SlideShare a Scribd company logo
every read receives the most recent write
A B
WRITE
X=1
READ
X=1
CONSISTENCY
X=1 X=1
every read receives the most recent write
A B
WRITE
X=2
CONSISTENCY
X=1 X=1
every read receives the most recent write
A B
WRITE
X=2
CONSISTENCY
X=2 X=1
READ ERROR!!!
read and writes succeed on all nodes
A B
WRITE
X=2
READ
X=1
AVAILABILITY
X=2 X=1
M
R1 R2
syncsync
read read
write
Scaling Reads
M
R1 R2
asyncasync
read read
write
Scaling Reads
DDBS PA PC EL EC
SQL Server Yes Yes
CosmosDB Yes Yes
PNUTS Yes Yes
Cassandra Yes Yes
Riak Yes Yes
VoltDB/H-Store Yes Yes
MongoDB Yes Yes
ElasticSearch Yes Yes
PAC-ELC
ONE SIZE
FITS ALL
A C I D
atomicity
consistency
isolation
durability
ACID
Experience at Amazon has shown that
data stores that provide ACID guarantees
tend to have poor availability. This has
been widely acknowledged by both the
industry and academia
scalability
fault tolerance
Dynamo Databases
Requirements
Query Model: simple read and write operations by a key.
ACID: Dynamo targets the design space of an ‘Always Writable’.
Incremental Scale: Dynamo should be able to scale out one node at a
time with minimal impact.
Efficiency: services should be configurable for durability, availability,
consistency guarantees.
Data
Partitioning
N3 N1
N2
500
250750
0 let dataPlacement = data
|> getMD5hash
|> getFirst8Bytes
|> toInteger
A
C
N3 N1
N2
500
250750
0 let dataPlacement = data
|> getMD5hash
|> getFirst8Bytes
|> toInteger
A
C
N3 N1
N2
500
250750
0 let dataPlacement = data
|> getMD5hash
|> getFirst8Bytes
|> toInteger
A
C
N3
N2
500
250750
0 let dataPlacement = data
|> getMD5hash
|> getFirst8Bytes
|> toInteger
A
C
N3
N1
500
250750
0 let dataPlacement = data
|> getMD5hash
|> getFirst8Bytes
|> toInteger
A
C
N
500
250750
0
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
500
250750
0
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N1
N1
N
500
250750
0
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
NON-UNIFORM
DATA & LOAD
DISTIBUTION
VIRTUAL NODES
WEEK Consistency
SLOPPY QUORUM
R + W > N
R – minimum number of nodes for read
W - minimum number of nodes for write
N – number of replicas
D B
A
C
PUT
W=2
S=4
N=3
2 + 2 > 3
R – minimum number of nodes for read
W - minimum number of nodes for write
N – number of replicas
GET
R=2
(W + R > N)
ALWAYS
WRITABLE
D B
A
C
PUT
W=2
S=4
N=3
D B
A
C
PUT
W=2
S=4
N=3
D B
A
C
PUT
S=4
N=3
W=2
Hinted
Handoff
D B
A
C
Hinted
Handoff
W=2
S=4
N=3
temporary
D
AHinted
Handoff
W=2
S=4
N=3
temporary
B
C
D
AHinted
Handoff
W=2
S=4
N=3
B
C
CONFLICTS
LWW
VECTOR CLOCKS
CRDT
CAUSALITY
by timestamps
00.11.12 < 00.11.18
A
US Data Center
B
EU Data Center
t1 ADD cart ‘pizza’
t2 US Data Center Fails
Sync Fails
t3 ADD cart ‘vodka’ (Last Write Wins)
t4
US Data Center Recovers
Resume Sync
t5 GET cart
‘vodka’
GET cart
‘vodka’
VECTOR CLOCKS
1988
N1
N1
N2 N3
N1
write handled by N1
write handled by N1
D1[N1, 1]
D2[N1, 2]
(nodeName, counter) map
VECTOR CLOCKS
D3[(N1, 2)(N2,1)] D4[(N1, 2)(N3,1)]
D5[(N1, 3)(N2,1)(N3,1)]
client 1 client 2
client 1
client 1
reconciled and written by N1
CRDT
2009
CRDT
Conflict-free
Replicated
Data
Type
CRDT
Commutativity: x * y = y * x
Associativity: (x * y) * z = x * (y * z)
Idempotency: x * x = x
System.Int32
addition: (+)
+
Commutativity: 1 + 2 = 2 + 1
Associativity: (1 + 2) + 3 = 1 + (2 + 3)
Idempotency: 1 + 1 ≠ 1
Set<T>
merge: (U)
U
Commutativity: 1 U 2 = 2 U 1
Associativity: (1 U 2) U 3 = 1 U (2 U 3)
Idempotency: 1 U 1 = 1
42
{ }
{ }
{ }
{ }
{ 55 }
{ }
55
{ 55 }
{ 55 }
{ }
{ 55 }
{ 55 }
{ 55 }
{ 55 }
{ 55 }
{ 55, 73 }
73
{ 55 }
{ 55 }
{ 55, 73 }
{ 55, 73 }
{ 55 }
{ 55, 73 }
{ 55, 73 }
{ 55 }
{ 55, 73 }
{ 55, 73 }
{ 55 }
{ 55, 73 }2
{ 55, 73 } U { 55 } U { 55, 73 } = { 55, 73 }
READ REPAIR
{ 55, 73 } ∆ { 55 } ∆ { 55, 73 } = { 73 }
{ 55, 73 }
{ 55, 73 }
{ 55, 73 }2
on
CRDT
on
LWW-Set
on
(timestamp, data)
let toLwwSet (tweet) =
(tweet.Timestamp, tweet)
let tweet = {
userId = “12bf-58ac-9pi6”
timestamp: “2018:09:01 12:30:00”
message: “Hi @User1”
}
(time,tweet)
add remove
node 1
add remove
node 2
(2018,a)
add remove
node 1
add remove
node 2
(2018,a) (2018,a)
(2018,b)
add remove
node 1
add remove
node 2
(2018,a) (2018,a)
(2018,b)
add remove
node 1
add remove
node 2
(2018,a) (2018,a)
(2018,b) (2018,b)
add remove
node 1
add remove
node 2
(2018,a) (2018,a)
(2018,b) (2018,b)
(2018,c)
add remove
node 1
add remove
node 2
(2018,a) (2018,a)
(2018,b) (2018,b)
(2018,c)
add remove
node 1
add remove
node 2
(2018,a) (2018,a)
(2018,b) (2018,b)
(2018,c)
(2018,c)
add remove
node 1
add remove
node 2
(2018,a) (2018,a)
(2018,b) (2018,b)
(2018,c)
(2018,c)
(2018,a) (2018,b)
(2018,c)
(2018,c)
READ REPAIR
THANKS
@antyadev
antyadev@gmail.com

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