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Er. Navjot Singh
Contents
 1.History
 2.CNC Introduction
 3.Elements of CNC
 4.How CNC Works
 5.How CNC Looks
 6.Man Working on CNC
 7.Features of CNC Machinery
 8.CNC Programming Basics
 9.Programming Key Letters
 10.Important G-codes
 11.Important M-codes
 12.Advantages
 13.Challenges
 14.Conclusion
History
 The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 1950s by
Prof. John T Parson.
 CNC machines comes into existence after evolution of
computer around 1980.
 Modern CNC machines are improving further as
technology is changing with a variety of functions
according to applications.
Introduction of CNC
 A numerical control system in which the data handling,
control sequences, and response to input is determined by
onboard computer system at the machine tool.
Elements of CNC
 A CNC machine consist of following 6 major elements:
1.Input Device
2.Machine Control Unit
3.Machine Tool
4.Driving System
5.Feedback Devices
6.Display Unit
How CNC Works
 Controlled by G and M codes.
 These are number value and co-ordinates.
 Each number or code is assigned to a particular operation.
 Typed in manually to CAD by machine operators.
 G & M codes are automatically generated by the computer
software.
How CNC Looks
Man Working on CNC
Features of CNC Machinery
 The tool or material moves automatically.
 Tool can operate in 1-5 axes.
 Larger machines have a machine control unit which
manages operations.
 Movement is controlled by motors.
 Feedback is provided by sensors.
 Tool magazines are used to change tools automatically.
CNC Programming Basics
 CNC instructions are called part program commands.
 When running, a part program is interpreted one
command line at a time until all lines are completed.
 Commands which are also referred to as blocks , are made
up of words which each begin with a letter address and
end with a numerical value.
Programming Key Letters
 O-program number
 N-sequence number
 G-preparatory function
 X-x axis designation
 Y-y axis designation
 Z-z axis designation
 R-radius designation
 F-feed rate designation
 S-spindle speed designation
 H-tool length offset designation
 D-tool radius offset designation
 T-tool designation
 M-miscellaneous function
Important G-codes
 G00 Rapid Transverse
 G01 Linear Interpolation
 G02 Circular interpolation, CW
 G03 Circular Interpolation, CCW
 G17 XY plane, G18 XZ plane, G19 YZ plane
 G20/G70 Inch Units
 G21/G71 Metric Units
 G40 cutter Compensation cancel
 G41 cutter compensation left
 G42 cutter compensation right
 G43 Tool length compensation (plus)
 G44 Tool length compensation (minus)
 G49 Tool length compensation cancel
 G80 cancel canned cycles
 G81 Drilling cycles
 G82 counter boring cycles
 G83 Deep hole drilling cycle
 G90 Absolute positioning
 G91 incremental positioning
Important M-codes
 M00 program stop
 M01 optional program stop
 M02 program end
 M03 spindle on clockwise
 M04 spindle on counter clockwise
 M05 spindle stop
 M06 Tool change
 M08 coolant on
 M09 coolant off
 M10 clamp on
 M11 clamp off
 M30 Program stop, reset to start
Advantages of CNC
 Easier to program.
 Easy storage of existing program.
 Easy to change a program.
 Avoids human errors.
 CNC machines are safe to operate.
 Complex geometry is produced as cheaply as simple ones.
 Usually generates closer tolerances than manual machines.
Challenges
 Costly setup
 Require skilled operator
 Computer programming knowledge required.
 Maintenance is difficult
Conclusions
 The advantages of a CNC system are that the operation of a
conventional machine is removed and the part production
is made automatically.
 It reduces the labour work and hence highly efficient in the
manufacturing process.
 CNC machines have their wide scopes because they are
easy to handle, the work becomes easier and jobs are done
with perfection.

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Navjot Singh Thakur.pptx

  • 2. Contents  1.History  2.CNC Introduction  3.Elements of CNC  4.How CNC Works  5.How CNC Looks  6.Man Working on CNC  7.Features of CNC Machinery  8.CNC Programming Basics  9.Programming Key Letters  10.Important G-codes  11.Important M-codes  12.Advantages  13.Challenges  14.Conclusion
  • 3. History  The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 1950s by Prof. John T Parson.  CNC machines comes into existence after evolution of computer around 1980.  Modern CNC machines are improving further as technology is changing with a variety of functions according to applications.
  • 4. Introduction of CNC  A numerical control system in which the data handling, control sequences, and response to input is determined by onboard computer system at the machine tool.
  • 5. Elements of CNC  A CNC machine consist of following 6 major elements: 1.Input Device 2.Machine Control Unit 3.Machine Tool 4.Driving System 5.Feedback Devices 6.Display Unit
  • 6. How CNC Works  Controlled by G and M codes.  These are number value and co-ordinates.  Each number or code is assigned to a particular operation.  Typed in manually to CAD by machine operators.  G & M codes are automatically generated by the computer software.
  • 9. Features of CNC Machinery  The tool or material moves automatically.  Tool can operate in 1-5 axes.  Larger machines have a machine control unit which manages operations.  Movement is controlled by motors.  Feedback is provided by sensors.  Tool magazines are used to change tools automatically.
  • 10. CNC Programming Basics  CNC instructions are called part program commands.  When running, a part program is interpreted one command line at a time until all lines are completed.  Commands which are also referred to as blocks , are made up of words which each begin with a letter address and end with a numerical value.
  • 11. Programming Key Letters  O-program number  N-sequence number  G-preparatory function  X-x axis designation  Y-y axis designation  Z-z axis designation  R-radius designation  F-feed rate designation  S-spindle speed designation  H-tool length offset designation  D-tool radius offset designation  T-tool designation  M-miscellaneous function
  • 12. Important G-codes  G00 Rapid Transverse  G01 Linear Interpolation  G02 Circular interpolation, CW  G03 Circular Interpolation, CCW  G17 XY plane, G18 XZ plane, G19 YZ plane  G20/G70 Inch Units  G21/G71 Metric Units  G40 cutter Compensation cancel  G41 cutter compensation left  G42 cutter compensation right  G43 Tool length compensation (plus)  G44 Tool length compensation (minus)  G49 Tool length compensation cancel  G80 cancel canned cycles  G81 Drilling cycles  G82 counter boring cycles  G83 Deep hole drilling cycle  G90 Absolute positioning  G91 incremental positioning
  • 13. Important M-codes  M00 program stop  M01 optional program stop  M02 program end  M03 spindle on clockwise  M04 spindle on counter clockwise  M05 spindle stop  M06 Tool change  M08 coolant on  M09 coolant off  M10 clamp on  M11 clamp off  M30 Program stop, reset to start
  • 14. Advantages of CNC  Easier to program.  Easy storage of existing program.  Easy to change a program.  Avoids human errors.  CNC machines are safe to operate.  Complex geometry is produced as cheaply as simple ones.  Usually generates closer tolerances than manual machines.
  • 15. Challenges  Costly setup  Require skilled operator  Computer programming knowledge required.  Maintenance is difficult
  • 16. Conclusions  The advantages of a CNC system are that the operation of a conventional machine is removed and the part production is made automatically.  It reduces the labour work and hence highly efficient in the manufacturing process.  CNC machines have their wide scopes because they are easy to handle, the work becomes easier and jobs are done with perfection.