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Module One: Getting
Started
Welcome to the Negotiation Skills workshop.
Although people often think of boardrooms, suits,
and million dollar deals when they hear the word
“negotiation,” the truth is that we negotiate all
the time.
For example, have you ever:
Decided where to eat with a group of friends?
Decided on chore assignments with your family?
Asked your boss for a raise?
Success in business
requires training
and discipline and
hard work. But if
you’re not frightened
by these things, the
opportunities are
just as great today
as they ever were.
David Rockefeller
Workshop Objectives
Types of
negotiations
What
information
to share
Bargaining
techniques
Identifying
mutual gain
Module Two:
Understanding Negotiation
Before we get started, let’s take a
look at two basic types of
negotiation. We’ll consider the three
phases of negotiation and the skills
you need to become an effective
negotiator.
Information
is a
negotiator’s
greatest
weapon.
Victor
Kiam
Types of Negotiations
•Multiple issues
•Bridge buildingIntegrative
•Confidential
•Extract informationDistributive
The Three Phases
Exchanging Information
Bargaining
Closing
Skills for Successful
Negotiating
Effective
speaking
Effective
listening
Self-
confidence
Patience Respect
Case Study
Phillip and Julian had debated back and forth
Katy heard their banter and offered to be the judge
Katy decided that Phillip and Julian both had stumbled
upon brilliant moves
They did just that and were crowned winners
Module Three:
Getting Prepared
Like any challenging task, negotiation
requires preparation. Before you begin a
negotiation, you need to define what you
hope to get out of it, what you will settle
for, and what you consider unacceptable.
You also need to prepare yourself
personally. The key to personal
preparation is to approach the negotiation
with self-confidence and a positive
attitude.
If you don’t
know where
you are going,
you will
probably end
up somewhere
else.
Lawrence J.
Peter
Establishing Your WATNA and
BATNA
WATNA
•Worst Alternative to a
Negotiated Agreement
BATNA
•Best Alternative to a
Negotiated Agreement
Identifying Your WAP
Keep secret
Remain firm
Obtain concessions if WAP changes
Be prepared to walk away
Identifying Your ZOPA
Realistic
price
Final price
will sit here
Keep WAP
secret
Personal Preparation
Polite - It never reduces your argument
Firm - Removes Perceptions of Weakness
Calm - Facilitates Persuasion and
Compromise
Do not take things personally
Case Study
Clay worked up a sweat in his office and did
jumping jacks
Mark couldn't believe his eyes and had to get a closer
look
Mark asked him what in the world had gotten into him
Getting pumped physically before you meet your
competition made you that much stronger
Module Four: Laying the
Groundwork
In this module we consider
other aspects of preparation:
setting the time and place,
establishing common ground,
and creating a negotiating
framework.
Everything
comes to
him who
hustles
while he
waits.
Thomas
Edison
Setting the Time and Place
Can be an advantage
Environmental factors
Limit distractions
Neutral venue
Establishing Common Ground
Effective to find first
Build on it
Builds
momentum
Creating a Negotiation Framework
Agree on what is being negotiated
What is non-negotiable?
Based on values and goals
The Negotiation Process
Preparation
Opening
Position
Bargaining Movement Closing
Case Study
Rosie couldn't keep her eyes open
Noticing Rosie's tired condition, Emily went to the
rescue
They determine when she was the most productive
Emily showed Rosie some exercises she could do in her
cubicle
Module Five: Phase One —
Exchanging Information
The first phase in a negotiation
involves an exchange of information.
Both sides state their positions on
the issues being addressed in a non-
confrontational way. The tricky part
of this phase is deciding what to
reveal and what to hold back.
The first step
to getting the
things you
want out of
life is this:
Decide what
you want.
Ben Stein
Getting Off on the Right Foot
Open with small talk
Show a human side
Introductions are important
What to Share
Detailed statement on your
position
Be specific on issues
Topics of discussion
What to Keep to Yourself
Can be tricky
Start with
general issues
Set the scene
for in-depth
negotiations
Case Study
Charlie and Joshua sat across from each
other with their poker faces
Charlie tested the waters and offered his part
Joshua recognized that they were both on the same
page
Their negotiations were a match made in heaven.
Module Six:
Phase Two — Bargaining
Now we have reached the heart of
the negotiation process. This phase
— bargaining — is what most people
mean when they talk about
negotiation.
My idea of an
agreeable
person is
someone who
agrees with
me.
Benjamin
Disraeli
What to Expect
Do they typically start out with an
unreasonable offer?
Do they try to rush the negotiation?
Do they try to frame the issues to their
own advantage?
Techniques to Try
Prepare, prepare, prepare.
Leave behind your ego.
Ramp up your listening skills.
Anticipate compromise.
If you don't ask, you don't get.
How to Break an Impasse
If the impasse involves money, change the
terms: a larger deposit, a shorter pay period
Change a team member or the team leader.
Agree on easy issues and save the more
difficult issues for later.
Case Study
Chip swam in his suit because he fought a
losing battle
Chip's coworker, Chance, noticed that Chip
disintegrated
Chance held on tight and tilted the bargaining table
back
Chip became grateful for the help and sat a little taller
in his seat
Module Seven: About
Mutual Gain
In their classic book Getting to Yes, Roger Fisher
and William Ury argue that most negotiations are
not as efficient or as successful as they might be
because people tend to argue about positions
rather than interests.
They suggest that the parties in a negotiation
focus on their interests. What can we get out of
the negotiation that will further our interests?
That is the question that should guide a
negotiation toward achieving mutual gain.
When dealing
with people,
remember you
are not dealing
with creatures
of logic, but
with creatures
of emotion.
Dale Carnegie
Three Ways to See Your Options
Positional Bargaining: Soft
Friends
Agreement
Positional Bargaining: Hard
Victory
Distrust
Interest Bargaining
Mutual gain Problem solvers
About Mutual Gain
Focus on
interests
Atmosphere
of respect
Multiple
options
Creating a Mutual Gain Solution
Brainstorming
Identifying shared values
Make it larger or smaller
Identify issues that can be set
aside
What Do I Want?
State them
positively
Ideal vs.
realistic
Wants vs.
needs
What Do They Want?
What does my opponent need?
What does my opponent want?
What is most important to them?
What is least important to them?
What Do We Want?
Joe George
Wants • To have at least two foreman
shifts per week.
• To have at least two foreman
shifts per week.
• To leave by 4:30 p.m. on
Fridays.
Needs • Leave by 4:30 p.m. on
Mondays and Wednesdays.
• To ensure that the foreman
position is covered by
someone from Monday to
Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.
• Not to have more than three
foreman shifts per week.
• To ensure that the foreman
position is covered by
someone from Monday to
Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.
Case Study
Emma and Elijah were in a heated debate
They soon realized neither would win
The best solution would be to be equal partners
Together they designed a strong package
Module Eight:
Phase Three — Closing
The final phase of a negotiation is a
time for reaching consensus and
building an agreement. A little hard
work in this phase can ensure that
the negotiation achieves it desired
results.
Negotiating in
the classic sense
assumes that
parties are
more anxious to
agree than to
disagree.
Dean Acheson
Reaching Consensus
Live with decision
Different meaning to different people
Cannot please everyone
50% of something is better than 100% of
nothing
Building an Agreement
Translate generalities into specifics
Bargaining is over
Interpretation of the consensus
Get the small print in place
Setting the Terms of the
Agreement
Firm details
Backed up with the “how” factor
Clearly stated in writing
Case Study
Tim and Frederick struggled to get over the
final hump in the negotiation process
Tim would give an inch and Frederick would give an
inch
Tim told Frederick that they should build this bridge
together
Tim joined in and they were able to construct a sturdy
apparatus
Module Nine: Dealing
with Difficult Issues
Most people are willing to negotiate
in good faith. They don’t resort to
tricks or intimidation. Every once in a
while, though, you might encounter
someone who takes a less principled
approach.
All things
are
difficult
before they
are easy.
Thomas
Fuller
Being Prepared for Environmental
Tactics
Behind a desk
Request for an improvement
Be polite, but firm
Dealing with Personal Attacks
Respectful opening
Sets a positive tone
“Let’s get back to the issues.”
Take the high road
Suspend the negotiation
Controlling Your Emotions
Emotional
intelligence
Discussions
will become
less focused
Suggest a
short break
Clear the
atmosphere
Deciding When It’s Time to
Walk Away
Walk away if:
You feel threatened or
extremely uncomfortable.
The other party uses unfair tactics that
make it impossible to have a
negotiation.
Case Study
Maisy had grown smaller and smaller as Lucy
continued to throw insults her way
Edward noticed the duel and intervened
Edward quieted the insults
Maisy stood up prepared to use friendly tactics
Module Ten: Negotiating
Outside the Boardroom
Negotiating isn’t just something that
takes place in conference rooms with
powerful forces aligned on either
side of a table. People have informal
negotiations every day — with their
coworkers, merchants, even family
members.
Use soft
words and
hard
arguments.
English
Proverb
Adapting the Process for
Smaller Negotiations
Separate the people from the
problem
Focus on interests, not positions
Expand the range of options
State the terms of an agreement
in specific, clear terms
Negotiating via Telephone
Pay attention to particular points
Listen Actively
Requesting more time
Don’t feel rushed
Negotiating via Email
In general, it is appropriate to use email in a negotiation:
When the topic is clearly defined
When the topic does not require extensive
discussion
When the expected response is relatively simple
When there is little possibility of misunderstanding
Case Study
Marvin's head looked about to explode and
smoke exited his ears
Jake informed Marvin that the time had come to hang
up the phone
The negotiations were at a standstill
Jake took some notes and offered his solutions to
Marvin
Module Eleven: Negotiating
on Behalf of Someone Else
Negotiating on behalf of someone else
presents some special challenges. When
you begin such a negotiation, you need to
have a clear idea of your Walk Away Price
(WAP) and the concessions you have
permission to make. You also need to be
sure you understand the issues well
enough to respond to tough questions that
may come up in the negotiation.
To succeed as a
team means to
hold all of the
members
accountable for
their expertise.
Mitchell
Caplan
Choosing the Negotiating Team
Remind everyone
of the team’s goals
Ensure that everyone understands
his or her role in the negotiation
Create a “game plan”
for the negotiation
Covering All the Bases
Each person knows their
responsibilities
Autonomy balance
What they can and cannot offer
Dealing with Tough Questions
Suggest (in a friendly way) that the
question is irrelevant
Say you don’t know the answer
You would like to wait to respond
Reply with a question of your own
Case Study
Jeff, Lacey, and Clinton were all speaking over
each other
The three voices sounded like a herd of cattle
Clinton had enough and took a stand and demanded
that everyone stop and listen
Lacey and Jeff agreed
Module Twelve:
Wrapping Up
Although this workshop is coming to a
close, we hope that your journey to
improve your project management skills is
just beginning. Please take a moment to
review and update your action plan. This
will be a key tool to guide your progress in
the days, weeks, months, and years to
come. We wish you the best of luck on the
rest of your travels!
Success
usually comes
to those who
are too busy to
be looking for
it.
Henry David
Thoreau
Words from the Wise
John F.
Kennedy
• Let us begin anew; remembering
on both sides that civility is not a
sign of weakness. Let us never
negotiate out of fear, but let us
never fear to negotiate.
Henry
Kissinger
• Each success only buys an
admission ticket to a more difficult
problem.
Tom Peters • Under-promise; over-deliver.

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Negotation skills pdf powerpoint

  • 1. Module One: Getting Started Welcome to the Negotiation Skills workshop. Although people often think of boardrooms, suits, and million dollar deals when they hear the word “negotiation,” the truth is that we negotiate all the time. For example, have you ever: Decided where to eat with a group of friends? Decided on chore assignments with your family? Asked your boss for a raise? Success in business requires training and discipline and hard work. But if you’re not frightened by these things, the opportunities are just as great today as they ever were. David Rockefeller
  • 2. Workshop Objectives Types of negotiations What information to share Bargaining techniques Identifying mutual gain
  • 3. Module Two: Understanding Negotiation Before we get started, let’s take a look at two basic types of negotiation. We’ll consider the three phases of negotiation and the skills you need to become an effective negotiator. Information is a negotiator’s greatest weapon. Victor Kiam
  • 4. Types of Negotiations •Multiple issues •Bridge buildingIntegrative •Confidential •Extract informationDistributive
  • 5. The Three Phases Exchanging Information Bargaining Closing
  • 7. Case Study Phillip and Julian had debated back and forth Katy heard their banter and offered to be the judge Katy decided that Phillip and Julian both had stumbled upon brilliant moves They did just that and were crowned winners
  • 8. Module Three: Getting Prepared Like any challenging task, negotiation requires preparation. Before you begin a negotiation, you need to define what you hope to get out of it, what you will settle for, and what you consider unacceptable. You also need to prepare yourself personally. The key to personal preparation is to approach the negotiation with self-confidence and a positive attitude. If you don’t know where you are going, you will probably end up somewhere else. Lawrence J. Peter
  • 9. Establishing Your WATNA and BATNA WATNA •Worst Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement BATNA •Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement
  • 10. Identifying Your WAP Keep secret Remain firm Obtain concessions if WAP changes Be prepared to walk away
  • 11. Identifying Your ZOPA Realistic price Final price will sit here Keep WAP secret
  • 12. Personal Preparation Polite - It never reduces your argument Firm - Removes Perceptions of Weakness Calm - Facilitates Persuasion and Compromise Do not take things personally
  • 13. Case Study Clay worked up a sweat in his office and did jumping jacks Mark couldn't believe his eyes and had to get a closer look Mark asked him what in the world had gotten into him Getting pumped physically before you meet your competition made you that much stronger
  • 14. Module Four: Laying the Groundwork In this module we consider other aspects of preparation: setting the time and place, establishing common ground, and creating a negotiating framework. Everything comes to him who hustles while he waits. Thomas Edison
  • 15. Setting the Time and Place Can be an advantage Environmental factors Limit distractions Neutral venue
  • 16. Establishing Common Ground Effective to find first Build on it Builds momentum
  • 17. Creating a Negotiation Framework Agree on what is being negotiated What is non-negotiable? Based on values and goals
  • 19. Case Study Rosie couldn't keep her eyes open Noticing Rosie's tired condition, Emily went to the rescue They determine when she was the most productive Emily showed Rosie some exercises she could do in her cubicle
  • 20. Module Five: Phase One — Exchanging Information The first phase in a negotiation involves an exchange of information. Both sides state their positions on the issues being addressed in a non- confrontational way. The tricky part of this phase is deciding what to reveal and what to hold back. The first step to getting the things you want out of life is this: Decide what you want. Ben Stein
  • 21. Getting Off on the Right Foot Open with small talk Show a human side Introductions are important
  • 22. What to Share Detailed statement on your position Be specific on issues Topics of discussion
  • 23. What to Keep to Yourself Can be tricky Start with general issues Set the scene for in-depth negotiations
  • 24. Case Study Charlie and Joshua sat across from each other with their poker faces Charlie tested the waters and offered his part Joshua recognized that they were both on the same page Their negotiations were a match made in heaven.
  • 25. Module Six: Phase Two — Bargaining Now we have reached the heart of the negotiation process. This phase — bargaining — is what most people mean when they talk about negotiation. My idea of an agreeable person is someone who agrees with me. Benjamin Disraeli
  • 26. What to Expect Do they typically start out with an unreasonable offer? Do they try to rush the negotiation? Do they try to frame the issues to their own advantage?
  • 27. Techniques to Try Prepare, prepare, prepare. Leave behind your ego. Ramp up your listening skills. Anticipate compromise. If you don't ask, you don't get.
  • 28. How to Break an Impasse If the impasse involves money, change the terms: a larger deposit, a shorter pay period Change a team member or the team leader. Agree on easy issues and save the more difficult issues for later.
  • 29. Case Study Chip swam in his suit because he fought a losing battle Chip's coworker, Chance, noticed that Chip disintegrated Chance held on tight and tilted the bargaining table back Chip became grateful for the help and sat a little taller in his seat
  • 30. Module Seven: About Mutual Gain In their classic book Getting to Yes, Roger Fisher and William Ury argue that most negotiations are not as efficient or as successful as they might be because people tend to argue about positions rather than interests. They suggest that the parties in a negotiation focus on their interests. What can we get out of the negotiation that will further our interests? That is the question that should guide a negotiation toward achieving mutual gain. When dealing with people, remember you are not dealing with creatures of logic, but with creatures of emotion. Dale Carnegie
  • 31. Three Ways to See Your Options Positional Bargaining: Soft Friends Agreement Positional Bargaining: Hard Victory Distrust Interest Bargaining Mutual gain Problem solvers
  • 32. About Mutual Gain Focus on interests Atmosphere of respect Multiple options
  • 33. Creating a Mutual Gain Solution Brainstorming Identifying shared values Make it larger or smaller Identify issues that can be set aside
  • 34. What Do I Want? State them positively Ideal vs. realistic Wants vs. needs
  • 35. What Do They Want? What does my opponent need? What does my opponent want? What is most important to them? What is least important to them?
  • 36. What Do We Want? Joe George Wants • To have at least two foreman shifts per week. • To have at least two foreman shifts per week. • To leave by 4:30 p.m. on Fridays. Needs • Leave by 4:30 p.m. on Mondays and Wednesdays. • To ensure that the foreman position is covered by someone from Monday to Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. • Not to have more than three foreman shifts per week. • To ensure that the foreman position is covered by someone from Monday to Friday, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.
  • 37. Case Study Emma and Elijah were in a heated debate They soon realized neither would win The best solution would be to be equal partners Together they designed a strong package
  • 38. Module Eight: Phase Three — Closing The final phase of a negotiation is a time for reaching consensus and building an agreement. A little hard work in this phase can ensure that the negotiation achieves it desired results. Negotiating in the classic sense assumes that parties are more anxious to agree than to disagree. Dean Acheson
  • 39. Reaching Consensus Live with decision Different meaning to different people Cannot please everyone 50% of something is better than 100% of nothing
  • 40. Building an Agreement Translate generalities into specifics Bargaining is over Interpretation of the consensus Get the small print in place
  • 41. Setting the Terms of the Agreement Firm details Backed up with the “how” factor Clearly stated in writing
  • 42. Case Study Tim and Frederick struggled to get over the final hump in the negotiation process Tim would give an inch and Frederick would give an inch Tim told Frederick that they should build this bridge together Tim joined in and they were able to construct a sturdy apparatus
  • 43. Module Nine: Dealing with Difficult Issues Most people are willing to negotiate in good faith. They don’t resort to tricks or intimidation. Every once in a while, though, you might encounter someone who takes a less principled approach. All things are difficult before they are easy. Thomas Fuller
  • 44. Being Prepared for Environmental Tactics Behind a desk Request for an improvement Be polite, but firm
  • 45. Dealing with Personal Attacks Respectful opening Sets a positive tone “Let’s get back to the issues.” Take the high road Suspend the negotiation
  • 46. Controlling Your Emotions Emotional intelligence Discussions will become less focused Suggest a short break Clear the atmosphere
  • 47. Deciding When It’s Time to Walk Away Walk away if: You feel threatened or extremely uncomfortable. The other party uses unfair tactics that make it impossible to have a negotiation.
  • 48. Case Study Maisy had grown smaller and smaller as Lucy continued to throw insults her way Edward noticed the duel and intervened Edward quieted the insults Maisy stood up prepared to use friendly tactics
  • 49. Module Ten: Negotiating Outside the Boardroom Negotiating isn’t just something that takes place in conference rooms with powerful forces aligned on either side of a table. People have informal negotiations every day — with their coworkers, merchants, even family members. Use soft words and hard arguments. English Proverb
  • 50. Adapting the Process for Smaller Negotiations Separate the people from the problem Focus on interests, not positions Expand the range of options State the terms of an agreement in specific, clear terms
  • 51. Negotiating via Telephone Pay attention to particular points Listen Actively Requesting more time Don’t feel rushed
  • 52. Negotiating via Email In general, it is appropriate to use email in a negotiation: When the topic is clearly defined When the topic does not require extensive discussion When the expected response is relatively simple When there is little possibility of misunderstanding
  • 53. Case Study Marvin's head looked about to explode and smoke exited his ears Jake informed Marvin that the time had come to hang up the phone The negotiations were at a standstill Jake took some notes and offered his solutions to Marvin
  • 54. Module Eleven: Negotiating on Behalf of Someone Else Negotiating on behalf of someone else presents some special challenges. When you begin such a negotiation, you need to have a clear idea of your Walk Away Price (WAP) and the concessions you have permission to make. You also need to be sure you understand the issues well enough to respond to tough questions that may come up in the negotiation. To succeed as a team means to hold all of the members accountable for their expertise. Mitchell Caplan
  • 55. Choosing the Negotiating Team Remind everyone of the team’s goals Ensure that everyone understands his or her role in the negotiation Create a “game plan” for the negotiation
  • 56. Covering All the Bases Each person knows their responsibilities Autonomy balance What they can and cannot offer
  • 57. Dealing with Tough Questions Suggest (in a friendly way) that the question is irrelevant Say you don’t know the answer You would like to wait to respond Reply with a question of your own
  • 58. Case Study Jeff, Lacey, and Clinton were all speaking over each other The three voices sounded like a herd of cattle Clinton had enough and took a stand and demanded that everyone stop and listen Lacey and Jeff agreed
  • 59. Module Twelve: Wrapping Up Although this workshop is coming to a close, we hope that your journey to improve your project management skills is just beginning. Please take a moment to review and update your action plan. This will be a key tool to guide your progress in the days, weeks, months, and years to come. We wish you the best of luck on the rest of your travels! Success usually comes to those who are too busy to be looking for it. Henry David Thoreau
  • 60. Words from the Wise John F. Kennedy • Let us begin anew; remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness. Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate. Henry Kissinger • Each success only buys an admission ticket to a more difficult problem. Tom Peters • Under-promise; over-deliver.