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NATURAL AND MAN MADE
MATERIALS
Mel Fee Adv. Dip IDD
Materials are the foundation of design.
In effect, they will determine the overall look
and feel that is created within an interior
space.
Materials can be classified into 2
categories:NATURAL
 Natural materials are derived
from the earth and are either
mined or farmed;
 Natural materials are
considered authentic – they
age and mature over time and
exposure to the atmosphere
 They are often considered
more traditional, and
characterised by timeless
beauty
 Natural materials are often
considered less harmful to the
environment, however, this is
not always the case. For
instance, stone is not a
renewable resource, and
deforestation is known to
create ecological damage.
NATURAL MATERIALS
• NATURAL MATERIALS INCLUDE:
Timber
Stone
Bamboo
Cane
Cork
Silver
Gold
Leather
TIMBER- Hardwood & Softwood
• Hardwoods are the most durable
timbers, with a dense grain which is
resistant to damage and decay.
Suitable for construction, flooring,
shelving, furniture, cabinetry doors and
window frames.
• Softwoods are less dense, have a close
grain and many irregular knots.
Suitable for doors, shelving, ceiling,
internal linings, treated for fencing and
decking, treated and painted for other
outdoor applications, furniture.
STONE
Includes :
• Granite – very durable,
impervious stone
• Limestone – heatproof, softer,
more porous
• Marble – heatproof,
impervious to water, porous,
needs sealing
• Sandstone – harder than
limestone, slip resistance,
porous, will stain
• Slate – waterproof, resists
damp, stains, scratches, flakes
• Terrazzo – stone aggregate,
waterproof, hardwearing, can
crack, slippery
BAMBOO
•Woody grass laminated
in strips under high pressure
to make boards/sheets.
•Denser grain than timber, so more
water resistant than some timbers
•Range of colours and textures available
•Suitable for flooring, screening and
Decorative pieces
CANE
•Natural resource, woven from
grasses and rushes.
•Flexible but relatively fragile
product that is can be used
for furniture and decorative
pieces.
WATER HYACINTH
Also referred to as seagrass, it is mostly found
in Oriental waters, and often used in the
creation of wicker furniture pieces and
accessories.
CORK
Derived from the outer bark of the cork tree. Sheets of cork bark are granulated
And mixed with resins, pressed and baked. Durable product, soft and warm
Suitable for walls and floors.
LEATHER
Leather for furniture comes mostly from cattle, and no two hides are alike.
Age, heredity and environment all influence the character (and price) of
leather.
Materials can be classified into 2
categories:
MAN MADE:
 Man made materials are
processed, and can be made
up of a mixture of raw and
synthetic ingredients, which
can make them resemble
natural materials;
 Man made materials,
historically, have been prone
to the reputation of being
cheaper or lesser quality,
however, technology has
enabled the manufacture of
quality products with
extensive design
applications.
MAN MADE MATERIALS
MAN MADE MATERIALS INCLUDE:
 Tiles
 Brick
 Concrete
 Metals
 Glass
 Plastic
 Rubber
 Plasterboard
 Plywood/Particleboard
 Paper
 Paint
TILES
Include:
• Ceramic (baked - made
from natural clay &
water)
• Clay & Terracotta
(baked - made from clay
with mineral content)
BRICK
• Made from clay which is
pressed and fired at
high temperatures.
CONCRETE
• Made from cement,
water, and an aggregate
of sand and gravel, plus
additives to prevent
chipping.
METALS
Include:
• Aluminium (mined from bauxite)
• Brass (copper & zinc)
• Bronze (copper & tin)
• Chrome (aluminium & reduced
oxide or by-carbon)
• Copper (mined)
• Gold (mined, panned)
• Cast & Wrought Iron (iron ore,
coke & limestone)
• Nickel (chemical element & other
metals)
• Silver (mined)
• Stainless Steel (chromium & nickel)
• Zinc (product of earths crust)
METALS
GLASS
Pure sand,
soda and
lime heated
to 1700 C
degrees
PLASTIC
Includes:
• Laminate (paper &
resin glued
together at high
temperatures used
for flooring and
joinery
• PVC – composition
of synthetic
nylons, acrylics
and polymers)
used for furniture
• Synthetic Resin –
acrylic, melamine
used for furniture,
lighting and
decorative pieces
RUBBER
• Harvested from the
rubber tree.
• Comes in tile, sheet or
lineal form used for
walls and floor.
• Soft underfoot,
hardwearing.
• Needs to be laid on
smooth even base.
PLASTERBOARD
• Gypsum – mined,
processed then encased
in a liner board.
• Can be textured and
moulded in relief detail.
• Acoustic resistant, non
combustible. Can be
curved.
• Cement based plaster is
used for external
situations.
PLYWOOD
• Plywood is many thin
sheets of wood glued
together. When layers
are put together it
produces a sturdy,
lightweight product
which can be curved.
FIBREBOARD
FIBREBOARD - Made from wood
particles bonded with plastic Resin
MDF - Moisture resistant
fibreboard made from wood
particles bonded with plastic resin.
Parrafin wax is added to provide
protection against water and
damp.
PARTICLEBOARD is a board made
from nonchemically processed dry
wood particles of various shapes
and sizes and either synthetic or
natural adhesive material.
PAPER
Wallpaper often colored
and printed with designs
and pasted to a wall as a
decorative covering.
PAINT
a substance composed of solid coloring matter
suspended in a liquid medium and applied as a
protective or decorative coating to various
surfaces,

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NATURAL AND MAN MADE MATERIALS

  • 1. NATURAL AND MAN MADE MATERIALS Mel Fee Adv. Dip IDD
  • 2. Materials are the foundation of design. In effect, they will determine the overall look and feel that is created within an interior space.
  • 3. Materials can be classified into 2 categories:NATURAL  Natural materials are derived from the earth and are either mined or farmed;  Natural materials are considered authentic – they age and mature over time and exposure to the atmosphere  They are often considered more traditional, and characterised by timeless beauty  Natural materials are often considered less harmful to the environment, however, this is not always the case. For instance, stone is not a renewable resource, and deforestation is known to create ecological damage.
  • 4. NATURAL MATERIALS • NATURAL MATERIALS INCLUDE: Timber Stone Bamboo Cane Cork Silver Gold Leather
  • 5. TIMBER- Hardwood & Softwood • Hardwoods are the most durable timbers, with a dense grain which is resistant to damage and decay. Suitable for construction, flooring, shelving, furniture, cabinetry doors and window frames. • Softwoods are less dense, have a close grain and many irregular knots. Suitable for doors, shelving, ceiling, internal linings, treated for fencing and decking, treated and painted for other outdoor applications, furniture.
  • 6. STONE Includes : • Granite – very durable, impervious stone • Limestone – heatproof, softer, more porous • Marble – heatproof, impervious to water, porous, needs sealing • Sandstone – harder than limestone, slip resistance, porous, will stain • Slate – waterproof, resists damp, stains, scratches, flakes • Terrazzo – stone aggregate, waterproof, hardwearing, can crack, slippery
  • 7. BAMBOO •Woody grass laminated in strips under high pressure to make boards/sheets. •Denser grain than timber, so more water resistant than some timbers •Range of colours and textures available •Suitable for flooring, screening and Decorative pieces
  • 8. CANE •Natural resource, woven from grasses and rushes. •Flexible but relatively fragile product that is can be used for furniture and decorative pieces.
  • 9. WATER HYACINTH Also referred to as seagrass, it is mostly found in Oriental waters, and often used in the creation of wicker furniture pieces and accessories.
  • 10. CORK Derived from the outer bark of the cork tree. Sheets of cork bark are granulated And mixed with resins, pressed and baked. Durable product, soft and warm Suitable for walls and floors.
  • 11. LEATHER Leather for furniture comes mostly from cattle, and no two hides are alike. Age, heredity and environment all influence the character (and price) of leather.
  • 12. Materials can be classified into 2 categories: MAN MADE:  Man made materials are processed, and can be made up of a mixture of raw and synthetic ingredients, which can make them resemble natural materials;  Man made materials, historically, have been prone to the reputation of being cheaper or lesser quality, however, technology has enabled the manufacture of quality products with extensive design applications.
  • 13. MAN MADE MATERIALS MAN MADE MATERIALS INCLUDE:  Tiles  Brick  Concrete  Metals  Glass  Plastic  Rubber  Plasterboard  Plywood/Particleboard  Paper  Paint
  • 14. TILES Include: • Ceramic (baked - made from natural clay & water) • Clay & Terracotta (baked - made from clay with mineral content)
  • 15. BRICK • Made from clay which is pressed and fired at high temperatures.
  • 16. CONCRETE • Made from cement, water, and an aggregate of sand and gravel, plus additives to prevent chipping.
  • 17. METALS Include: • Aluminium (mined from bauxite) • Brass (copper & zinc) • Bronze (copper & tin) • Chrome (aluminium & reduced oxide or by-carbon) • Copper (mined) • Gold (mined, panned) • Cast & Wrought Iron (iron ore, coke & limestone) • Nickel (chemical element & other metals) • Silver (mined) • Stainless Steel (chromium & nickel) • Zinc (product of earths crust)
  • 19. GLASS Pure sand, soda and lime heated to 1700 C degrees
  • 20. PLASTIC Includes: • Laminate (paper & resin glued together at high temperatures used for flooring and joinery • PVC – composition of synthetic nylons, acrylics and polymers) used for furniture • Synthetic Resin – acrylic, melamine used for furniture, lighting and decorative pieces
  • 21. RUBBER • Harvested from the rubber tree. • Comes in tile, sheet or lineal form used for walls and floor. • Soft underfoot, hardwearing. • Needs to be laid on smooth even base.
  • 22. PLASTERBOARD • Gypsum – mined, processed then encased in a liner board. • Can be textured and moulded in relief detail. • Acoustic resistant, non combustible. Can be curved. • Cement based plaster is used for external situations.
  • 23. PLYWOOD • Plywood is many thin sheets of wood glued together. When layers are put together it produces a sturdy, lightweight product which can be curved.
  • 24. FIBREBOARD FIBREBOARD - Made from wood particles bonded with plastic Resin MDF - Moisture resistant fibreboard made from wood particles bonded with plastic resin. Parrafin wax is added to provide protection against water and damp. PARTICLEBOARD is a board made from nonchemically processed dry wood particles of various shapes and sizes and either synthetic or natural adhesive material.
  • 25. PAPER Wallpaper often colored and printed with designs and pasted to a wall as a decorative covering.
  • 26. PAINT a substance composed of solid coloring matter suspended in a liquid medium and applied as a protective or decorative coating to various surfaces,