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Sir Isaac Newton?
English
Physicist and
Mathematici
an. 1642 -
1727
 INFLUENCED
FIELDS
 Natural
Philosophy
 Mathematics
 Astronomy
 Alchemy
 Christian
Theology
He
formulated
the Three
LAWS OF
MOTION
INVESTIGATING INERTIA
 Coin Drop
Q9. What happens when you slowly
pulled the cardboard? Explain.
Q10. What happens when you
flicked the cardboard? Explain.
 Stack of Coins
Q11. What happens when you hit the
coin at the bottom? Why is this
1st Law
 Inertia is the
tendency of an
object to resist
changes in its
velocity:
whether in
motion or
motionless. These pumpkins will not move unless acted on
by an unbalanced force.
1st Law
 Once airborne,
unless acted
on by an
unbalanced
force (gravity
and air – fluid
friction), it
would never
stop!
1st Law
 Unless acted
upon by an
unbalanced
force, this golf
ball would sit
on the tee
forever.
Why then, do we observe
every day objects in motion
slowing down and becoming
motionless seemingly without
an outside force?
It’s a force we sometimes cannot see –
friction.
Objects on earth, unlike the
frictionless space the moon
travels through, are under the
influence of friction.
 There are four main types of friction:
 Sliding friction: ice skating
 Rolling friction: bowling
 Fluid friction (air or liquid): air or water resistance
 Static friction: initial friction when moving an object
What is this unbalanced force that acts on an object in motion?
Slide a book
across a table and
watch it slide to a rest
position. The book
comes to a rest
because of the
presence of a force -
that force being the
force of friction -
which brings the book
to a rest position.
 In the absence of a force of friction, the book
would continue in motion with the same speed
and direction - forever! (Or at least to the end
of the table top.)
Newtons’s 1st Law and You
Don’t let this be you. Wear seat belts.
Because of inertia, objects (including you) resist changes in
their motion. When the car going 80 km/hour is stopped by
the brick wall, your body keeps moving at 80 m/hour.
2nd Law
2nd Law
The net force of an object is
equal to the product of its
mass and acceleration, or
F=ma.
2nd Law
 When mass is in kilograms and acceleration is
in m/s/s, the unit of force is in newtons (N).
 One newton is equal to the force required to
accelerate one kilogram of mass at one
meter/second/second.
2nd Law (F = m x a)
 How much force is needed to accelerate a
1400 kilogram car 2 meters per second/per
second?
 Write the formula
 F = m x a
 Fill in given numbers and units
 F = 1400 kg x 2 meters per second/second
 Solve for the unknown
 2800 kg-meters/second/second or 2800 N
If mass remains constant, doubling the acceleration, doubles the force. If force remains
constant, doubling the mass, halves the acceleration.
Newton’s 2nd Law proves that different masses
accelerate to the earth at the same rate, but with
different forces.
• We know that objects
with different masses
accelerate to the
ground at the same
rate.
• However, because of
the 2nd Law we know
that they don’t hit the
ground with the same
force.
F = ma
98 N = 10 kg x 9.8 m/s/s
F = ma
9.8 N = 1 kg x 9.8 m/s/s
Newtons law of motion grade 8
Check Your Understanding
 1. What acceleration will result when a 12 N net force applied to a 3
kg object? A 6 kg object?
 2. A net force of 16 N causes a mass to accelerate at a rate of 5
m/s2. Determine the mass.
 3. How much force is needed to accelerate a 66 kg skier 1
m/sec/sec?
 4. What is the force on a 1000 kg elevator that is falling freely at 9.8
m/sec/sec?
Check Your Understanding
 1. What acceleration will result when a 12 N net force applied to a 3 kg
object?
12 N = 3 kg x 4 m/s/s
 2. A net force of 16 N causes a mass to accelerate at a rate of 5 m/s2.
Determine the mass.
16 N = 3.2 kg x 5 m/s/s
 3. How much force is needed to accelerate a 66 kg skier 1 m/sec/sec?
66 kg-m/sec/sec or 66 N
 4. What is the force on a 1000 kg elevator that is falling freely at 9.8
m/sec/sec?
 9800 kg-m/sec/sec or 9800 N
 Gravity acts on all objects on the earth’s
surface and causes them to accelerate when
released. This acceleration, known as the
acceleration due to gravity g, is the same for
all objects on earth and is equal 9.8 m/s2. This
means that when objects fall, their velocities
increase by 9.8 m/s every 1 second.
1s
2s
3s
Initial speed = 0
On a freely
falling body,
9.8m/s is added
to the velocity of
the ball in each
second
9.8m/s
19.6m/s
29.4m/s
Initial speed = 25m/s
34.8m/s
44.6m/s
54.4m/s
 Try to whirl an object tied to a string
horizontally above your head. Then observe
what happens if you release the object. How
does it travel after release?
3rd Law
For every action, there is an
equal and opposite reaction.
3rd Law
According to Newton,
whenever objects A
and B interact with
each other, they exert
forces upon each
other. When you sit in
your chair, your body
exerts a downward
force on the chair and
the chair exerts an
upward force on your
body.
3rd Law
There are two forces
resulting from this
interaction - a force
on the chair and a
force on your body.
These two forces are
called action and
reaction forces.
Newton’s 3rd Law in Nature
 Consider the propulsion
of a fish through the
water. A fish uses its fins
to push water backwards.
In turn, the water reacts
by pushing the fish
forwards, propelling the
fish through the water.
 The size of the force on
the water equals the size
of the force on the fish;
the direction of the force
on the water (backwards)
is opposite the direction
of the force on the fish
(forwards).
3rd Law
Flying gracefully
through the air, birds
depend on Newton’s
third law of motion. As
the birds push down on
the air with their wings,
the air pushes their
wings up and gives
them lift.
 Consider the flying motion of birds. A bird flies
by use of its wings. The wings of a bird push air
downwards. In turn, the air reacts by pushing
the bird upwards.
 The size of the force on the air equals the size
of the force on the bird; the direction of the force
on the air (downwards) is opposite the direction
of the force on the bird (upwards).
 Action-reaction force pairs make it possible for
birds to fly.
Newtons law of motion grade 8
Other examples of Newton’s Third Law
 The baseball forces
the bat to the left (an
action); the bat forces
the ball to the right
(the reaction).
3rd Law
 Consider the motion
of a car on the way to
school. A car is
equipped with wheels
which spin
backwards. As the
wheels spin
backwards, they grip
the road and push the
road backwards.
3rd Law
The reaction of a rocket is
an application of the third
law of motion. Various
fuels are burned in the
engine, producing hot
gases.
The hot gases push against
the inside tube of the rocket
and escape out the bottom
of the tube. As the gases
move downward, the rocket
moves in the opposite
direction.

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Newtons law of motion grade 8

  • 1. Sir Isaac Newton? English Physicist and Mathematici an. 1642 - 1727  INFLUENCED FIELDS  Natural Philosophy  Mathematics  Astronomy  Alchemy  Christian Theology He formulated the Three LAWS OF MOTION
  • 2. INVESTIGATING INERTIA  Coin Drop Q9. What happens when you slowly pulled the cardboard? Explain. Q10. What happens when you flicked the cardboard? Explain.  Stack of Coins Q11. What happens when you hit the coin at the bottom? Why is this
  • 3. 1st Law  Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist changes in its velocity: whether in motion or motionless. These pumpkins will not move unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
  • 4. 1st Law  Once airborne, unless acted on by an unbalanced force (gravity and air – fluid friction), it would never stop!
  • 5. 1st Law  Unless acted upon by an unbalanced force, this golf ball would sit on the tee forever.
  • 6. Why then, do we observe every day objects in motion slowing down and becoming motionless seemingly without an outside force? It’s a force we sometimes cannot see – friction.
  • 7. Objects on earth, unlike the frictionless space the moon travels through, are under the influence of friction.
  • 8.  There are four main types of friction:  Sliding friction: ice skating  Rolling friction: bowling  Fluid friction (air or liquid): air or water resistance  Static friction: initial friction when moving an object What is this unbalanced force that acts on an object in motion?
  • 9. Slide a book across a table and watch it slide to a rest position. The book comes to a rest because of the presence of a force - that force being the force of friction - which brings the book to a rest position.
  • 10.  In the absence of a force of friction, the book would continue in motion with the same speed and direction - forever! (Or at least to the end of the table top.)
  • 11. Newtons’s 1st Law and You Don’t let this be you. Wear seat belts. Because of inertia, objects (including you) resist changes in their motion. When the car going 80 km/hour is stopped by the brick wall, your body keeps moving at 80 m/hour.
  • 13. 2nd Law The net force of an object is equal to the product of its mass and acceleration, or F=ma.
  • 14. 2nd Law  When mass is in kilograms and acceleration is in m/s/s, the unit of force is in newtons (N).  One newton is equal to the force required to accelerate one kilogram of mass at one meter/second/second.
  • 15. 2nd Law (F = m x a)  How much force is needed to accelerate a 1400 kilogram car 2 meters per second/per second?  Write the formula  F = m x a  Fill in given numbers and units  F = 1400 kg x 2 meters per second/second  Solve for the unknown  2800 kg-meters/second/second or 2800 N
  • 16. If mass remains constant, doubling the acceleration, doubles the force. If force remains constant, doubling the mass, halves the acceleration.
  • 17. Newton’s 2nd Law proves that different masses accelerate to the earth at the same rate, but with different forces. • We know that objects with different masses accelerate to the ground at the same rate. • However, because of the 2nd Law we know that they don’t hit the ground with the same force. F = ma 98 N = 10 kg x 9.8 m/s/s F = ma 9.8 N = 1 kg x 9.8 m/s/s
  • 19. Check Your Understanding  1. What acceleration will result when a 12 N net force applied to a 3 kg object? A 6 kg object?  2. A net force of 16 N causes a mass to accelerate at a rate of 5 m/s2. Determine the mass.  3. How much force is needed to accelerate a 66 kg skier 1 m/sec/sec?  4. What is the force on a 1000 kg elevator that is falling freely at 9.8 m/sec/sec?
  • 20. Check Your Understanding  1. What acceleration will result when a 12 N net force applied to a 3 kg object? 12 N = 3 kg x 4 m/s/s  2. A net force of 16 N causes a mass to accelerate at a rate of 5 m/s2. Determine the mass. 16 N = 3.2 kg x 5 m/s/s  3. How much force is needed to accelerate a 66 kg skier 1 m/sec/sec? 66 kg-m/sec/sec or 66 N  4. What is the force on a 1000 kg elevator that is falling freely at 9.8 m/sec/sec?  9800 kg-m/sec/sec or 9800 N
  • 21.  Gravity acts on all objects on the earth’s surface and causes them to accelerate when released. This acceleration, known as the acceleration due to gravity g, is the same for all objects on earth and is equal 9.8 m/s2. This means that when objects fall, their velocities increase by 9.8 m/s every 1 second.
  • 22. 1s 2s 3s Initial speed = 0 On a freely falling body, 9.8m/s is added to the velocity of the ball in each second 9.8m/s 19.6m/s 29.4m/s Initial speed = 25m/s 34.8m/s 44.6m/s 54.4m/s
  • 23.  Try to whirl an object tied to a string horizontally above your head. Then observe what happens if you release the object. How does it travel after release?
  • 24. 3rd Law For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
  • 25. 3rd Law According to Newton, whenever objects A and B interact with each other, they exert forces upon each other. When you sit in your chair, your body exerts a downward force on the chair and the chair exerts an upward force on your body.
  • 26. 3rd Law There are two forces resulting from this interaction - a force on the chair and a force on your body. These two forces are called action and reaction forces.
  • 27. Newton’s 3rd Law in Nature  Consider the propulsion of a fish through the water. A fish uses its fins to push water backwards. In turn, the water reacts by pushing the fish forwards, propelling the fish through the water.  The size of the force on the water equals the size of the force on the fish; the direction of the force on the water (backwards) is opposite the direction of the force on the fish (forwards).
  • 28. 3rd Law Flying gracefully through the air, birds depend on Newton’s third law of motion. As the birds push down on the air with their wings, the air pushes their wings up and gives them lift.
  • 29.  Consider the flying motion of birds. A bird flies by use of its wings. The wings of a bird push air downwards. In turn, the air reacts by pushing the bird upwards.  The size of the force on the air equals the size of the force on the bird; the direction of the force on the air (downwards) is opposite the direction of the force on the bird (upwards).  Action-reaction force pairs make it possible for birds to fly.
  • 31. Other examples of Newton’s Third Law  The baseball forces the bat to the left (an action); the bat forces the ball to the right (the reaction).
  • 32. 3rd Law  Consider the motion of a car on the way to school. A car is equipped with wheels which spin backwards. As the wheels spin backwards, they grip the road and push the road backwards.
  • 33. 3rd Law The reaction of a rocket is an application of the third law of motion. Various fuels are burned in the engine, producing hot gases. The hot gases push against the inside tube of the rocket and escape out the bottom of the tube. As the gases move downward, the rocket moves in the opposite direction.