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Interconnection
devices
Repeater
A repeater connects buses to
form longer buses. It does this by
regenerating signals as they pass
through. Because this introduces a
time delay, the Ethernet specification
allows only four repeaters on an
elongated bus.
Repeaters were used for
10base-5 and 10base-2 but are
rarely required nowadays.
Hub
A hub is a bus inside a box, allowing a
number of PCs to be connected to the
bus. There are two kinds: passive
(direct connection to the bus) and
active (each connection is
regenerated to improve signal
quality).
Hubs are used with 10base-T,
100base-TX, 1000base-T and
1000base-FX networks.
Bridge
Buses slow down as more PCs
are added because collisions
increase. A bridge breaks the network
into two segments, allowing each
segment to act as an independent
bus. This reduces collisions and
speeds up the network.
When a signal needs to travel to a
PC on the other side of the bridge,
the bridge passes the signal through
to the other bus. Bridges are rarely
required nowadays because they
have been made redundant by
switching hubs.
Switch
A switching hub (commonly called
a ‘switch’) is a combination of hub and
bridge technology. It breaks the
internal bus into micro segments,
allowing many connections to exist
simultaneously.
This removes the possibility of
collisions — thus switches allow bus
networks to run at high speed under
heavy data traffic, and with a large
number of PCs attached.
As their popularity has increased
the price of switches has dropped,
and they have replaced hubs in most
10base-T, 100base-TX, 1000base-T
and 1000base-FX networks.
Switches can also connect PCs that
are communicating at different
speeds on different media. You can
buy 10/100base-T switches, or
100base-T/1000base-FX models.
Router
Routers connect networks
together. They direct traffic between
networks by examining the
destination IP address of data
packets.
They communicate with nearby
routers by using routing protocols to
determine the best network to pass
packets to. This allows them to
redirect traffic away from broken
routers, faulty connections or
overloaded connections.
Routers are found on larger LAN
networks and as the main
interconnection device for WAN
networks. The Internet relies on a
series of routers to pass information
around the planet.
Routers may be dedicated boxes of
electronics, or a PC with two or more
network cards running routing
software.
NAT routers
A NAT (Network Address
Translation) router sends data packets
to the Internet on behalf of other
computers. They are commonly used
to allow networks to access the
Internet through a single connection.
Examples include broadband ADSL
routers (which also function as hubs or
switches) or the proxy servers used by
Southport College.
Gateway
Protocols are the rules used for
communication on a network. All PCs
on a network must understand the
protocols used, otherwise they
cannot communicate effectively.
A gateway translates the protocols
of one network to another, allowing
different types of network to be
interconnected. For example, a
gateway will allow a token ring
network using TCP/IP protocols to
connect to an Ethernet network
using Novell IPX/SPX protocols.
Network design
Most modern LANs use Ethernet
designs, utilizing a combination of
100base-TX and 100base-FX. This is
cost-effective and flexible, mostly
because it requires similar tools and
fixtures to telephone cabling.
Horizontal cabling
PCs within a room or across
a floor are connected to a central
hub or switch.
patch
cable
patc
h
pan
el
switch (or
hub)
patc
h
cabl
e
wall
socket
The PCs connect to the wall with
a short Cat5 patch cable. From the
socket, the connection continues
through Cat5 cable to a wiring closet,
sometimes placed in another room.
Inside the wiring closet, the
cables are terminated at a patch
panel, which allows each cable to be
connected to the switch or hub.
Vertical cabling
Floors are each connected to a
master switch by fiber-optic cables.
This switch is referred-to as a
gigabit switch because it runs at
1000 Mbps (1 Gbps).
fibre-
optic
cable
gigabit
switch
The switch and its cables
form the backbone of the
expanded star network. Because
the backbone commonly runs
vertically it is known as ‘vertical
cabling’, but the cables are still
called ‘vertical cabling’ even if
the backbone cables run
horizontally from place to place.
Networking

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Networking

  • 2. Repeater A repeater connects buses to form longer buses. It does this by regenerating signals as they pass through. Because this introduces a time delay, the Ethernet specification allows only four repeaters on an elongated bus.
  • 3. Repeaters were used for 10base-5 and 10base-2 but are rarely required nowadays.
  • 4. Hub A hub is a bus inside a box, allowing a number of PCs to be connected to the bus. There are two kinds: passive (direct connection to the bus) and active (each connection is regenerated to improve signal quality).
  • 5. Hubs are used with 10base-T, 100base-TX, 1000base-T and 1000base-FX networks.
  • 6. Bridge Buses slow down as more PCs are added because collisions increase. A bridge breaks the network into two segments, allowing each segment to act as an independent bus. This reduces collisions and speeds up the network.
  • 7. When a signal needs to travel to a PC on the other side of the bridge, the bridge passes the signal through to the other bus. Bridges are rarely required nowadays because they have been made redundant by switching hubs.
  • 8. Switch A switching hub (commonly called a ‘switch’) is a combination of hub and bridge technology. It breaks the internal bus into micro segments, allowing many connections to exist simultaneously.
  • 9. This removes the possibility of collisions — thus switches allow bus networks to run at high speed under heavy data traffic, and with a large number of PCs attached. As their popularity has increased the price of switches has dropped, and they have replaced hubs in most 10base-T, 100base-TX, 1000base-T and 1000base-FX networks.
  • 10. Switches can also connect PCs that are communicating at different speeds on different media. You can buy 10/100base-T switches, or 100base-T/1000base-FX models.
  • 11. Router Routers connect networks together. They direct traffic between networks by examining the destination IP address of data packets.
  • 12. They communicate with nearby routers by using routing protocols to determine the best network to pass packets to. This allows them to redirect traffic away from broken routers, faulty connections or overloaded connections.
  • 13. Routers are found on larger LAN networks and as the main interconnection device for WAN networks. The Internet relies on a series of routers to pass information around the planet.
  • 14. Routers may be dedicated boxes of electronics, or a PC with two or more network cards running routing software.
  • 15. NAT routers A NAT (Network Address Translation) router sends data packets to the Internet on behalf of other computers. They are commonly used to allow networks to access the Internet through a single connection. Examples include broadband ADSL routers (which also function as hubs or switches) or the proxy servers used by Southport College.
  • 16. Gateway Protocols are the rules used for communication on a network. All PCs on a network must understand the protocols used, otherwise they cannot communicate effectively.
  • 17. A gateway translates the protocols of one network to another, allowing different types of network to be interconnected. For example, a gateway will allow a token ring network using TCP/IP protocols to connect to an Ethernet network using Novell IPX/SPX protocols.
  • 18. Network design Most modern LANs use Ethernet designs, utilizing a combination of 100base-TX and 100base-FX. This is cost-effective and flexible, mostly because it requires similar tools and fixtures to telephone cabling.
  • 19. Horizontal cabling PCs within a room or across a floor are connected to a central hub or switch.
  • 21. The PCs connect to the wall with a short Cat5 patch cable. From the socket, the connection continues through Cat5 cable to a wiring closet, sometimes placed in another room. Inside the wiring closet, the cables are terminated at a patch panel, which allows each cable to be connected to the switch or hub.
  • 22. Vertical cabling Floors are each connected to a master switch by fiber-optic cables. This switch is referred-to as a gigabit switch because it runs at 1000 Mbps (1 Gbps).
  • 24. The switch and its cables form the backbone of the expanded star network. Because the backbone commonly runs vertically it is known as ‘vertical cabling’, but the cables are still called ‘vertical cabling’ even if the backbone cables run horizontally from place to place.