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Klaus M. Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de



                                          Cultures &
                                       Communities online




                               1
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Social Media...

                                         have prevailed in the Internet
                                         and are used by a major part of
                                         society

                                         blur the frontiers between
                                         producers and consumers of
                                         content

                                         enable people to make contacts
                                         and socialize over distances

                                         enable companies and
                                         organisations for direct contact
                                         to customers and target groups




      NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   2   Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Social Media...

                                                        boost „word of mouth“
                                                        or „word of mouse“

                                                        are a nearly unfailing source
                                                        for market- and social
                                                        research

                                                        opinions und sentiments
                                                        spread fast;
                                                        ratings and references have
                                                        a growing impact on (buying)
                                                        decisions

                                                        companies are interested in
                                                        the remarks made about
                                                        themselves and their brands




           NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   3   Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Social Media Monitoring
                                            or Web-Monitoring

                web-monitoring (social media monitoring) means the software based analysis of public
                communication in the internet, mostly applied for products and brands
                monitoring provides information on key platforms, major sources, discussion topics, sentiments
                etc.
                software based sentiment analysis could not convince yet

                error sources: ambiguous items, irony, abbreviations, context depending significance, software
                not really adapted for different languages etc.




           NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010                         4         Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Monitoring-Software -   free or to pay for




           NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010         5       Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Netnography
                                           Transmission of ethnographic methods to
                                           online communities and cultures
                                           Internet creates new social environments, regardless
                                           of physical proximity: translocal communities



                                           Field:
                                           Online cultures
                                           Online communities
                                           Clusters of Affiliation

                                           Author:
                                           Robert V. Kozinets (cultural anthropologist and marketer)
                                           Brandthroposophy: A Marketing, Social Media, and Research Blog


                                           Several approaches of online ethnographies evolved independently
                                           Netnographie claims setting methodical standards for social
                                           sciences and marketing
                                           Virtual ethnography (Christine Hine)
                                           Webnographie (Anjali Puri - 2007; Strübing - 2006 - not continued)




        NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   6        Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Methods
                                                 Netnography...
                                                 method mix:
                                                 hermeneutic Interpretation and
                                                 analysis of data
                                                 participant observation,
                                                 surveys, interviews, document analysis
                                                 (text, pictures, sound, video),
                                                 use of monitoring-software for detecting
                                                 relevant sources

                                                 suits for several kind of studies:
                                                 research in online communities
                                                 research in online and offline existing
                                                 communities
                                                 for explorative studies
                                                 research in social media

                                                 research topic maybe a specific online-culture
                                                 or community (such as Star Trek) or a selective
                                                 theme (such as coffee culture)

                                                 there are several specifications and adaptations
                                                 such as social media netnography




           NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   7    Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Fan - Communities

                                              netnographic
                                              field researches began with
                                              (media-) fan cultures

                                              Star-Trek community (1996)
                                              X-Philes' subculture of
                                              consumption (1997)
                                              soap-opera fans (2000)

                                              fan cultures as prototypes of
                                              posttraditional socialization
                                              and avantgarde of a new
                                              network economy

                                              (compare.: C. Wenger 2006)




           NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   8    Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
e-Tribes
                                             M. Maffesoli: les temps des tribus
                                             (1988)
                                             (postmodern) tribes: networks of
                                             people, who are linked by a common
                                             passion :
                                             online-gamer, fashion victims, theme
                                             based political groups
                                             consumer tribes




                                             the internet is both:
                                             the technical infrastructure to serve
                                             those different cultures, backgrounds,
                                             etc.,

                                             in the same way an own environment,
                                             whose specific conditions lead to new
                                             forms of deterritorial communities and
                                             network-based sociality.




          NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   9   Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Community constituting
                                                         via consum:
                                                         Brand Communities/
                                                         Consumer Tribes

                                                         Brands act as a medium, a
                                                         style, in which a common life-
                                                         and workstyle is synced

                                                         Brand Communities become
                                                         Consumer Tribes:
                                                         Communities with an own
                                                         aesthetic and own loyalties




         NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   10   Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Research Process




                                                                                  data analysis and iterative
                               community                                          interpretation offindings
                               identification and
                               selection                                          CAQDAS-Software may be used (NVivo,
                                                                                  Max QDA, AtlasTi)

 definition of research
 questions, social sites or                        community participant                            write, present and report
 topic to investigate                              observation                                      research findings and/or
                                                   (engagement, immersion, data                     policy implications
                                                   collection: and data
                                                   collection (with regard on
                                                   ethics: informed consent)

                                                                                            (Kozinets, 2010 S. 61)


       NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010                            11      Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
CAQDAS - Software
                 structures data in qualitative research as transcription analysis, coding and text interpretation,
                            content analysis, discourse analysis, grounded theory methodology etc.




       NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010                                12      Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
The Roots: Ethnography - Genesis of a Method


                                                          Ethnographic methods
                                                    descend from cultural anthropologic
                                                               field research
                                                            (Malinowski, Mead)

                                                     generally within the natural setting
                                                              of a social group

                                                    „The ethnographer participates, overtly or covertly,
                                                       in people’s daily lives for an extended period of
                                                     time, watching what happens, listening to what is
                                                     said, asking questions in fact collecting whatever
                                                    data are available to throw light on the issues with
                                                          which he or she is concerned.” (Atkinson &
                                                                      Hammersley 1983)




         NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   13   Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
In Sociology
                                        research in subcultures or sub-systems
                                        within the own society
                                        ethnography gives a deep insight in
                                        everyday life and lifestyle - with all strategies
                                        of survival, symbols and rituals



                                        Ethnography of scenes (R. Hitzler):
                                        participation in the social field -
                                        into linguistical and habitual customs and
                                        patterns; narrative interviews




                                        Steps ( R. Girtler):
                                        scheduling
                                        pre-understanding
                                        collection of material (fieldnotes)
                                        participant observation
                                        other sources
                                        interpretation
                                        presentation ot the results




         NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   14       Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
ethnographic methods in
                                                             Market Research:
                                                          how people use brands,
                                                           products or services in
                                                         their natural environments

                                                         hidden needs und desires
                                                           should be discovered




         NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   15   Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Consuments form new cultures of
                                                 consumption, which require
                                                 considerable expertise

                                                 Consumer Insights are based on
                                                 unbiased consumer statements
                                                 within the natural setting.
                                                 Motivations, attitudes, experiences
                                                 and needs become definite


           NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   16   Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Perspectives -
                                              examples of research fields
                                              e.g.: strategies of debt management
                                              Fashion-Communities, translocal work
                                              or:
                                              cultural impact of Online-Communities in Saudi-Arabia


                                              An essential part of modern social life happens in the
                                              web. Social- and market research can not neglect this
                                              living environment. Netnography defines tools for
                                              research.


                                              Differences to Web-Monitoring
                                              Web monitoring captures systematically and software-
                                              based the public communication in the Internet about
                                              specific terms and topics - mostly quantitative
                                              Netnography is a mostly qualitative research process,
                                              which integrates different tools - and monitoring-
                                              software provides valuable service



                                              Differences to Market Research Online
                                              Communities
                                              Netnography occurs in the natural setting, MROCs are
                                              a managed environment for use in market research




         NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   17   Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Market Research Online Communities (MROC)

                                              Market research-driven online
                                              communities: The Internet serves as a
                                              media tool of the collection, not as a social
                                              space to be explored

                                              - private communities for specific clients
                                              - panel communities




                                              no „natural setting“
                                              activity and engagement are highly
                                              dependent on binding to a particular
                                              company or incentivation




          NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010   18     Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Ethics

                                                                                      Basic Questions:
                                                                                      Are online-communities public or private spaces?
                                                                                      How does the researcher gains informed consent?


                                                                                      content accessible without limitation may be
                                                                                      considered as public




       1) The researcher should fully disclose his or her presence, affiliations, and intentions to online
       community members during any research

       2) The researchers should ensure confidentiality and anonymity to informants

       (3) The researcher should seek and incorporate feedback from members of the online community being
       researched

       (4) The researcher should take a cautious position on the private-versus-public medium issue.


                                                                                                   Kozinets. 2002, S. 65




          NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010                                   19        Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Thanks for your attention
  Klaus Janowitz M.A., Kuenstr. 43 , 50733 Köln, Tel. : 0221-9927676 mail@klaus-janowitz.de
  http://www.klaus-janowitz.de




                                                     20
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
Quellenangaben:
            Bilder:
            Start Slide: Screenshot Touch-Graph Darstellung zum Netnocamp
            S. 2: http://www.google.de/imgres?imgurl=http://www.searchenginepeople.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/social-media-landscape.png
            S. 5: Logos von Anbietern von Monitoring-Software
            S. 6: twittpic von Clive Lavery, Köln
            S. 8: http://images.businessweek.com/ss/06/05/ethnography/source/1.html
            S. 8: http://www.dailybrilliance.com/steve-jobs-and-apple-are-turning-customers-into-fans/
            S. 9: photos.techfieber.de/ wp-content/uploads/2010
            www.photocase.de: S. 4,7, 16, 17 (leere Taschen), 19, 20
            S. 12: http://caqdas.soc.surrey.ac.uk/choosing.jpg http://www.stanford.edu/group/ccr/blog/stanford_tourism/ (S. 8)
            S. 11: eigene Bearbeitung
            S. 16: (Fahrräder) Marc Wansky: www.wansky.de
            S. 18 oben: Globalpark - pdf zu Customer Feedback Communities

            Literatur:
            Atkinson Paul & Hammersley, Martyn: Ethnography: Principles in practice. ISBN:978-0-415-39605-9,278S. 1. Auflage New York 1983

            Brauckmann, Patrick (Hrsg.): Web-Monitoring. Gewinnung und Analyse von Daten über das Kommunikationsverhalten im Internet.
            Konstanz 2010, 412 S.

            Cova, Bernard; Kozinets, Robert V.; Shankar, Avi (Hrsg.): „Consumer Tribes“, Butterworth Heinemann,
            Oxford und Burlington MA 2007, 339 S.
            Janowitz, Klaus. M. : Netnographie, http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/files/2009/663/netnographie.pdf 2008
            Kozinets, Robert V.: Netnography. Doing Ethnographic Research Online. Sage Publications Ltd 2010, 232 S., ISBN: 184860645

            Kozinets, Robert V.: The Field Behind the Screen: Using Netnography for Marketing Research in Online Communities. Journal of
            marketing research. vol. 39, 2002, No. 1, pp. 61-72

            Verhaeghe, Annelies (InSites Consulting, Gent): Getting answers without asking question. White paper
            Wenger, Christian: Gemeinschaft und Identität in Medienfankulturen – Fankulturen als Prototypen
            posttraditionaler Vergemeinschaftung und Vorreiter der neuen Netzwerkökonomie? 2006 (Broschiert)




          NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010                                        21          Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de
Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010

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Netnocamp/english

  • 1. Klaus M. Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Cultures & Communities online 1 Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 2. Social Media... have prevailed in the Internet and are used by a major part of society blur the frontiers between producers and consumers of content enable people to make contacts and socialize over distances enable companies and organisations for direct contact to customers and target groups NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 2 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 3. Social Media... boost „word of mouth“ or „word of mouse“ are a nearly unfailing source for market- and social research opinions und sentiments spread fast; ratings and references have a growing impact on (buying) decisions companies are interested in the remarks made about themselves and their brands NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 3 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 4. Social Media Monitoring or Web-Monitoring web-monitoring (social media monitoring) means the software based analysis of public communication in the internet, mostly applied for products and brands monitoring provides information on key platforms, major sources, discussion topics, sentiments etc. software based sentiment analysis could not convince yet error sources: ambiguous items, irony, abbreviations, context depending significance, software not really adapted for different languages etc. NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 4 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 5. Monitoring-Software - free or to pay for NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 5 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 6. Netnography Transmission of ethnographic methods to online communities and cultures Internet creates new social environments, regardless of physical proximity: translocal communities Field: Online cultures Online communities Clusters of Affiliation Author: Robert V. Kozinets (cultural anthropologist and marketer) Brandthroposophy: A Marketing, Social Media, and Research Blog Several approaches of online ethnographies evolved independently Netnographie claims setting methodical standards for social sciences and marketing Virtual ethnography (Christine Hine) Webnographie (Anjali Puri - 2007; Strübing - 2006 - not continued) NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 6 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 7. Methods Netnography... method mix: hermeneutic Interpretation and analysis of data participant observation, surveys, interviews, document analysis (text, pictures, sound, video), use of monitoring-software for detecting relevant sources suits for several kind of studies: research in online communities research in online and offline existing communities for explorative studies research in social media research topic maybe a specific online-culture or community (such as Star Trek) or a selective theme (such as coffee culture) there are several specifications and adaptations such as social media netnography NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 7 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 8. Fan - Communities netnographic field researches began with (media-) fan cultures Star-Trek community (1996) X-Philes' subculture of consumption (1997) soap-opera fans (2000) fan cultures as prototypes of posttraditional socialization and avantgarde of a new network economy (compare.: C. Wenger 2006) NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 8 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 9. e-Tribes M. Maffesoli: les temps des tribus (1988) (postmodern) tribes: networks of people, who are linked by a common passion : online-gamer, fashion victims, theme based political groups consumer tribes the internet is both: the technical infrastructure to serve those different cultures, backgrounds, etc., in the same way an own environment, whose specific conditions lead to new forms of deterritorial communities and network-based sociality. NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 9 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 10. Community constituting via consum: Brand Communities/ Consumer Tribes Brands act as a medium, a style, in which a common life- and workstyle is synced Brand Communities become Consumer Tribes: Communities with an own aesthetic and own loyalties NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 10 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 11. Research Process data analysis and iterative community interpretation offindings identification and selection CAQDAS-Software may be used (NVivo, Max QDA, AtlasTi) definition of research questions, social sites or community participant write, present and report topic to investigate observation research findings and/or (engagement, immersion, data policy implications collection: and data collection (with regard on ethics: informed consent) (Kozinets, 2010 S. 61) NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 11 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 12. CAQDAS - Software structures data in qualitative research as transcription analysis, coding and text interpretation, content analysis, discourse analysis, grounded theory methodology etc. NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 12 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 13. The Roots: Ethnography - Genesis of a Method Ethnographic methods descend from cultural anthropologic field research (Malinowski, Mead) generally within the natural setting of a social group „The ethnographer participates, overtly or covertly, in people’s daily lives for an extended period of time, watching what happens, listening to what is said, asking questions in fact collecting whatever data are available to throw light on the issues with which he or she is concerned.” (Atkinson & Hammersley 1983) NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 13 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 14. In Sociology research in subcultures or sub-systems within the own society ethnography gives a deep insight in everyday life and lifestyle - with all strategies of survival, symbols and rituals Ethnography of scenes (R. Hitzler): participation in the social field - into linguistical and habitual customs and patterns; narrative interviews Steps ( R. Girtler): scheduling pre-understanding collection of material (fieldnotes) participant observation other sources interpretation presentation ot the results NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 14 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 15. ethnographic methods in Market Research: how people use brands, products or services in their natural environments hidden needs und desires should be discovered NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 15 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 16. Consuments form new cultures of consumption, which require considerable expertise Consumer Insights are based on unbiased consumer statements within the natural setting. Motivations, attitudes, experiences and needs become definite NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 16 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 17. Perspectives - examples of research fields e.g.: strategies of debt management Fashion-Communities, translocal work or: cultural impact of Online-Communities in Saudi-Arabia An essential part of modern social life happens in the web. Social- and market research can not neglect this living environment. Netnography defines tools for research. Differences to Web-Monitoring Web monitoring captures systematically and software- based the public communication in the Internet about specific terms and topics - mostly quantitative Netnography is a mostly qualitative research process, which integrates different tools - and monitoring- software provides valuable service Differences to Market Research Online Communities Netnography occurs in the natural setting, MROCs are a managed environment for use in market research NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 17 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 18. Market Research Online Communities (MROC) Market research-driven online communities: The Internet serves as a media tool of the collection, not as a social space to be explored - private communities for specific clients - panel communities no „natural setting“ activity and engagement are highly dependent on binding to a particular company or incentivation NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 18 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 19. Ethics Basic Questions: Are online-communities public or private spaces? How does the researcher gains informed consent? content accessible without limitation may be considered as public 1) The researcher should fully disclose his or her presence, affiliations, and intentions to online community members during any research 2) The researchers should ensure confidentiality and anonymity to informants (3) The researcher should seek and incorporate feedback from members of the online community being researched (4) The researcher should take a cautious position on the private-versus-public medium issue. Kozinets. 2002, S. 65 NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 19 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 20. Thanks for your attention Klaus Janowitz M.A., Kuenstr. 43 , 50733 Köln, Tel. : 0221-9927676 mail@klaus-janowitz.de http://www.klaus-janowitz.de 20 Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010
  • 21. Quellenangaben: Bilder: Start Slide: Screenshot Touch-Graph Darstellung zum Netnocamp S. 2: http://www.google.de/imgres?imgurl=http://www.searchenginepeople.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/11/social-media-landscape.png S. 5: Logos von Anbietern von Monitoring-Software S. 6: twittpic von Clive Lavery, Köln S. 8: http://images.businessweek.com/ss/06/05/ethnography/source/1.html S. 8: http://www.dailybrilliance.com/steve-jobs-and-apple-are-turning-customers-into-fans/ S. 9: photos.techfieber.de/ wp-content/uploads/2010 www.photocase.de: S. 4,7, 16, 17 (leere Taschen), 19, 20 S. 12: http://caqdas.soc.surrey.ac.uk/choosing.jpg http://www.stanford.edu/group/ccr/blog/stanford_tourism/ (S. 8) S. 11: eigene Bearbeitung S. 16: (Fahrräder) Marc Wansky: www.wansky.de S. 18 oben: Globalpark - pdf zu Customer Feedback Communities Literatur: Atkinson Paul & Hammersley, Martyn: Ethnography: Principles in practice. ISBN:978-0-415-39605-9,278S. 1. Auflage New York 1983 Brauckmann, Patrick (Hrsg.): Web-Monitoring. Gewinnung und Analyse von Daten über das Kommunikationsverhalten im Internet. Konstanz 2010, 412 S. Cova, Bernard; Kozinets, Robert V.; Shankar, Avi (Hrsg.): „Consumer Tribes“, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford und Burlington MA 2007, 339 S. Janowitz, Klaus. M. : Netnographie, http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/files/2009/663/netnographie.pdf 2008 Kozinets, Robert V.: Netnography. Doing Ethnographic Research Online. Sage Publications Ltd 2010, 232 S., ISBN: 184860645 Kozinets, Robert V.: The Field Behind the Screen: Using Netnography for Marketing Research in Online Communities. Journal of marketing research. vol. 39, 2002, No. 1, pp. 61-72 Verhaeghe, Annelies (InSites Consulting, Gent): Getting answers without asking question. White paper Wenger, Christian: Gemeinschaft und Identität in Medienfankulturen – Fankulturen als Prototypen posttraditionaler Vergemeinschaftung und Vorreiter der neuen Netzwerkökonomie? 2006 (Broschiert) NetnoCamp Cologne 17.09.2010 21 Klaus M.Janowitz mail@klaus-janowitz.de Donnerstag, 9. Dezember 2010