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Normal Physiology
of Female
Reproductive
System
MOHANNAD SAWALMEH
OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR
DEVELOPMENT
Oogenesis: differentiation of oocyte into an ovum
◦ During the embryonic life, the primary oocytes “primordial follicles” are created by endodermal cells
◦ At birth the ovary contains about 1 to 2 million primary oocytes
◦ The ova are suspended in the first mitotic stage (oocyte maturation inhibiting factor) and goes through it after puberty
puberty then they are suspended in the second mitotic stage and complete it only if fertilized by a sperm.
◦ At puberty, only about 300,000 oocytes remain in the ovaries
◦ During all the reproductive years of adult life, between about 13 and 46 years of age, only 400 to 500 of the primordial
primordial follicles develop enough to expel their ova, some remain after menopause but degenerate soon after.
OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR
DEVELOPMENT
OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR
DEVELOPMENT
OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR
DEVELOPMENT
Follicular development:
◦ The oocyte acquires stromal cell layers, Theca and Granulosa.
◦ Both produces hormones.
◦ Theca has two layers, Thecal Interna and Theca Externa.
◦ Antrum is secreted by the granulosa layer, has high concentration of estrogens which cause positive feedback that
cause higher sensitivity to FSH and LH by granulosa leading to peak in estrogen
◦ Only One Follicle Fully Matures Each Month, and the remainder Undergo Atresia.
OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR
DEVELOPMENT
OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR
DEVELOPMENT
Ovulation:
◦ 14 days before the onset of menstruation ovulation occurs.
occurs.
◦ Requires Surge in LH hormone due to unknown mechanism
OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR
DEVELOPMENT
OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR
DEVELOPMENT
Corpus Luteum: “Yellow Body”
◦ After ovulation, the remaining granulosa and theca interna cells change rapidly into lutein cells
◦ Theca cells form mainly androstenedione and testosterone, and converted by the granulosa cells into estrogens.
◦ Fully develop at 7 days post ovulation, and start to regress 12 days post ovulation due to negative feedback and Inhibin.
OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR
DEVELOPMENT
Hormonal Physiology:
◦ This rhythmical pattern is called the female monthly sexual cycle (or, less accurately, the menstrual cycle).
◦ The duration of the cycle averages 28 days. It may be as short as 20 days or as long as 45 days in some women
◦ GnRH released from the hypothalamus in pulses (about every 90min, 1-2h), it controls the entire process.
◦
FEMALE HORMONAL SYSTEM
FEMALE HORMONAL SYSTEM
FEMALE HORMONAL SYSTEM
FEMALE HORMONAL SYSTEM
Puberty and Menarche:
◦ Puberty (onset of sexual life) starts at 8 years of age and menarche (beginning of menstrual cycle) follows at 13 years of age.
age.
Anovulatory Cycles:
◦ Sexual cycles at puberty and several months to years before menopause, occurs due to lack of enough high LH surge.
◦ cycle is shortened by several days.
Menopause:
◦ Occurs at age 40 to 50 years
◦ The cause of menopause is “burning out” of the ovaries
◦ Lack of sex hormones causes: hot flushes, psychic sensations of dyspnea, irritability, fatigue, anxiety, osteoporosis
FEMALE HORMONAL SYSTEM
FEMALE HORMONAL SYSTEM
FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN
HORMONES
Effect of Estrogens on the Uterus and External Female Sex Organs:
◦ At puberty, The ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina all increase several times in size.
◦ Vaginal epithelium from a cuboidal into a stratified type.
◦ Proliferation of the endometrial stroma and greatly increased development of the endometrial glands.
◦ Cause the number of ciliated epithelial cells that line the fallopian tubes to increase.
◦ Development of the stromal tissues of the breasts, growth of an extensive ductile system, and deposition of fat in the
breasts.
◦ Inhibit osteoclastic activity in the bones, and cause uniting of the epiphyses with the shafts of the long bones.
◦ Increase body metabolism and fat deposition.
FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN
HORMONES
Effect of Estrogens on the Uterus and External Female Sex Organs:
◦ Estrogens have little effect on hair distribution.
◦ Cause the skin to develop a texture that is soft and usually smooth, it also cause the skin to become more vascular.
◦ Cause sodium and water retention by the kidney tubules, during pregnancy contribute to body fluid retention.
FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN
HORMONES
Functions of Progesterone:
◦ Progesterone promotes secretory changes in the uterus.
◦ Decreases the frequency and intensity of uterine contractions, thereby helping to prevent expulsion of the implanted
implanted ovum.
◦ Progesterone promotes development of the lobules and alveoli of the breasts.
FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN
HORMONES
Monthly Endometrial Cycle and Menstruation:
◦ Proliferative Phase:
• Occurring Before Ovulation
• Under the influence of estrogens
• Re-epithelialized within 4 to 7 days after the beginning of menstruation
• Increasing numbers of stromal cells and to progressive growth of the endometrial glands and new blood vessels.
◦ Secretory Phase
• Occurring After Ovulation
• Under the influence of estrogens and Progesterone
• The peak of the secretory phase is about 1 week after ovulation
• Uterine secretions, called “uterine milk” provide nutrition for the early dividing ovum.
FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN
HORMONES
Monthly Endometrial Cycle and Menstruation:
◦ Menstrual Phase:
• First effect is decreased stimulation of the endometrial cells by estrogens and progesterone.
• Followed rapidly by involution of the endometrium to about 65 percent of its previous thickness.
• Blood vessels leading to the mucosal layers of the endometrium become vasospastic.
• Necrosis in the endometrium.
• First blood seeps into the vascular layer.
• Gradually, the necrotic outer layers of the endometrium separate from the uterus at the sites of the hemorrhages.
FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN
HORMONES
Monthly Endometrial Cycle and Menstruation:
◦ Menstrual Phase:
• Uterine contractions are initiated due the presence of the necrotic mass and prostaglandins.
• Fibrinolysin released by necrotic mass prevents blood clotting
• Normal loss is 40ml blood plus 35ml serous fluid.
• Requires 4-7 days.
• Leukorrhea prevents infections.
FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN
HORMONES
THANK YOU

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Normal physiology of female reproductive system

  • 2. OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR DEVELOPMENT Oogenesis: differentiation of oocyte into an ovum ◦ During the embryonic life, the primary oocytes “primordial follicles” are created by endodermal cells ◦ At birth the ovary contains about 1 to 2 million primary oocytes ◦ The ova are suspended in the first mitotic stage (oocyte maturation inhibiting factor) and goes through it after puberty puberty then they are suspended in the second mitotic stage and complete it only if fertilized by a sperm. ◦ At puberty, only about 300,000 oocytes remain in the ovaries ◦ During all the reproductive years of adult life, between about 13 and 46 years of age, only 400 to 500 of the primordial primordial follicles develop enough to expel their ova, some remain after menopause but degenerate soon after.
  • 5. OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR DEVELOPMENT Follicular development: ◦ The oocyte acquires stromal cell layers, Theca and Granulosa. ◦ Both produces hormones. ◦ Theca has two layers, Thecal Interna and Theca Externa. ◦ Antrum is secreted by the granulosa layer, has high concentration of estrogens which cause positive feedback that cause higher sensitivity to FSH and LH by granulosa leading to peak in estrogen ◦ Only One Follicle Fully Matures Each Month, and the remainder Undergo Atresia.
  • 7. OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR DEVELOPMENT Ovulation: ◦ 14 days before the onset of menstruation ovulation occurs. occurs. ◦ Requires Surge in LH hormone due to unknown mechanism
  • 9. OOGENESIS AND FOLLICULAR DEVELOPMENT Corpus Luteum: “Yellow Body” ◦ After ovulation, the remaining granulosa and theca interna cells change rapidly into lutein cells ◦ Theca cells form mainly androstenedione and testosterone, and converted by the granulosa cells into estrogens. ◦ Fully develop at 7 days post ovulation, and start to regress 12 days post ovulation due to negative feedback and Inhibin.
  • 11. Hormonal Physiology: ◦ This rhythmical pattern is called the female monthly sexual cycle (or, less accurately, the menstrual cycle). ◦ The duration of the cycle averages 28 days. It may be as short as 20 days or as long as 45 days in some women ◦ GnRH released from the hypothalamus in pulses (about every 90min, 1-2h), it controls the entire process. ◦ FEMALE HORMONAL SYSTEM
  • 15. Puberty and Menarche: ◦ Puberty (onset of sexual life) starts at 8 years of age and menarche (beginning of menstrual cycle) follows at 13 years of age. age. Anovulatory Cycles: ◦ Sexual cycles at puberty and several months to years before menopause, occurs due to lack of enough high LH surge. ◦ cycle is shortened by several days. Menopause: ◦ Occurs at age 40 to 50 years ◦ The cause of menopause is “burning out” of the ovaries ◦ Lack of sex hormones causes: hot flushes, psychic sensations of dyspnea, irritability, fatigue, anxiety, osteoporosis FEMALE HORMONAL SYSTEM
  • 17. FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN HORMONES Effect of Estrogens on the Uterus and External Female Sex Organs: ◦ At puberty, The ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina all increase several times in size. ◦ Vaginal epithelium from a cuboidal into a stratified type. ◦ Proliferation of the endometrial stroma and greatly increased development of the endometrial glands. ◦ Cause the number of ciliated epithelial cells that line the fallopian tubes to increase. ◦ Development of the stromal tissues of the breasts, growth of an extensive ductile system, and deposition of fat in the breasts. ◦ Inhibit osteoclastic activity in the bones, and cause uniting of the epiphyses with the shafts of the long bones. ◦ Increase body metabolism and fat deposition.
  • 18. FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN HORMONES Effect of Estrogens on the Uterus and External Female Sex Organs: ◦ Estrogens have little effect on hair distribution. ◦ Cause the skin to develop a texture that is soft and usually smooth, it also cause the skin to become more vascular. ◦ Cause sodium and water retention by the kidney tubules, during pregnancy contribute to body fluid retention.
  • 19. FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN HORMONES Functions of Progesterone: ◦ Progesterone promotes secretory changes in the uterus. ◦ Decreases the frequency and intensity of uterine contractions, thereby helping to prevent expulsion of the implanted implanted ovum. ◦ Progesterone promotes development of the lobules and alveoli of the breasts.
  • 20. FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN HORMONES Monthly Endometrial Cycle and Menstruation: ◦ Proliferative Phase: • Occurring Before Ovulation • Under the influence of estrogens • Re-epithelialized within 4 to 7 days after the beginning of menstruation • Increasing numbers of stromal cells and to progressive growth of the endometrial glands and new blood vessels. ◦ Secretory Phase • Occurring After Ovulation • Under the influence of estrogens and Progesterone • The peak of the secretory phase is about 1 week after ovulation • Uterine secretions, called “uterine milk” provide nutrition for the early dividing ovum.
  • 21. FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN HORMONES Monthly Endometrial Cycle and Menstruation: ◦ Menstrual Phase: • First effect is decreased stimulation of the endometrial cells by estrogens and progesterone. • Followed rapidly by involution of the endometrium to about 65 percent of its previous thickness. • Blood vessels leading to the mucosal layers of the endometrium become vasospastic. • Necrosis in the endometrium. • First blood seeps into the vascular layer. • Gradually, the necrotic outer layers of the endometrium separate from the uterus at the sites of the hemorrhages.
  • 22. FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN HORMONES Monthly Endometrial Cycle and Menstruation: ◦ Menstrual Phase: • Uterine contractions are initiated due the presence of the necrotic mass and prostaglandins. • Fibrinolysin released by necrotic mass prevents blood clotting • Normal loss is 40ml blood plus 35ml serous fluid. • Requires 4-7 days. • Leukorrhea prevents infections.
  • 23. FUNCTIONS OF THE OVARIAN HORMONES