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Chapter 10
Narrow and wide ways
of solution-growing
Leoš Zatloukal and Lenka Tkadlčíkovó
From problem-solving to solution-growing
The distinction between problem-solving and solution-development is crucial
in the Solution Focused approach (de Shazer, 1994). The "problem-solving"
approach is to find a key problem and uncover its (mostly hidden) causes and
then remove or fix the problem in a way that is proven based on prior experi-
ence (observation, scientific research, etc.). In a psychotherapy context, this
model is called the "medical model" and the way of removing a problem is
often called "evidence-based practice" (Wampold, 2001). Although this model
works quite well at tirnes, it also has great lirnitations, especially in working
with "non-trivial systems" like clients in psychotherapy, counselling, coaching,
supervision etc. (De Haan, 2008; De ]ong & Berg, 2008; Wampold, 2001).
Solution-development can be seen as a cornpletely different paradigm (De
]ong & Berg, 2008). De Shazer defines the "solution" within the SFBT
approach as "what begins to develop when the problem is dissolved and
what happens once the clienťs goal is met" (de Shazer, 1991, p. 121). An
older text offers a more detailed definition:
Solutions are the behavioural and/or perceptual changes that the therap-
ist and client construct to alter the difficulty, the ineffective way of
overcoming the difficulty, and/or the construction of an acceptable,
alternative perspective that enables the client to experience the com-
plaint situations differently.
(de Shazer et al., 1986, p. 210)
From our perspective, both definitions higWight several aspects of what
we call "solutions" in SFBT:
1. "Solutions" represent changes (and thus processes) that are connected
with various areas of the undesirable situation (the "problem") and they
are neither derived from the "problern" nor necessarily correspond to its
complexity, they only "fit" in the context (de Shazer, 1985)
Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing 81
2. These changes lead somewhere (it is the development of something
desirable for the client - "problem is solved or goal is met")
3. "Solutions" create something new (it is not only about elirninating or to
fixing something undesirable)
4. This change is co-created by both the client and the therapist (it is the
result of cooperation, not the unilateral or instructive action of one of
the parties)
5. This change is based on the resources available (de Shazer, 1988)
In SFBT literature, the process is mostly described as a "solution-development"
(de Shazer et al., 1986) or with the help of a technical metaphor as a "solution-
building" (De Jong & Berg, 2008). We offer an alternative metaphor: solution-
growing. The advantage is that it is a metaphor connected with nature, not
with the construction industry. The solution is, within this metaphor, a set of
changes that are organic. They grow, influence and reinforce each other. They
do not represent something that was once "made" or "built" and remains the
same, like a building. This view is extremely important for the discussion of the
sustainability of the change (the solution) - it is not about the new built formula
being solid (as a building) and preserved, but about continuing with its develop-
ment, self-strengthening and growing (Keeney & Keeney, 2012).
Practically, the focus on "developing solutions" is most often manifested
by examining the desired change during the consultation (what the client
wants to achieve) and the achievements and resources (which the client can
build on). Both can be accessed in a "wide" or "narrow" way, as described
in the following part.
Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing
The distinction of the "narrow" and "wide" path to solution-growing repre-
sents a metaphor that can help practitioners reflect the richness and the
width of the process. If we consider the biological metaphor of solution-
growing, it makes us think of the place where we plan to sow the seeds and
let the change (solution) grow. In SFBT, the meaning of thick descriptions
is very often emphasised (de Shazer et al., 2007; Iveson, George, & Ratner,
2012; Ratner, George, & Iveson, 2012). Detailed descriptions can greatly
contribute to the "widening" of the solution, but an important aspect here
is not only the degree of the detail, but also the overall focus of the
conversation.
We can explain it with the help of an example from practice: leťs imagine
a client who comes to talk about the panic attacks she experiences when she
needs to talk to other colleagues at work (as she is the small team leader, she
has to do it quite often). As part of the "problem solving" frame, the practi-
tioner would probably address the problem and its hypothetical causes and
would seek appropriate methods to elirninate or fix it. When growing
82 Leoš Zatloukal and Lenka Tkadlčfková
a solution, the SFBT therapist most often focuses on the change the client
desires (preferred future) together with moments when a desired change ar
at least its pieces were achieved in the past (exceptions, instances) (De Jong
& Berg, 2008; Shennan, 2014). The following example focuses on the first
area (preferred future), but it could also be applied to the other area.
Case example
Tne sample is a transcription cf the extract from the .first session (it is translated from
Czech to English). T indicates the therapist (L. Z.), C indicates the client. AU
names used in the transcript are.fictional.
1. T: "You talked about the panic attacks you are experiencing when you
need to talk to other colleagues at work ... hmmm ... suppose that this
meeting will be really useful to you, just as it may be ... what will heIp
you realise without any doubt - perhaps right now or in the next few
days - that things have shifted a lot to the better?" (opening)
2. C: "I would feel better at the meetings." (feelings)
3. T: "What kind of feeling will it be when you feel better?" (feelings)
4. C: "Well, (pause) that would be a feeling ofrelief" (feelings)
5. T: "How specifically would that relief be manifested? (pause) Where
will you feel in the relief in your body?" (feelings, physiology)
6. C: "Hmmm ... on the chest ... " (feelings, physiology)
7. T: "And what kind of feeling will it be? (Longer pause, client keeps
thinking) More like warmth or cold? Or some pulsation or some flow
or burden ... ?" (feelings, physiology)
8. C: "Such as a void a pleasant void." (feelings, physiology)
9. T: "Pleasant void hmmm ... is it a feeling that you can easily recall?
Can you recognise it when it is corning?" (feelings, physiology)
10. C: "Definitely"
In the example, we can see a shift from the description of the problem to
developing solutions with a "common project" question (Korman, 2017). At
the same time, it is clear that, although the description of the change is quite
detailed (while taking into account the nonverbal aspects of the description
apparent on the recording), the "solutions" remains very "narrowly" focused
on the clienťs feelings and physiology. A useful tool for "extending" the
solution can be the model presented by Harry Korman. It proposes to con-
sider three basic layers in which the conversation can move and thus
"extend" solution-growing (Korman, 2017): 1."inner states" (feelings,
thoughts, physiological experiences) 2. behaviour and 3. interaction with
others (plus wider context). It is advisable to move from one layer to
another when working on the thick descriptions so that all of them are in
fact interconnected (Korman, 2017). Basically, it does not matter where the
Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing 83
conversation begins and where it goes (usually it begins where the client
wants to begin). It is important to include all the layers so that the solution
does not remain narrowly focused only on feelings or thoughts, behaviour
or interaction with others. Each of these aspects is important because all of
them together create the context for developing solutions. One of the SFBT
hallmarks is to avoid the artificial isolation of individual aspects (typically
feelings or thoughts, which we call "inner states"). Attention needs to be
paid to the consistent perception of these aspects and their de1iberate use
within the overall context (de Shazer et al., 2007). The interview below
shows the transition to the other layers (the layers are determined in the par-
entheses for easier orientation):
Case examp/e (continued)
11. T: "Okay ... and if you had this feeling of a pleasant void, what would
be different then? (pause) What would you do that you do not do usu-
ally? What would you think?" (behaviour, thinking)
12. C: "I do not know ... maybe I would smile at the people in my team."
(behaviour)
13. T: "You would smile at the people in your team ... (the client smiles,
T points to it) like that?" (behaviour)
14. C: "Yes." (she starts smiling even more)
15. T: "What else willyou do?"
16. C: "I guess ... I'm going to look more at people when I talk ... and
I will not drop my pen ... " (she laughs) (behaviour)
17. T: "You will look more at people when you talk ... hmm, is there
someone from the team who you will be looking at more often than at
others?"
18. C: "I will look at all of them ... (pause) but iťs trne that I'm probably
going to look more often at those who will be following me and will
seem to accept what I say."
19. T: "Aaaah ... well ... so you willlook more often at some people and
somehow you will be able to keep your pen ... what e1sewill happen?"
20. (... )
44. T: "Will the people in your team notice that? (C: nods) And how will
they respond?" (pause) (interaction)
45. C: (srniles) "I think they will be glad." (interaction)
46. T: "And how will you know they have noticed the change and that
they like it?" (interaction)
47. C: "I think they will tell me it was a good meeting." (interaction)
48. T: "Is there anyone in the team you expect to tell you first?"
(interaction)
84 Leoš Zatloukal and Lenka Tkadlčfková
49. C: "Probably Jane, she knows how hard it is for me and always keeps
her fingers crossed for me." (interaction)
50. T: "50, will Jane certain1y notice it? (C: nods) And she will tell you it
was good meeting ... well ... and during the meeting, before anybody
can tell you, will you recognise somehow that some people noticed the
change ... and maybe even that they like it?" (interaction)
51. C: "Hmm ... I do not know ... they probably will not be so much on
their mobile phone." (interaction)
52. T: "If they do not write on their mobile phone, how will they react
when they notice the change in you?" (interaction)
53. C: "They will make notes or follow what I say." (interaction)
In the extract from the interview above, the focus of the conversation got
spread to more areas - behaviour, thoughts and interaction. Sorne parts of
the consultation have been ornitted due to the lirnited space (as you see in
the text (... ) and the numbers in the interview show it). Due to limited
space, the other aspects (thoughts and behaviours) are not well represented,
they were explored in other parts of the session. We have tried to capture
the interaction layer (44-53) in which it is possible to see the quest for cir-
cular (interactional) descriptions according to the simplified scheme of
"sequences of interactions". A sirnilar sequence was described by some
authors as a "chain of influence" (Iveson et al., 2012).
Sequence I
Who will notice it?
What specifically will this person X notice?
How will the person X respond?
What will the client notice about the respondent X?
How will the client respond?
(This can be repeated a few times - what else will the person X notice?
etc. Then you can move on to the following questions.)
What kind of relationship will you and person X have? What will be
different in the relationship then?
Sequence 2
Who else will notice it?
What specifically will this other person Y notice?
How will the person Y respond?
What will the client notice about the respondent Y?
How will the client respond?
(This can be repeated a few times - What else will the person Y notice?
etc. Then you can move on to the following questions.)
Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing 85
What kind of relationship will you and person Y have? What will be
different in the relationship then?
Note: It is possible to continue in a sirnilar way a1so with other people
(Sequence 3,4, 5 ... ) who may notice some kind of change in a client
Another option to extend the solution-growing is to focus on various
areas of clienťs life. ("at home", "at work", "tennis" etc.). Sometimes
we can focus very dosely on one area in which change will manifest
itself (the preferred future) or it already manifested itself (exceptions,
instances), and sometimes we can focus on some other areas. It may sur-
prise the dient as well as the therapist how change in one area can be
related to other areas that at first glance seemed completely separated and
unrelated.
The previous extract demonstrated (11) how to work with differences,
which is another way of extending the solution. The conversation focused
on differences uses the genera1 structure "how does X differ from Y?" This
genera1 structure is different from the simple question "How does X look?"
When working with a preferred future, work with differences can look like
this: "What will you do differently a day after the rniracle?"
Similarly, when working with exceptions, one may ask, "What other
thoughts kept corning to your mind at that moment and in that situation
(exception), what was different from your usual thoughts?"
No matter which layer a therapist and a client move in, it is a1ways pos-
sible to extend descriptions through variations of the question "what else?"
This question a1lows you to zoom the situation out and move from one area
of the description to another one (Ratner et a1., 2012).
An especially important area of solution-growing is associated with ques-
tions of the clienťs resources that concern both the clienťs past and present
time. The starting point may be the exceptions or instances of the preferred
future (De Jong & Berg, 2008), but a1so work with a scale (in particular
a description of the difference between O and X), coping questions. All these
areas can be followed by exploring resources, for example:
How did you do that?
What helped you to manage that?
How much effort have you put into this?
What helped you not give up?
What did you learn from it?
In a sirnilar way, we can deal with the resources while using questions
exploring the dienťs confidence (De Jong & Berg, 2008). The only differ-
ence is that we do not work with a specific situation of success in the past,
but with past experiences, which give the client confidence that it can
change for the better. The past experience helps to empower the client by
86 Leoš Zatloukal and Lenka Tkadlčíková
providing him or her with an experience of having a resource that was
manifested in the life of client before.
Another interesting area for the extension of solution-growing is the
focus on identity. (Shennan (2014) mentions inspiration through
a narrative approach that instead of a typical resource-oriented question
(e.g.: "How did you do that?") rather focuses on the identity of the actors
(e.g.: "Who are you to have done that?"). Michael White described the sig-
nificance of the distinction between "landscape of action" and "landscape of
identity" for the enrichment (in our metaphor we could say extension) lead-
ing to the creation of a new story (White, 2007). The author emphasises the
prernise that "renegotiation of the stories of people's lives is also
a renegotiation of identity" (White, 2007, p. 82). Extending the solution-
growing in the area of identity can be done while using following questions:
"What does it mean to you that you managed to do something ...
(exception)?"
"What will it mean for you if you succeed ... ?"
"What does it say about you as a man?"
"What did it take?"
Transitions between "narrow" and "wide" ways of
solution-growing
In the previous section, we have explored the possibilities of extending solu-
tion-growing. The opposite process - narrowing - occurs most often by sirnply
leaving some potentially extending areas aside. Although extending the solu-
tion-growing sounds to the SFBT practitioner's ear as a clearly desirable option,
we do not think iťs automatic that the wider the conversation shot, the better.
We would like to offer several guidelines:
Extending the solution-growing can be hypothetically endless, but it is
obvious that it is sometimes necessary to end. From the practical point
of view, the "more, the better" does not apply absolutely
The wider the focus, the more demands are put on the time of the worker
and the client, as well as on the quality of the cooperation with the client -
the working alliance can be ruptured when it comes to the disagreement
about therapeutic methods/tasks (Wampold & lmel, 2015, p. 179)
Although the extension of solution-growing is a wonderful thing, it is
theoretically better not to do anything, or do less, if it achieves the
same result as doing something. It is better from the perspective of
"therapeutic parsimony" and at the same tirne it reflects the philosoph-
ical stance of Ockham's razor typical for SFBT (de Shazer, 1985,
p. 58)
Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing 87
There can be transitions between "wide" and "narrow" solution-growing
- when the conversation starts "narrowly," it does not mean that it could
not "extend" in another phase and vice versa. When we visualise
a horizontal time1ine that shows the session time, we can imagine various
shapes around it that illustrate the course of the session in terrns of solu-
tion-growing width. They can have the shape of an imaginary "tube"
(constant "width" all the time), "funnel" (in the beginning wider, gradually
narrowing), "honker" (initially narrow, gradually widened), laying "hour-
glass" (with a sequence: wide-narrow-wide), etc.
"Extending" and "narrowing" solution-growing can be fruitfully reflected
in work. This reflection can be used when working with clients. The
above-mentioned imaginary shapes can serve as a tool for reflection.
A rather complicated tool may be a table that includes the various elements
of extending the solution mentioned here (see Figure 10.1). Of course,
some other elements can be added (the last line in the table says other ... ).
The individual colurnns refer to specific parts of the session that the con-
sultant appoints to be well oriented in the session. He/she can also add the
times (e.g. on the base of the recording). The X marks in the colurnns
then indicate whether the solution-growing extended within the given
area. In the example below, the first phase (colurnn 1) stands for the "small
talk" (De Jong & Berg, 2008), where the client talks about activities he
likes doing and he described them with the focus on his behaviour, ideas,
feehngs and Tesources. The second colurnn represents a day after the mir-
acle conversation involving many more areas (with the exception of
resources). The third colurnn represents an interview about the instances of
the preferred future and the emphasis is placed on behaviour, ideas, inter-
actions, resources, differences (contrast to problem situation) and identity.
An important question remains how to distinguish the useful rate of solu-
tion-growing extension in a given session. For this purpose, it is useful to
have some more evidence from intensive research. A good example is asso-
ciated with the activity of BRIEF colleagues who try to both simphfy SFBT
conceptually and devote themselves to careful efficacy research (for example,
their study did not show any difference in efficiency when there was or was
not assigned a "task" at the end of the session (lveson et al., 2012). An even
smoother method of research to capture the importance of extending and
narrowing the solution from the perspective of shifts within the conversation
can be provided by various forrns of conversational and discourse analysis
(Keeney, Keeney, & Chenail, 2015; Perakyla, Antaki, Vehvilainen, &
Leudar, 2008). In addition to the research, the clinical experience of
a worker and mutual reflection done by both the therapist and the client
can also be a useful guide.
In this context, we offer several simple guidelines for transitions between
"narrow" and "wide" solution-growing:
Pbases Name oftbe phasel Name oftbe pbase 2 Name oftbe pbase 3
of consultation
(time frame from-to) (time frame from-to) (time frame from-to)
Area
of
solution-
growing
8ehaviour X X X
Feelings X
Tbougbts X X X
Pbysiology X
Interaction X X
(at least one
sequence)
Various areas X
oflife
Clienťs X X
resources
Differences X X
Identity X·
"Zooming~' X
(at least 2x
focus on detail
and then move
on to anotber
detail)
Otber ...
88 Leoš Zatloukal and Lenka Tkadlčiková
Figure /0./ T001 for reflection
a) Extend where it is interesting for the client
In situations where the focus of the conversation is interesting for the
client and he or she becomes immersed in it, it may be useful to con-
tinue and extend solution-growing. Both therapeutic change and the
working alliance are strengthened.
b) Extend where it is clearly new to the client
Another clue can be the element of novelty. If a client "struggles"
with a particular moment of the conversation, it may mean that he has
never thought of it before and it is new to him. If the client responds
directly by saying: "1 don't know", it can be seen as a request: "let me
Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing 89
think about it" (de Shazer et al., 2007). A great deal of perseverance and
curiosity of a consultant can bring about very valuable discoveries and
shifts in that area. On the other hand, excessive rigidity may lead to the
loss of collaboration with the client and slow down ar even block the
solution-growing process (Lipchik, 2002).
c) Extend when you were formerly narrow (and vice versa)
There is a high chance of usefulness provided the consultant reflects the
"extension" and "narrowing" of solution-growing throughout the consult-
ation. If a "narrow" style of solution-growing (small number of X in the
table) has been used repeatedly, it rnay be useful to start focusing on extending
it. Conversely, in the "wide" implementation of all phases during the conver-
sation, it may be appropriate to consider the "narrowing" of its focus.
d) "Extend" solution-growing so that the solution can be further spread in the
clienťs everyday life
Focus on the everyday life of the client rather than the session itself plays
a key role in the Solution Focused approach (Ratner et al., 2012; Shennan,
2014) and corresponds to the research fmdings that make the greatest contri-
bution to the therapeutic change associated with extra-therapeutic change ar
clienťs resources (Fliickiger, Wiisten, Zinbarg, & Warnpold, 2009; Warn-
pold, 2001). From the perspective of spreading changes in the life of the
client, it might be helpful to take into account the "ripple effect" (de Shazer,
1985). Mapping the changes between sessions (DeJ ong & Berg, 2008) plays
very significant role in extending changes to the clienťs life because the
"ripple effect" is an inherently unpredictable process (we know that minor
changes lead to further changes, but we can hardly predict to which ones).
So, mapping the changes between sessionsshould be mostly extended.
Conclusion
The "solution-growing" metaphor suggests that developing solutions is an
organic process. As with most life processes, it is not a process that can be pre-
cisely planned ar fully controlled. It is not a process in which we could simply
say "the more, the better". A1though solution-growing is a process that takes
place in a very complicated and complex environment (system), it does not
necessarily have to be a complicated process. On the contrary, cybemetics
teaches us that working with a complex system can be simple and cost-effective,
while full of creative improvisation (de Shazer, 1985; Keeney & Keeney, 2012).
References
De Haan, E. (2008). Relationa/ coaching:Journeys towards mastering one to one learning.
Chichester: John Wiley & SOllS.
De Jong, P., & Berg, 1. K. (2008). lnterviewing for solutions. Pacific Groove, CA:
Brooks/Cole Publishing,
90 Leoš Zatloukal and Lenka Tkadlčíková
de Shazer, S. (1985). Keys to solution in briiftherapy. New York, NY: W. W. Norton &
company.
de Shazer, S. (1988). Utilization: The foundation of solutions. In J. K. Zeig &
S. R. Lankton (Eds.), Deve/oping Ericksonian therapy: State qf the art (pp. 112-124).
Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.
de Shazer, S. (1991). Puuing di.fferetlCe to work. New York, NY: W. W. Norton &
Company.
de Shazer, S. (1994). Words were originally magic. New York, NY: W. W. Norton &
Company.
de Shazer, S., Berg, I. K., Lipchik, E., Nunnally, E., Molnar, A., Gingerich, W., &
Weiner-Davis, M. (1986). Brief therapy: Focused solution development. Pamily Pro-
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de Shazer, S., Dolan, Y., Korman, H., McCollum, E., Trepper, T., & Berg, I. K.
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Fliickiger, c., Wiisten, G., Zinbarg, R., & Wampold, B. (2009). Resource activation:
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lysis and psychotherapy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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what makes psychotherapy work (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
White, M. (2007). Maps qf narrative practice. New York, NY: W. W. Norton &
Company.
Solution Focused Practice
Around the World
Edited by Kirsten Dierolf, Debbie
Hogan, Svea van der Hoorn and
Sukanya Wignaraja
I~~~o~!~~n~f{;up
LONDON AND NEW YORK

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Narrow and- wide ways of solution-growing

  • 1. Chapter 10 Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing Leoš Zatloukal and Lenka Tkadlčíkovó From problem-solving to solution-growing The distinction between problem-solving and solution-development is crucial in the Solution Focused approach (de Shazer, 1994). The "problem-solving" approach is to find a key problem and uncover its (mostly hidden) causes and then remove or fix the problem in a way that is proven based on prior experi- ence (observation, scientific research, etc.). In a psychotherapy context, this model is called the "medical model" and the way of removing a problem is often called "evidence-based practice" (Wampold, 2001). Although this model works quite well at tirnes, it also has great lirnitations, especially in working with "non-trivial systems" like clients in psychotherapy, counselling, coaching, supervision etc. (De Haan, 2008; De ]ong & Berg, 2008; Wampold, 2001). Solution-development can be seen as a cornpletely different paradigm (De ]ong & Berg, 2008). De Shazer defines the "solution" within the SFBT approach as "what begins to develop when the problem is dissolved and what happens once the clienťs goal is met" (de Shazer, 1991, p. 121). An older text offers a more detailed definition: Solutions are the behavioural and/or perceptual changes that the therap- ist and client construct to alter the difficulty, the ineffective way of overcoming the difficulty, and/or the construction of an acceptable, alternative perspective that enables the client to experience the com- plaint situations differently. (de Shazer et al., 1986, p. 210) From our perspective, both definitions higWight several aspects of what we call "solutions" in SFBT: 1. "Solutions" represent changes (and thus processes) that are connected with various areas of the undesirable situation (the "problem") and they are neither derived from the "problern" nor necessarily correspond to its complexity, they only "fit" in the context (de Shazer, 1985)
  • 2. Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing 81 2. These changes lead somewhere (it is the development of something desirable for the client - "problem is solved or goal is met") 3. "Solutions" create something new (it is not only about elirninating or to fixing something undesirable) 4. This change is co-created by both the client and the therapist (it is the result of cooperation, not the unilateral or instructive action of one of the parties) 5. This change is based on the resources available (de Shazer, 1988) In SFBT literature, the process is mostly described as a "solution-development" (de Shazer et al., 1986) or with the help of a technical metaphor as a "solution- building" (De Jong & Berg, 2008). We offer an alternative metaphor: solution- growing. The advantage is that it is a metaphor connected with nature, not with the construction industry. The solution is, within this metaphor, a set of changes that are organic. They grow, influence and reinforce each other. They do not represent something that was once "made" or "built" and remains the same, like a building. This view is extremely important for the discussion of the sustainability of the change (the solution) - it is not about the new built formula being solid (as a building) and preserved, but about continuing with its develop- ment, self-strengthening and growing (Keeney & Keeney, 2012). Practically, the focus on "developing solutions" is most often manifested by examining the desired change during the consultation (what the client wants to achieve) and the achievements and resources (which the client can build on). Both can be accessed in a "wide" or "narrow" way, as described in the following part. Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing The distinction of the "narrow" and "wide" path to solution-growing repre- sents a metaphor that can help practitioners reflect the richness and the width of the process. If we consider the biological metaphor of solution- growing, it makes us think of the place where we plan to sow the seeds and let the change (solution) grow. In SFBT, the meaning of thick descriptions is very often emphasised (de Shazer et al., 2007; Iveson, George, & Ratner, 2012; Ratner, George, & Iveson, 2012). Detailed descriptions can greatly contribute to the "widening" of the solution, but an important aspect here is not only the degree of the detail, but also the overall focus of the conversation. We can explain it with the help of an example from practice: leťs imagine a client who comes to talk about the panic attacks she experiences when she needs to talk to other colleagues at work (as she is the small team leader, she has to do it quite often). As part of the "problem solving" frame, the practi- tioner would probably address the problem and its hypothetical causes and would seek appropriate methods to elirninate or fix it. When growing
  • 3. 82 Leoš Zatloukal and Lenka Tkadlčfková a solution, the SFBT therapist most often focuses on the change the client desires (preferred future) together with moments when a desired change ar at least its pieces were achieved in the past (exceptions, instances) (De Jong & Berg, 2008; Shennan, 2014). The following example focuses on the first area (preferred future), but it could also be applied to the other area. Case example Tne sample is a transcription cf the extract from the .first session (it is translated from Czech to English). T indicates the therapist (L. Z.), C indicates the client. AU names used in the transcript are.fictional. 1. T: "You talked about the panic attacks you are experiencing when you need to talk to other colleagues at work ... hmmm ... suppose that this meeting will be really useful to you, just as it may be ... what will heIp you realise without any doubt - perhaps right now or in the next few days - that things have shifted a lot to the better?" (opening) 2. C: "I would feel better at the meetings." (feelings) 3. T: "What kind of feeling will it be when you feel better?" (feelings) 4. C: "Well, (pause) that would be a feeling ofrelief" (feelings) 5. T: "How specifically would that relief be manifested? (pause) Where will you feel in the relief in your body?" (feelings, physiology) 6. C: "Hmmm ... on the chest ... " (feelings, physiology) 7. T: "And what kind of feeling will it be? (Longer pause, client keeps thinking) More like warmth or cold? Or some pulsation or some flow or burden ... ?" (feelings, physiology) 8. C: "Such as a void a pleasant void." (feelings, physiology) 9. T: "Pleasant void hmmm ... is it a feeling that you can easily recall? Can you recognise it when it is corning?" (feelings, physiology) 10. C: "Definitely" In the example, we can see a shift from the description of the problem to developing solutions with a "common project" question (Korman, 2017). At the same time, it is clear that, although the description of the change is quite detailed (while taking into account the nonverbal aspects of the description apparent on the recording), the "solutions" remains very "narrowly" focused on the clienťs feelings and physiology. A useful tool for "extending" the solution can be the model presented by Harry Korman. It proposes to con- sider three basic layers in which the conversation can move and thus "extend" solution-growing (Korman, 2017): 1."inner states" (feelings, thoughts, physiological experiences) 2. behaviour and 3. interaction with others (plus wider context). It is advisable to move from one layer to another when working on the thick descriptions so that all of them are in fact interconnected (Korman, 2017). Basically, it does not matter where the
  • 4. Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing 83 conversation begins and where it goes (usually it begins where the client wants to begin). It is important to include all the layers so that the solution does not remain narrowly focused only on feelings or thoughts, behaviour or interaction with others. Each of these aspects is important because all of them together create the context for developing solutions. One of the SFBT hallmarks is to avoid the artificial isolation of individual aspects (typically feelings or thoughts, which we call "inner states"). Attention needs to be paid to the consistent perception of these aspects and their de1iberate use within the overall context (de Shazer et al., 2007). The interview below shows the transition to the other layers (the layers are determined in the par- entheses for easier orientation): Case examp/e (continued) 11. T: "Okay ... and if you had this feeling of a pleasant void, what would be different then? (pause) What would you do that you do not do usu- ally? What would you think?" (behaviour, thinking) 12. C: "I do not know ... maybe I would smile at the people in my team." (behaviour) 13. T: "You would smile at the people in your team ... (the client smiles, T points to it) like that?" (behaviour) 14. C: "Yes." (she starts smiling even more) 15. T: "What else willyou do?" 16. C: "I guess ... I'm going to look more at people when I talk ... and I will not drop my pen ... " (she laughs) (behaviour) 17. T: "You will look more at people when you talk ... hmm, is there someone from the team who you will be looking at more often than at others?" 18. C: "I will look at all of them ... (pause) but iťs trne that I'm probably going to look more often at those who will be following me and will seem to accept what I say." 19. T: "Aaaah ... well ... so you willlook more often at some people and somehow you will be able to keep your pen ... what e1sewill happen?" 20. (... ) 44. T: "Will the people in your team notice that? (C: nods) And how will they respond?" (pause) (interaction) 45. C: (srniles) "I think they will be glad." (interaction) 46. T: "And how will you know they have noticed the change and that they like it?" (interaction) 47. C: "I think they will tell me it was a good meeting." (interaction) 48. T: "Is there anyone in the team you expect to tell you first?" (interaction)
  • 5. 84 Leoš Zatloukal and Lenka Tkadlčfková 49. C: "Probably Jane, she knows how hard it is for me and always keeps her fingers crossed for me." (interaction) 50. T: "50, will Jane certain1y notice it? (C: nods) And she will tell you it was good meeting ... well ... and during the meeting, before anybody can tell you, will you recognise somehow that some people noticed the change ... and maybe even that they like it?" (interaction) 51. C: "Hmm ... I do not know ... they probably will not be so much on their mobile phone." (interaction) 52. T: "If they do not write on their mobile phone, how will they react when they notice the change in you?" (interaction) 53. C: "They will make notes or follow what I say." (interaction) In the extract from the interview above, the focus of the conversation got spread to more areas - behaviour, thoughts and interaction. Sorne parts of the consultation have been ornitted due to the lirnited space (as you see in the text (... ) and the numbers in the interview show it). Due to limited space, the other aspects (thoughts and behaviours) are not well represented, they were explored in other parts of the session. We have tried to capture the interaction layer (44-53) in which it is possible to see the quest for cir- cular (interactional) descriptions according to the simplified scheme of "sequences of interactions". A sirnilar sequence was described by some authors as a "chain of influence" (Iveson et al., 2012). Sequence I Who will notice it? What specifically will this person X notice? How will the person X respond? What will the client notice about the respondent X? How will the client respond? (This can be repeated a few times - what else will the person X notice? etc. Then you can move on to the following questions.) What kind of relationship will you and person X have? What will be different in the relationship then? Sequence 2 Who else will notice it? What specifically will this other person Y notice? How will the person Y respond? What will the client notice about the respondent Y? How will the client respond? (This can be repeated a few times - What else will the person Y notice? etc. Then you can move on to the following questions.)
  • 6. Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing 85 What kind of relationship will you and person Y have? What will be different in the relationship then? Note: It is possible to continue in a sirnilar way a1so with other people (Sequence 3,4, 5 ... ) who may notice some kind of change in a client Another option to extend the solution-growing is to focus on various areas of clienťs life. ("at home", "at work", "tennis" etc.). Sometimes we can focus very dosely on one area in which change will manifest itself (the preferred future) or it already manifested itself (exceptions, instances), and sometimes we can focus on some other areas. It may sur- prise the dient as well as the therapist how change in one area can be related to other areas that at first glance seemed completely separated and unrelated. The previous extract demonstrated (11) how to work with differences, which is another way of extending the solution. The conversation focused on differences uses the genera1 structure "how does X differ from Y?" This genera1 structure is different from the simple question "How does X look?" When working with a preferred future, work with differences can look like this: "What will you do differently a day after the rniracle?" Similarly, when working with exceptions, one may ask, "What other thoughts kept corning to your mind at that moment and in that situation (exception), what was different from your usual thoughts?" No matter which layer a therapist and a client move in, it is a1ways pos- sible to extend descriptions through variations of the question "what else?" This question a1lows you to zoom the situation out and move from one area of the description to another one (Ratner et a1., 2012). An especially important area of solution-growing is associated with ques- tions of the clienťs resources that concern both the clienťs past and present time. The starting point may be the exceptions or instances of the preferred future (De Jong & Berg, 2008), but a1so work with a scale (in particular a description of the difference between O and X), coping questions. All these areas can be followed by exploring resources, for example: How did you do that? What helped you to manage that? How much effort have you put into this? What helped you not give up? What did you learn from it? In a sirnilar way, we can deal with the resources while using questions exploring the dienťs confidence (De Jong & Berg, 2008). The only differ- ence is that we do not work with a specific situation of success in the past, but with past experiences, which give the client confidence that it can change for the better. The past experience helps to empower the client by
  • 7. 86 Leoš Zatloukal and Lenka Tkadlčíková providing him or her with an experience of having a resource that was manifested in the life of client before. Another interesting area for the extension of solution-growing is the focus on identity. (Shennan (2014) mentions inspiration through a narrative approach that instead of a typical resource-oriented question (e.g.: "How did you do that?") rather focuses on the identity of the actors (e.g.: "Who are you to have done that?"). Michael White described the sig- nificance of the distinction between "landscape of action" and "landscape of identity" for the enrichment (in our metaphor we could say extension) lead- ing to the creation of a new story (White, 2007). The author emphasises the prernise that "renegotiation of the stories of people's lives is also a renegotiation of identity" (White, 2007, p. 82). Extending the solution- growing in the area of identity can be done while using following questions: "What does it mean to you that you managed to do something ... (exception)?" "What will it mean for you if you succeed ... ?" "What does it say about you as a man?" "What did it take?" Transitions between "narrow" and "wide" ways of solution-growing In the previous section, we have explored the possibilities of extending solu- tion-growing. The opposite process - narrowing - occurs most often by sirnply leaving some potentially extending areas aside. Although extending the solu- tion-growing sounds to the SFBT practitioner's ear as a clearly desirable option, we do not think iťs automatic that the wider the conversation shot, the better. We would like to offer several guidelines: Extending the solution-growing can be hypothetically endless, but it is obvious that it is sometimes necessary to end. From the practical point of view, the "more, the better" does not apply absolutely The wider the focus, the more demands are put on the time of the worker and the client, as well as on the quality of the cooperation with the client - the working alliance can be ruptured when it comes to the disagreement about therapeutic methods/tasks (Wampold & lmel, 2015, p. 179) Although the extension of solution-growing is a wonderful thing, it is theoretically better not to do anything, or do less, if it achieves the same result as doing something. It is better from the perspective of "therapeutic parsimony" and at the same tirne it reflects the philosoph- ical stance of Ockham's razor typical for SFBT (de Shazer, 1985, p. 58)
  • 8. Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing 87 There can be transitions between "wide" and "narrow" solution-growing - when the conversation starts "narrowly," it does not mean that it could not "extend" in another phase and vice versa. When we visualise a horizontal time1ine that shows the session time, we can imagine various shapes around it that illustrate the course of the session in terrns of solu- tion-growing width. They can have the shape of an imaginary "tube" (constant "width" all the time), "funnel" (in the beginning wider, gradually narrowing), "honker" (initially narrow, gradually widened), laying "hour- glass" (with a sequence: wide-narrow-wide), etc. "Extending" and "narrowing" solution-growing can be fruitfully reflected in work. This reflection can be used when working with clients. The above-mentioned imaginary shapes can serve as a tool for reflection. A rather complicated tool may be a table that includes the various elements of extending the solution mentioned here (see Figure 10.1). Of course, some other elements can be added (the last line in the table says other ... ). The individual colurnns refer to specific parts of the session that the con- sultant appoints to be well oriented in the session. He/she can also add the times (e.g. on the base of the recording). The X marks in the colurnns then indicate whether the solution-growing extended within the given area. In the example below, the first phase (colurnn 1) stands for the "small talk" (De Jong & Berg, 2008), where the client talks about activities he likes doing and he described them with the focus on his behaviour, ideas, feehngs and Tesources. The second colurnn represents a day after the mir- acle conversation involving many more areas (with the exception of resources). The third colurnn represents an interview about the instances of the preferred future and the emphasis is placed on behaviour, ideas, inter- actions, resources, differences (contrast to problem situation) and identity. An important question remains how to distinguish the useful rate of solu- tion-growing extension in a given session. For this purpose, it is useful to have some more evidence from intensive research. A good example is asso- ciated with the activity of BRIEF colleagues who try to both simphfy SFBT conceptually and devote themselves to careful efficacy research (for example, their study did not show any difference in efficiency when there was or was not assigned a "task" at the end of the session (lveson et al., 2012). An even smoother method of research to capture the importance of extending and narrowing the solution from the perspective of shifts within the conversation can be provided by various forrns of conversational and discourse analysis (Keeney, Keeney, & Chenail, 2015; Perakyla, Antaki, Vehvilainen, & Leudar, 2008). In addition to the research, the clinical experience of a worker and mutual reflection done by both the therapist and the client can also be a useful guide. In this context, we offer several simple guidelines for transitions between "narrow" and "wide" solution-growing:
  • 9. Pbases Name oftbe phasel Name oftbe pbase 2 Name oftbe pbase 3 of consultation (time frame from-to) (time frame from-to) (time frame from-to) Area of solution- growing 8ehaviour X X X Feelings X Tbougbts X X X Pbysiology X Interaction X X (at least one sequence) Various areas X oflife Clienťs X X resources Differences X X Identity X· "Zooming~' X (at least 2x focus on detail and then move on to anotber detail) Otber ... 88 Leoš Zatloukal and Lenka Tkadlčiková Figure /0./ T001 for reflection a) Extend where it is interesting for the client In situations where the focus of the conversation is interesting for the client and he or she becomes immersed in it, it may be useful to con- tinue and extend solution-growing. Both therapeutic change and the working alliance are strengthened. b) Extend where it is clearly new to the client Another clue can be the element of novelty. If a client "struggles" with a particular moment of the conversation, it may mean that he has never thought of it before and it is new to him. If the client responds directly by saying: "1 don't know", it can be seen as a request: "let me
  • 10. Narrow and wide ways of solution-growing 89 think about it" (de Shazer et al., 2007). A great deal of perseverance and curiosity of a consultant can bring about very valuable discoveries and shifts in that area. On the other hand, excessive rigidity may lead to the loss of collaboration with the client and slow down ar even block the solution-growing process (Lipchik, 2002). c) Extend when you were formerly narrow (and vice versa) There is a high chance of usefulness provided the consultant reflects the "extension" and "narrowing" of solution-growing throughout the consult- ation. If a "narrow" style of solution-growing (small number of X in the table) has been used repeatedly, it rnay be useful to start focusing on extending it. Conversely, in the "wide" implementation of all phases during the conver- sation, it may be appropriate to consider the "narrowing" of its focus. d) "Extend" solution-growing so that the solution can be further spread in the clienťs everyday life Focus on the everyday life of the client rather than the session itself plays a key role in the Solution Focused approach (Ratner et al., 2012; Shennan, 2014) and corresponds to the research fmdings that make the greatest contri- bution to the therapeutic change associated with extra-therapeutic change ar clienťs resources (Fliickiger, Wiisten, Zinbarg, & Warnpold, 2009; Warn- pold, 2001). From the perspective of spreading changes in the life of the client, it might be helpful to take into account the "ripple effect" (de Shazer, 1985). Mapping the changes between sessions (DeJ ong & Berg, 2008) plays very significant role in extending changes to the clienťs life because the "ripple effect" is an inherently unpredictable process (we know that minor changes lead to further changes, but we can hardly predict to which ones). So, mapping the changes between sessionsshould be mostly extended. Conclusion The "solution-growing" metaphor suggests that developing solutions is an organic process. As with most life processes, it is not a process that can be pre- cisely planned ar fully controlled. It is not a process in which we could simply say "the more, the better". A1though solution-growing is a process that takes place in a very complicated and complex environment (system), it does not necessarily have to be a complicated process. On the contrary, cybemetics teaches us that working with a complex system can be simple and cost-effective, while full of creative improvisation (de Shazer, 1985; Keeney & Keeney, 2012). References De Haan, E. (2008). Relationa/ coaching:Journeys towards mastering one to one learning. Chichester: John Wiley & SOllS. De Jong, P., & Berg, 1. K. (2008). lnterviewing for solutions. Pacific Groove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing,
  • 11. 90 Leoš Zatloukal and Lenka Tkadlčíková de Shazer, S. (1985). Keys to solution in briiftherapy. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & company. de Shazer, S. (1988). Utilization: The foundation of solutions. In J. K. Zeig & S. R. Lankton (Eds.), Deve/oping Ericksonian therapy: State qf the art (pp. 112-124). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel. de Shazer, S. (1991). Puuing di.fferetlCe to work. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. de Shazer, S. (1994). Words were originally magic. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. de Shazer, S., Berg, I. K., Lipchik, E., Nunnally, E., Molnar, A., Gingerich, W., & Weiner-Davis, M. (1986). Brief therapy: Focused solution development. Pamily Pro- cess, 25(2), 207-221. de Shazer, S., Dolan, Y., Korman, H., McCollum, E., Trepper, T., & Berg, I. K. (2007). More than miracles: The state of the art qf solution-focused brie] therapy. New York, NY: Haworth Press. Fliickiger, c., Wiisten, G., Zinbarg, R., & Wampold, B. (2009). Resource activation: Using dients' own strengths in psychotherapy and counseling. Cambridge: Hogrefe Publishing. Iveson, c., George, E., & Ratner, H. (2012). Brie] coaching: A solution [ocused approach. London: Routledge. Keeney, H., & Keeney, B. (2012). Circular therapeutics: Giving therapy a healing hean. Phoenix, AZ: Zeig, Tucker & Theisen. Keeney, H., Keeney, B., & Chenail, R. J. (2015). Recursive frame analysis: A qualitatiue research method for mapping change-oriented discourse. Fort Lauderdale, FL: N ova South- eastem University Works & TQR Books. Korman, H. (2017). The common project. SIKT. Retrieved January 4, 2019 from, www.sikt.nu/wp-content/uploadsI2015/06/The-common-project-small-revisions- 2017.pdf Lipchik, E. (2002). Beyond technique in solution-focused therapy: Working with emotions and the therapeutic relationship. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Perakyla, A., Antaki, c., Vehvilainen, S., & Leudar, I. (Eds.). (2008). Conversation ana- lysis and psychotherapy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ratner, H., George, E., & Iveson, C. (2012). Solution [ocused brie] therapy: 100 key points and techniques. London: Routledge. Shennan, G. (2014). Solution-focused practice: Effective communication to facilitate change. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Wampold, B. E., & Imel, Z. E. (2001). The great psychotherapy debate: The evidence Jar what makes psychotherapy work (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. White, M. (2007). Maps qf narrative practice. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.
  • 12. Solution Focused Practice Around the World Edited by Kirsten Dierolf, Debbie Hogan, Svea van der Hoorn and Sukanya Wignaraja I~~~o~!~~n~f{;up LONDON AND NEW YORK