., screaming, Step 3: Developing hypotheses (best guess) stereotypy), property destructions, self-injury, noncompliance, and withdrawal Step 4: Designing behavior support plans Step 5: Implementing, monitoring, evaluating outcomes, and refining plan in natural environments Research on PBS Who are Peer Coaches? • Effective for all ages of individuals with disabilities Peer Coaches are NOT: Peer Coaches ARE: 2-50 years. • Supervisors • A tool to help you • Effective for diverse groups of individuals with • There to judge you • Your eyes and ears challenges: mental retardation, oppositional defiant • To talk about you behind • Data collectors disorder, autism, emotional behavioral disorders, your back • There to help you reflect children at risk, etc. • There to give you advise on your problem and • PBS is the only comprehensive and support you evidence-based approach to address • Can provide resources challenging behavior within a variety of natural settings. Wrong Way – Right Way Children Communicate in Many Ways: Wrong Way Right Way • Forms of communication • General intervention for • Intervention matched to – Words all behavior challenges purpose of the behavior – Sentences • Intervention is reactive • Intervention is proactive – Point to a picture • Focus on behavior • Focus on teaching new – Eye gaze reduction skills – Pulling adult • Quick fix • Long-term interventions – Crying – Biting – Tantrums – ? 3
  • 4. All Behavior has Meaning and it is Up to Functional Assessment the ADULTS to figure out the function • Observe the child in target routines and Functions of communication – Request object, activity, person settings. – Escape demands • Collect data on child behavior, looking for – Escape activity situations that predict challenging behavior – Escape a person – Request help and that are linked with appropriate behavior. – Request social interaction • Interview persons most familiar with the child. – Comment – Request information • Review records. – Request sensory stimulation – Escape sensory stimulation – TO GAIN or AVOID Process of Positive Behavior Support Everybody Helps Step 1: Establishing a collaborative team and identifying goals • Family collects data Step 2: Gathering information (functional • Educational staff collects data assessment) • Therapists collect data Step 3: Developing hypotheses (best guess) • Collect data in ALL settings Step 4: Designing behavior support plans Step 5: Implementing, monitoring, evaluating outcomes, and refining plan in natural environments Sample Functional Assessment Setting Event Chart MON TUES WED THURS FRI SAT SUN • A process for developing an Slept Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes What understanding of a person’s challenging happened Poorly No No No No No No No behavior and, in particular, how the the night before? Mom on Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Midnight behavior is governed by environmental Shift No No No No No No No events. Tantrum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes How was in A.M. No No No No No No No • Results in the identification of the his behavior? “purpose” or “function” of the Tantrum in P.M. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No challenging behavior. 4
  • 5. Sample Setting Event Chart Child’s Name: ______________ Week of: _________________ Check the number of times the child is aggressive during the activity. Aggression includes: hits, pinches, pulls hair, bites, kicks, & scratches. Activity Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Average Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Arrival ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times How does Rides the √ √ √ ___5-10 times ___5-10 times ___5-10 times ___5-10 times ___5-10 times ___510 times ___10-15 ___10-15 ___10-15 ___10-15 ___10-15 ___10-15 he come bus ___15-20 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 to Mom √ √ Circle ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times school? brings ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___5-10 times ___5-10 times ___5-10 times ___5-10 times ___5-10 times ___5-10 times Tantrum √ √ √ ___10-15 ___15-20 ___10-15 ___15-20 ___10-15 ___15-20 ___10-15 ___15-20 ___10-15 ___15-20 ___10-15 ___15-20 at a.m. ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 circle Lunch ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times ___1-5 times His Tantrum √ √ √ ___5-10 times ___10-15 ___5-10 times ___10-15 ___5-10 times ___10-15 ___5-10 times ___10-15 ___5-10 times ___10-15 ___5-10 times ___10-15 behavior? at snack ___15-20 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 Tantrum √ √ √ Average ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times ___0 times at small ___1-5 times ___5-10 times ___1-5 times ___5-10 times ___1-5 times ___5-10 times ___1-5 times ___5-10 times ___1-5 times ___5-10 times ___1-5 times ___5-10 times group ___10-15 ___10-15 ___10-15 ___10-15 ___10-15 ___10-15 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___15-20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 ___+20 Scatter Plot Child’s Name: Tim Observer: ___________________ Check yes (Y) or no (N) at time one (T1) and time two (T2) to indicate whether the child is interacting with a peer at the time of observation. T1 and T2 Student: Rachel Target Behavior: Hitting Peers observations should be at least 5 minutes apart. Observer: Maya Using a scatter plot involves recording the times of day (and/or activities) Activity Date:____ Date:____ Date:____ Date:____ Date:____ in which the behavior does and does not occur to identify patterns over Dates: 10/1 through 10/12 days or weeks Centers T1: T2: T1: T2: T1: T2: T1: T2: T1: T2: Behavior did x_Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y Dates not occur __N x_N __N __N __N __N __N __N __N __N Time Activity 10/1 10/2 10/3 10/4 10/5 10/8 10/9 10/10 10/11 10/12 Behavior did occur 7:30 Arrival Free Choice NA Did not Lunch T1: T2: T1: T2: T1: T2: T1: T2: T1: T2: observe 9:00 Planning __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y 9:30 Centers x_N x_N __N __N __N __N __N __N __N __N 10:30 Snack 11:00 Outside Outside T1: T2: T1: T2: T1: T2: T1: T2: T1: T2: 11:30 Small Group __Y x_Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y __Y 12:00 Lunch x_N __N __N __N __N __N __N __N __N __N 12:30 Nap 1:30 Outside 2:30 P.M. Circle Ratio: __2__#yes _____#yes _____#yes _____#yes _____#yes 3:00 Departure __6__total # ____total # ____total # ____total # ____total # observed observed observed observed observed Activity Analysis Amy’s Transition Week of: _________________ Child: Rachel Routine/Activity: House Center Activity Description Behavior Expectations Problems Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Steps: Arrival 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 1. Select materials 1. Pick materials that no Circle one is using. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 2. Pretend in roles 2. Use materials Nap appropriately. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 3. Exchange materials 3. Don’t take from peer. 3. Takes materials from Clean-up with peers others. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Other: 4. Follow peers’ lead or 4. Maintain engagement. 4. Ignores peers, _Bus Ride_ 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 accept role assignment interferes in play. Average Average Score: Average Score: Average Score: Average Score: Average Score: Score 3 2.2 1.4 1.4 .8 5. Clean-up 5. Put materials on shelf in correct area. Rate the problem behavior: 0 = no problems, 1 = whining, resisting, 2 = screaming, falling on floor, 3 = screaming, hitting, other aggression 5
  • 6. Child’s Name: ______________________ Behavior: ____sitting______ Observation Card Week of: _________________ Average Duration for Week: ___9___ minutes Starting from the bottom, shade the number of boxes that represent the length of the Example target behavior. Each box represents TWO minutes. Name: Karen Observer: teacher Date: 1/22 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 30 30 30 30 30 General Context: Choice time/art Time: 10:00 28 28 28 28 28 Social Context: Playing alone in house. Teacher comes over to Karen and asks her to 26 26 26 26 26 come to the art table for art. When she doesn’t respond, the teacher tries to assist her by 24 24 24 24 24 taking her arm to nudge her to stand. 22 22 22 22 22 Challenging Behavior: Karen pulls away and begins to protest by saying, 20 20 20 20 20 “No! I not go to art!” as she pulls away from the teacher. 18 18 18 18 18 16 16 16 16 16 Social Reaction: The teacher walks away and says, “I will be back in a few minutes to 14 14 14 14 14 see if you are ready.” 12 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 POSSIBLE FUNCTION: Escape art 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 Activity Analysis “KIS” Child: Rachel Routine/Activity: Snack Activity Description Behavior Expectations Problems Steps: 1. Sit in chair. 1. Stay in seat. 2. Take food from plate 2. Take one item, wait for 2. Takes multiple items, puts when passed. turn. hand in bowl, grabs while • “KIS it” (Keep It Simple) plate is passed. - - Create simple, user- 3. Eat food on plate. 3. Eat from own plate. 3. Takes food from other children’s plates. friendly forms to collect 4. Drink juice from own cup. 4. Drink and put cup on information (e.g., rating table. scales, checklists). 5. Ask for more food. 5. Ask using please. 5. Grabs food when she wants more. 6. Wipe face with napkin. 6. Use napkin, not clothing. 7. Throw plate/cup/napkin 7. Clear place, throw in away when finished. trash. Observation Card Home Observation Card Name: Observer: Date: General Context: Time: Social Context: Challenging Behavior: Social Reaction: POSSIBLE FUNCTION: 6
  • 7. Home Observation Card Behavior support Plans • This is a THREE tier approach to dealing with challenging behaviors Process of Positive Behavior Behavior Support Plan Support • Behavior Hypotheses- Purpose of the behavior, your best guess about why the behavior occurs Step 1: Establishing a collaborative team and identifying goals • Prevention Strategies- Ways to make events and interactions that trigger challenging behavior easier for Step 2: Gathering information (functional the child to manage assessment) • Replacement Skills– New skills to teach throughout Step 3: Developing hypotheses (best guess) the day to replace the challenging behavior Step 4: Designing behavior support plans • Responses- What adults will do when the challenging Step 5: Implementing, monitoring, evaluating behavior occurs to ensure that the challenging outcomes, and refining plan in behavior is not maintained and the new skill is learned natural environments Video 3b.2: Observation Vignette #2 Tim’s Support Planning Chart- Hypothesis Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence • Group play: centers Verbal aggression (threats), • Peers give up toys/items and outside play physical aggression (hit, • Peers leave area push, kick, punch), property • Adults intervene with destruction negative attention on Tim Function: Setting Events (if obtain toy/play applicable): Preventions New Skills New Responses 7
  • 8. Wait Baskets Materials to Add! Story blocks Word blocks Ball toss Bubble wrap jump Sound jump Letter Jump HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module Simple Solutions Support! Here a child is not yet using a functional grasp, so a materials adaptation is created by using a table easel to help her keep her hand in the appropriate position. Right Way/Wrong Way 8
  • 9. HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module Behavior Support Plan Environmental Support • Behavior Hypotheses- Purpose of the behavior; your best guess about why the behavior occurs • Prevention Strategies- Ways to make events and interactions that trigger challenging behavior easier for the child to manage • Replacement Skills– New skills to teach throughout the day to replace the challenging behavior • Responses- What adults will do when the challenging behavior occurs to ensure that the challenging behavior is not maintained and the new skill is learned Step 3: Support Plan Development (cont.) “If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach. • Brainstorm Prevention Strategies If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach. – Strategies to make routines or activities If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach. easier for the child If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach. – Strategies to soften the triggers If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we……..... …….teach? ……punish? Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?” Tom Herner (NASDE President ) Counterpoint 1998, p.2) 53 Tim’s Support Planning Chart Identifying Teachable Moments Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence • Group play: centers Verbal aggression • Peers give up toys/items and outside play with (threats), physical • Peers leave area peers aggression (hit, push, kick, • Adults intervene with punch), property negative attention to Tim destruction Setting Events (if Function: Obtain toy/play applicable): Preventions New Skills New Responses • Pre-teach skills by To Challenging role playing via Behavior: scripted story • Use visual cards to help him remember lessons when in difficult situation Use of New Skill: • Self-monitoring form to work on new skills 54 9
  • 10. Turtle Technique Feeling Dice/Feeling Wheel Recognize “Think” that you Stop. feel angry. Go into shell. Come out Take 3 deep of shell breathes. when calm And think and think of calm, coping a solution. thoughts. Simple Solutions Adaptation Centers! Turtle Box 19 Teach Rules in the Context of Routines Ask for a Break Times to ask for a break: • A short break could • Sleepy help you come back • Frustrated better to think through a • Overwhelmed problem • Ask for a drink of water, go to the bathroom, take three deep breaths, do something you like ( color for a few minutes) • Sometimes we need a break from our friends Simple Solutions Educational Services © 2010 asearcya@aol.com 866- 660-3899 10
  • 11. Lose a Game…Win a Friend! • Being a sore loser can then led to not only losing the game but a friend! • You can play and win another time • Everyone should get a chance to win • Win a friend by saying “good game” Simple Solutions Educational Services© 2010 asearcya@aol.com 866- 11
  • 12. The Solution Kit 28 Logan Square!! Room 13 at Uptown Uses a key Ring instead… 12
  • 13. Step 4: Support Plan Development (cont.) • Brainstorm ideas about what new skills should be taught to replace challenging behavior; write new skills on chart. Tim’s Support Planning Chart Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence • Group play: centers Verbal aggression • Peers give up toys/items and outside play with (threats), physical • Peers leave area peers aggression (hit, push, kick, • Adults intervene with punch), property negative attention to Tim destruction Setting Events (if applicable): Function: Obtain toy/play Preventions New Skills New Responses • Pre-teach skills by role • Asking to play To Challenging playing via scripted • Everyone can play with Behavior: story the toys • Use visual cards to • Asking for teacher’s help help him remember lessons when in To Use o New Skill: difficult situation • Self-monitoring form to work on new skills Behavior Support Plan • Behavior Hypotheses- Purpose of the behavior; your best guess about why the behavior occurs • Prevention Strategies- Ways to make events and interactions that trigger challenging behavior easier for the child to manage • Replacement Skills– New skills to teach throughout the day to replace the challenging behavior • Responses- What adults will do when the challenging behavior occurs to ensure that the challenging behavior is not maintained and the new skill is learned 13
  • 14. Simple Solutions Adaptation at Ezzard Charles Montessori Step 5: Support Plan Development (cont.) • Brainstorm ideas about how to respond to challenging behavior when it occurs; write new responses on chart. 14
  • 15. Tim’s Support Planning Chart Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence • Group play: centers Verbal aggression (threats), • Peers give up toys/items and outside play with physical aggression (hit, • Peers leave area peers push, kick, punch), property • Adults intervene with • Circle Time destruction negative attention to Tim Function: Setting Events (if Obtain toy/play applicable): Preventions New Skills New Responses • Pre-teach skills by role • Asking to play To Challenging Behavior: playing via scripted • Everyone can play with the • Anticipate & cue to use new story toys skill: asking to play/help • Use visual cards to • Asking for teacher’s help • Intervene to prevent harm help him remember by providing lessons when in attention/support to child difficult situation who is attacked • Teacher will subgroup To Use of New Skill: during centers • When asks, respond • Teacher will change • Provide certificate and location of circle time acknowledge positive • Teacher will allow Tim behavior. Fade certificate. to ask for a break Simple Solutions Classroom Kit! 15